Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Application of bibliometrics in analysis of output differences among countries under International Ocean Discovery Program

  • 434 Accesses


International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP 2013–2023) and its predecessors is the largest and longest international cooperation research program in earth science. It requires a strong financial support from government. Therefore, a study to compare research achievements among main IODP members was carried out. All peer-reviewed publications related with IODP can be acquired through database built by American geosciences institute. Comparisons of research directions and focus among the United States, Japan, Germany and P. R. China were studied using term frequency-inverse document frequency matrix, co-word, co-citation cluster and overlay analysis methods. Publication numbers, collaboration network, annual variation and expedition achievements among IODP main members were analyzed at the meantime. Research output differences in ocean science among IODP main members were also covered and compared with IODP outputs.US has emerged as absolutely the leader of IODP. Japan, Germany, UK and France are close followers, and these countries also have their own research topics. P. R. China ranks six with publication number and ranks ten with first authors and corresponding authors. There is a large gap between P. R. China and other countries such as US and Japan, which lies in expedition chief scientists’ percentage, basic researches and activeness in research focus. Besides, researches output performance of P. R. China in ocean science is better it ranks 2 in ocean science publications. What is more, Japan has a trend to catch US, however, P. R. China doesn’t have any sign of increasing. Sustained fiscal effort is still necessary for P. R. China.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Blackman, D., et al. (2013). IODP expedition 340T: borehole logging at Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex. Sci. Drill., 15, 31–35.

  2. Breuker, A., et al. (2013). Microbial community analysis of deeply buried marine sediments of the New Jersey shallow shelf (IODP Expedition 313). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 85(3), 578–592.

  3. Camoin, G. F., et al. (2005). The last deglacial sea level rise in the South Pacific: offshore drilling in Tahiti (French Polynesia). Prosp.: IODP Sci. 310.

  4. Chen, C. (2006). CiteSpace II: Detecting and visualizing emerging trends and transient patterns in scientific literature. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(3), 359–377.

  5. Chen, C., et al. (2010). The structure and dynamics of co-citation clusters: A multiple-perspective co-citation analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(7), 1386–1409.

  6. Egghe, L., & Rousseau, R. (2002). Co-citation, bibliographic coupling and a characterization of lattice citation networks. Scientometrics, 55(3), 349–361.

  7. Glanzel, W. (2001). National characteristics in international scientific co-authorship relations. Scientometrics, 51(1), 69–115.

  8. Glänzel, W., Leta, J., & Thijs, B. (2006). Science in Brazil. Part 1: A macro-level comparative study. Scientometrics, 67(1), 67–86.

  9. Henig, A. S., et al. (2012). Downward continued multichannel seismic refraction analysis of Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, 30 degrees N. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems: Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 13.

  10. Kanamatsu, T., et al. (2005). North Atlantic climate II addendum. Prosp.: IODP Sci. 306.

  11. PAJEK. (2009). Pajek: Program for large network analysis. http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek/.

  12. Persson, O. (1994). The intellectual base and research fronts of JASIS 1986–1990. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45(1), 31–38.

  13. Persson, O. (2010). Identifying research themes with weighted direct citation links. Journal of Informetrics, 4, 415–422.

  14. Robertson, S. (2004). Understanding inverse document frequency: on theoretical arguments for IDF. Journal of documentation, 60(5), 503–520.

  15. Sakaguchi, A., et al. (2011). Seismic slip propagation to the updip end of plate boundary subduction interface faults: Vitrinite reflectance geothermometry on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program NanTro SEIZE cores. Geology, 93(4), 395–398.

  16. Science Committee of IODP. (2014). Illuminating Earth’s Past, Present and Future The Science Plan for the International Ocean Discovery Program, Science Plan, pp. 6–7.

  17. Shibata, N., Kajikawa, Y., Takeda, Y., & Matsushima, K. (2009). Comparative study on methods of detecting research fronts using different types of citation. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(3), 571–580.

  18. Small, H. (1999). Visualizing science by citation mapping. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(9), 799–813.

  19. Small, H. (2006). Tracking and predicting growth areas in science. Scientometrics, 68(3), 595–610.

  20. Small, H., & Upham, P. (2009). Citation structure of an emerging research area on the verge of application. Scientometrics, 79(2), 365–375.

  21. Su, H. N. (2010). Mapping knowledge structure by keyword co-occurrence: A first look at journal papers in technology foresight. Scientometrics, 85(1), 65–79.

  22. Zhao, D. Z. (2006). Towards all-author co-citation analysis. Information Processing and Management, 42(6), 1578–1591.

Download references


This paper was funded by the Qingdao Science Fund for Young Scholars (14-2-4-38-Jch) for Y. Wang and the United Fund of Institute of Scientific and Technical information of P. R. China (ISTIC)-Thomson Reuters for Y. Wang. Thanks to Dr. Ma from Ocean University of P. R. China for her professional assistance in IODP research. The authors would also like to thank to anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.

Author information

Correspondence to Yunfei Wang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, Y., Tan, S., Ma, Y. et al. Application of bibliometrics in analysis of output differences among countries under International Ocean Discovery Program. Scientometrics 109, 447–462 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-016-2052-9

Download citation


  • IODP
  • Differences among countries
  • Bibliometrics
  • Co-cited analysis
  • Overlay analysis