Advertisement

Scientometrics

, Volume 104, Issue 3, pp 951–983 | Cite as

Exploring the scope of open innovation: a bibliometric review of a decade of research

  • Adrián Kovács
  • Bart Van Looy
  • Bruno Cassiman
Article

Abstract

The concept of open innovation has attracted considerable attention since Henry Chesbrough first coined it to capture the increasing reliance of firms on external sources of innovation. Although open innovation has flourished as a topic within innovation management research, it has also triggered debates about the coherence of the research endeavors pursued under this umbrella, including its theoretical foundations. In this paper, we aim to contribute to these debates through a bibliometric review of the first decade of open innovation research. We combine two techniques—bibliographic coupling and co-citation analysis—to (1) visualize the network of publications that explicitly use the label ‘open innovation’ and (2) to arrive at distinct clusters of thematically related publications. Our findings illustrate that open innovation research builds principally on four related streams of prior research, whilst the bibliographic network of open innovation research reveals that seven thematic clusters have been pursued persistently. While such persistence is undoubtedly useful to arrive at in-depth and robust insights, the observed patterns also signal the absence of new, emerging, themes. As such, ‘open innovation’ might benefit from applying its own ideas: sourcing concepts and models from a broader range of theoretical perspectives as well as pursuing a broader range of topics might introduce dynamics resulting in more impact and proliferation.

Keywords

Open innovation Openness Bibliographic coupling Co-citation analysis 

Mathematics Subject Classification

91-02 

JEL Classification

O32 Q55 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Alberto Di Minin, Dries Faems, Wim Vanhaverbeke, Geertrui van Overwalle, Arina Gorbatyuk, Dennis Verhoeven and Erwin Hofman, as well as participants of the 2014 Academy of Management Annual Meeting in Philadelphia and the 2014 World Open Innovation Conference in the Napa Valley for their constructive feedback on earlier versions of this paper. Our paper benefited significantly from the valuable and insightful comments and suggestions of the editor and two anonymous referees, for which we are especially thankful. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from KU Leuven’s “Impulsfinanciering” (Grant IMPH/10/006). The corresponding author furthermore acknowledges financial support from FWO, (Research Foundation Flanders) (Grant 11O0415N).

References

  1. Ahuja, G. (2000). Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: A longitudinal study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3), 425–455.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. Albors-Garrigos, J., Etxebarria, N. Z., Hervas-Oliver, J. L., & Epelde, J. G. (2011). Outsourced innovation in SMEs: A field study of R&D units in Spain. International Journal of Technology Management, 55(1–2), 138–155.Google Scholar
  3. Alexy, O., Criscuolo, P., & Salter, A. (2009). Does IP strategy have to cripple open innovation? MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(1), 71–77.Google Scholar
  4. Alexy, O., Criscuolo, P., & Salter, A. (2012). Managing unsolicited ideas for R&D. California Management Review, 54(3), 116–139.Google Scholar
  5. Allarakhia, M., & Walsh, S. (2011). Managing knowledge assets under conditions of radical change: The case of the pharmaceutical industry. Technovation, 31, 105–117.Google Scholar
  6. Angehrn, A. A., Luccini, A. M., & Maxwell, K. (2009). InnoTube: A video-based connection tool supporting collaborative innovation. Interactive Learning Environments, 17(3), 205–220.Google Scholar
  7. Anokhin, S., Ortqvist, D., Thorgren, S., & Wincent, J. (2011). Corporate venturing deal syndication and innovation: the information exchange paradox. Long Range Planning, 44(2), 134–151.Google Scholar
  8. Arora, A., Fosfuri, A., & Gambardella, A. (2001). Markets for technology: The economics of innovation and corporate strategy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bae, Y., & Chang, H. (2012). Efficiency and effectiveness between open and closed innovation: empirical evidence in South Korean manufacturers. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(10), 967–980.Google Scholar
  10. Baldwin, C., & Von Hippel, E. (2011). Modeling a paradigm shift: From producer innovation to user and open collaborative innovation. Organization Science, 22(6), 1399–1417.Google Scholar
  11. Barge-Gil, A. (2010). Open, semi-open and closed innovators: Towards an explanation of degree of openness. Industry and Innovation, 17(6), 577–607.Google Scholar
  12. Barnes, M. R. (2012). An open innovation ecosystem for drug discovery. Medchemcomm, 3(1), 92–97.Google Scholar
  13. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.Google Scholar
  14. Basole, R. C., & Karla, J. (2011). On the evolution of mobile platform ecosystem structure and strategy. Business and Information Systems Engineering, 3(5), 313–322.Google Scholar
  15. Battistella, C., & Nonino, F. (2012). Open innovation web-based platforms: The impact of different forms of motivation on collaboration. Innovation-Management Policy and Practice, 14(4), 557–575.Google Scholar
  16. Baum, J. A. C., Calabrese, T., & Silverman, B. S. (2000). Don’t go it alone: Alliance network composition and startups’ performance in Canadian biotechnology. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 267–294.Google Scholar
  17. Belderbos, R., Carree, M., & Lokshin, B. (2004). Cooperative R&D and firm performance. Research Policy, 33(10), 1477–1492.Google Scholar
  18. Belussi, F., Sammarra, A., & Sedita, S. R. (2010). Learning at the boundaries in an “Open Regional Innovation System”: A focus on firms’ innovation strategies in the Emilia Romagna life science industry. Research Policy, 39(6), 710–721.Google Scholar
  19. Bianchi, M., Campodall’Orto, S., Frattini, F., & Vercesi, P. (2010). Enabling open innovation in small- and medium-sized enterprises: How to find alternative applications for your technologies. R&D Management, 40(4), 414–431.Google Scholar
  20. Bianchi, M., Chiaroni, D., Chiesa, V., & Frattini, F. (2011). Exploring the role of human resources in technology out-licensing: An empirical analysis of biotech new technology-based firms. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 23(8), 825–849.Google Scholar
  21. Bogers, M., & Lhuillery, S. (2011). A functional perspective on learning and innovation: Investigating the organization of absorptive capacity. Industry and Innovation, 18(6), 581–610.Google Scholar
  22. Bonesso, S., Comacchio, A., & Pizzi, C. (2011). Technology sourcing decisions in exploratory projects. Technovation, 31(41588), 573–585.Google Scholar
  23. Bonzi, S., & Snyder, H. W. (1991). Motivations for citation—A comparison of self citation and citation to others. Scientometrics, 21(2), 245–254.Google Scholar
  24. Bornmann, L., & Daniel, H. D. (2006). What do citation counts measure? A review of studies on citing behavior. Journal of Documentation, 64(1), 45–80.Google Scholar
  25. Boudreau, K. J. (2012). Let a thousand flowers bloom? An early look at large numbers of software app developers and patterns of innovation. Organization Science, 23(5), 1409–1427.Google Scholar
  26. Boyack, K. W., & Klavans, R. (2010). Co-citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, and direct citation: Which citation approach represents the research front most accurately? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(12), 2389–2404.Google Scholar
  27. Broadus, R. N. (1983). An investigation of the validity of bibliographic citations. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 34(2), 132–135.Google Scholar
  28. Brooks, T. A. (1986). Evidence of complex citer motivations. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 37(1), 34–36.Google Scholar
  29. Bullinger, A. C., Rass, M., Adamczyk, S., Moeslein, K. M., & Sohn, S. (2012). Open innovation in health care: Analysis of an open health platform. Health Policy, 105, 165–175.Google Scholar
  30. Caetano, M., & Amaral, D. C. (2011). Roadmapping for technology push and partnership: A contribution for open innovation environments. Technovation, 31(7), 320–335.Google Scholar
  31. Calderon, F., Barros, D., Bueno, J. M., Coteron, J. M., Fernandez, E., Gamo, F. J., et al. (2011). An invitation to open innovation in malaria drug discovery: 47 quality starting points from the TCAMS. Acs Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2(10), 741–746.Google Scholar
  32. Carrascosa, M. C., Massaguer, O. L., & Mestres, J. (2012). Pharmatrek: a semantic web explorer for open innovation in multitarget drug discovery. Molecular Informatics, 31(8), 537–541.Google Scholar
  33. Cassiman, B., & Valentini, G. (2009). Strategic organization of R&D: the choice of basicness and openness. Strategic Organization, 7(1), 43–73.Google Scholar
  34. Cassiman, B., & Veugelers, R. (2006). In search of complementarity in innovation strategy: Internal R&D and external knowledge acquisition. Management Science, 52(1), 68–82.Google Scholar
  35. Chen, J., Chen, Y. F., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2011). The influence of scope, depth, and orientation of external technology sources on the innovative performance of Chinese firms. Technovation, 31(8), 362–373.Google Scholar
  36. Chen, S. H., Huang, M. H., & Chen, D. Z. (2012). Detecting temporal gaps of technology fronts: A case study of smart grid field. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(9), 1705–1719.Google Scholar
  37. Chesbrough, H. (2003a). The logic of open innovation: Managing intellectual property. California Management Review, 45(3), 33–58.Google Scholar
  38. Chesbrough, H. W. (2003b). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Cambridge: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  39. Chesbrough, H. W. (2003c). The era of open innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 44(3), 35–41.Google Scholar
  40. Chesbrough, H. (2004). Managing open innovation. Research-Technology Management, 47(1), 23–26.Google Scholar
  41. Chesbrough, H., & Schwartz, K. (2007). Innovating business models with co-development partnerships. Research-Technology Management, 50(1), 55–59.Google Scholar
  42. Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., & West, J. (Eds.). (2006). Open innovation: Researching a new paradigm. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Choi, D., Lee, S., & Kim, Y. (2012). The complementarities and contextualities of corporate R&D strategies: An empirical analysis of Korean manufacturing industry. Journal of Management and Organization, 18(3), 311–333.Google Scholar
  44. Clausen, T., & Rasmussen, E. (2011). Open innovation policy through intermediaries: the industry incubator programme in Norway. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 23(1), 75–85.Google Scholar
  45. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive-capacity—A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128–152.Google Scholar
  46. Cooke, P. (2005). Regionally asymmetric knowledge capabilities and open innovation exploring ‘Globalisation 2’—A new model of industry organisation. Research Policy, 34(8), 1128–1149.Google Scholar
  47. Czarnitzki, D., & Thorwarth, S. (2012). The contribution of in-house and external design activities to product market performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(5), 878–895.Google Scholar
  48. Dahlander, L., & Gann, D. M. (2010). How open is innovation? Research Policy, 39(6), 699–709.Google Scholar
  49. Dahlander, L., & Wallin, M. W. (2006). A man on the inside: Unlocking communities as complementary assets. Research Policy, 35(8), 1243–1259.Google Scholar
  50. Davey, S. M., Brennan, M., Meenan, B. J., & McAdam, R. (2011). Innovation in the medical device sector: An open business model approach for high-tech small firms. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 23(8), 807–824.Google Scholar
  51. De Couvreur, L., & Goossens, R. (2011). Design for (every)one: Co-creation as a bridge between universal design and rehabilitation engineering. Codesign-International Journal of Cocreation in Design and the Arts, 7(2), 107–121.Google Scholar
  52. De Jong, J. P. J., Kalvet, T., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2010). Exploring a theoretical framework to structure the public policy implications of open innovation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 22(8), 877–896.Google Scholar
  53. Deodhar, S. J., Saxena, K. B. C., Gupta, R. K., & Ruohonen, M. (2012). Strategies for software-based hybrid business models. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 21(4), 274–294.Google Scholar
  54. Di Minin, A., Frattini, F., & Piccaluga, A. (2010). Fiat: Open innovation in a downturn (1993–2003). California Management Review, 52(3), 132–159.Google Scholar
  55. Dittrich, K., & Duysters, G. (2007). Networking as a means to strategy change: The case of open innovation in mobile telephony. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 24(6), 510–521.Google Scholar
  56. Dushnitsky, G., & Klueter, T. (2011). Is there an Ebay for ideas? Insights from online knowledge marketplaces. European Management Review, 8(1), 17–32.Google Scholar
  57. Dyer, J. H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 345–367.Google Scholar
  58. Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (1998). The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 660–679.Google Scholar
  59. Ebersberger, B., & Herstad, S. J. (2011). Product innovation and the complementarities of external interfaces. European Management Review, 8(3), 117–135.Google Scholar
  60. Ebner, W., Leimeister, J. M., & Krcmar, H. (2009). Community engineering for innovations: The ideas competition as a method to nurture a virtual community for innovations. R&D Management, 39(4), 342–356.Google Scholar
  61. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case-study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.Google Scholar
  62. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Graebner, M. E. (2007). Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 25–32.Google Scholar
  63. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: What are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21(10–11), 1105–1121.Google Scholar
  64. Elmquist, M., Fredberg, T., & Ollila, S. (2009). Exploring the field of open innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 12(3), 326–345.Google Scholar
  65. Erat, S., & Krishnan, V. (2012). Managing delegated search over design spaces. Management Science, 58(3), 606–623.Google Scholar
  66. Faems, D., De Visser, M., Andries, P., & Van Looy, B. (2010). Technology alliance portfolios and financial performance: Value-enhancing and cost-increasing effects of open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(6), 785–796.Google Scholar
  67. Faems, D., Van Looy, B., & Debackere, K. (2005). Interorganizational collaboration and innovation: Towards a portfolio approach. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 22(3), 238–250.Google Scholar
  68. Faraj, S., Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Majchrzak, A. (2011). Knowledge collaboration in online communities. Organization Science, 22(5), 1224–1239.Google Scholar
  69. Feller, J., Finnegan, P., Hayes, J., & O’Reilly, P. (2012). ‘Orchestrating’ sustainable crowdsourcing: A characterisation of solver brokerages. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 21(3), 216–232.Google Scholar
  70. Fey, C. F. (2005). External sources of knowledge, governance mode, and R&D performance. Journal of Management, 31(4), 597–621.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  71. Fichter, K. (2009). Innovation communities: The role of networks of promotors in open innovation. R&D Management, 39(4), 357–371.Google Scholar
  72. Fleming, L., & Waguespack, D. M. (2007). Brokerage, boundary spanning, and leadership in open innovation communities. Organization Science, 18(2), 165–180.Google Scholar
  73. Folta, T. B. (1998). Governance and uncertainty: The trade-off between administrative control and commitment. Strategic Management Journal, 19(11), 1007–1028.Google Scholar
  74. Ford, S. J., Mortara, L., & Probert, D. R. (2012). Disentangling the complexity of early-stage technology acquisitions. Research-Technology Management, 55(3), 40–48.Google Scholar
  75. Fosfuri, A. (2006). The licensing dilemma: Understanding the determinants of the rate of technology licensing. Strategic Management Journal, 27(12), 1141–1158.Google Scholar
  76. Franke, N., & Shah, S. (2003). How communities support innovative activities: An exploration of assistance and sharing among end-users. Research Policy, 32(1), 157–178.Google Scholar
  77. Frey, K., Lüthje, C., & Haag, S. (2011). Whom should firms attract to open innovation platforms? The role of knowledge diversity and motivation. Long Range Planning, 44(5–6), 397–420.Google Scholar
  78. Füller, J., Hutter, K., & Faullant, R. (2011). Why co-creation experience matters? Creative experience and its impact on the quantity and quality of creative contributions. R&D Management, 41(3), 259–273.Google Scholar
  79. Füller, J., Matzler, K., Hutter, K., & Hautz, J. (2012). Consumers’ creative talent: which characteristics qualify consumers for open innovation projects? An exploration of asymmetrical effects. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(3), 247–262.Google Scholar
  80. Gambardella, A., Giuri, P., & Luzzi, A. (2007). The market for patents in Europe. Research Policy, 36(8), 1163–1183.Google Scholar
  81. Gans, J. S., & Stern, S. (2003). The product market and the market for “ideas”: Commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs. Research Policy, 32(2), 333–350.Google Scholar
  82. Garriga, H., Aksuyek, E., Hacklin, F., & Von Krogh, G. (2012). Exploring social preferences in private-collective innovation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(2), 113–127.Google Scholar
  83. Gassmann, O. (2006). Opening up the innovation process: Towards an agenda. R&D Management, 36(3), 223–228.Google Scholar
  84. Gassmann, O., Enkel, E., & Chesbrough, H. (2010). The future of open innovation. R&D Management, 40(3), 213–221.Google Scholar
  85. Gassmann, O., Sandmeier, P., & Wecht, C. H. (2006). Extreme customer innovation in the front-end: learning from a new software paradigm. International Journal of Technology Management, 33(1), 46–66.Google Scholar
  86. Ghauri, P. N., & Rao, P. M. (2009). Intellectual property, pharmaceutical MNEs and the developing world. Journal of World Business, 44(2), 206–215.Google Scholar
  87. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. (1967). Discovery of grounded theoryStrategies for qualitative research. Sociology Press.Google Scholar
  88. Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 109–122.Google Scholar
  89. Grant, R. M., & Baden-Füller, C. (2004). A knowledge accessing theory of strategic alliances. Journal of Management Studies, 41(1), 61–84.Google Scholar
  90. Grindley, P. C., & Teece, D. J. (1997). Managing intellectual capital: Licensing and cross-licensing in semiconductors and electronics. California Management Review, 39(2), 8–41.Google Scholar
  91. Groen, A. J., & Linton, J. D. (2010). Is open innovation a field of study or a communication barrier to theory development? Technovation, 30(11–12), 554.Google Scholar
  92. Gronlund, J., Sjodin, D. R., & Frishammar, J. (2010). Open innovation and the stage-gate process: A revised model for new product development. California Management Review, 52(3), 106–131.Google Scholar
  93. Gruber, M., & Henkel, J. (2006). New ventures based on open innovation—An empirical analysis of start-up firms in embedded Linux. International Journal of Technology Management, 33(4), 356–372.Google Scholar
  94. Gulati, R. (1998). Alliances and networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19(4), 293–317.Google Scholar
  95. Haefliger, S., Jager, P., & Von Krogh, G. (2010). Under the radar: Industry entry by user entrepreneurs. Research Policy, 39(9), 1198–1213.Google Scholar
  96. Hagedoorn, J. (1993). Understanding the rationale of strategic technology partnering—interorganizational modes of cooperation and sectoral differences. Strategic Management Journal, 14(5), 371–385.Google Scholar
  97. Hagedoorn, J. (2002). Inter-firm R&D partnerships: an overview of major trends and patterns since 1960. Research Policy, 31(4), 477–492.Google Scholar
  98. Halbert, L. (2012). Collaborative and collective: Reflexive co-ordination and the dynamics of open innovation in the digital industry clusters of the Paris region. Urban Studies, 49(11), 2357–2376.Google Scholar
  99. Hargadon, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1997). Technology brokering and innovation in a product development firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(4), 716–749.Google Scholar
  100. Harhoff, D., Henkel, J., & Von Hippel, E. (2003). Profiting from voluntary information spillovers: How users benefit by freely revealing their innovations. Research Policy, 32(10), 1753–1769.Google Scholar
  101. Harison, E., & Koski, H. (2010). Applying open innovation in business strategies: Evidence from Finnish software firms. Research Policy, 39(3), 351–359.Google Scholar
  102. Hars, A., & Ou, S. S. (2002). Working for free? Motivations for participating in open-source projects. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(3), 25–39.Google Scholar
  103. Henkel, J. (2006). Selective revealing in open innovation processes: The case of embedded Linux. Research Policy, 35(7), 953–969.Google Scholar
  104. Henkel, J. (2009). Champions of revealing—The role of open source developers in commercial firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 18(3), 435–471.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  105. Herstad, S. J., Bloch, C., Ebersberger, B., & Van de Velde, E. (2010). National innovation policy and global open innovation: Exploring balances, tradeoffs and complementarities. Science and Public Policy, 37(2), 113–124.Google Scholar
  106. Hertel, G., Niedner, S., & Herrmann, S. (2003). Motivation of software developers in open source projects: An Internet-based survey of contributors to the Linux kernel. Research Policy, 32(7), 1159–1177.Google Scholar
  107. Hildrum, J. M. (2009). Sharing tacit knowledge online: A case study of e-learning in CISCO’s network of system integrator partner firms. Industry and Innovation, 16(2), 197–218.Google Scholar
  108. Holmes, J. S. (2009). Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals. Acta Astronautica, 65, 834–840.Google Scholar
  109. Hopkins, M. M., Tidd, J., Nightingale, P., & Miller, R. (2011). Generative and degenerative interactions: positive and negative dynamics of open, user-centric innovation in technology and engineering consultancies. R&D Management, 41(1), 44–60.Google Scholar
  110. Howells, J. (2006). Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation. Research Policy, 35(5), 715–728.Google Scholar
  111. Hsieh, K. N., & Tidd, J. (2012). Open versus closed new service development: The influences of project novelty. Technovation, 32(11), 600–608.Google Scholar
  112. Huizingh, E. K. R. E. (2011). Open innovation: State of the art and future perspectives. Technovation, 31(1), 2–9.Google Scholar
  113. Huston, L., & Sakkab, N. (2006). Connect and develop: Inside Procter & Gamble's new model for innovation. Harvard Business Review, 84(3), 58–66.Google Scholar
  114. Hutter, K., Hautz, J., Füller, J., Mueller, J., & Matzler, K. (2011). Communitition: The tension between competition and collaboration in community-based design contests. Creativity and Innovation Management, 20(1), 3–21.Google Scholar
  115. Igartua, J. I., Garrigos, J. A., & Hervas-Oliver, J. L. (2010). How innovation management techniques support an open innovation strategy. Research-Technology Management, 53(3), 41–52.Google Scholar
  116. Isaksen, A., & Onsager, K. (2010). Regions, networks and innovative performance: The case of knowledge-intensive industries in Norway. European Urban and Regional Studies, 17(3), 227–243.Google Scholar
  117. Jeon, J., Lee, C., & Park, Y. (2011). How to use patent information to search potential technology partners in open innovation. Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, 16(5), 385–393.Google Scholar
  118. Jeppesen, L. B., & Frederiksen, L. (2006). Why do users contribute to firm-hosted user communities? The case of computer-controlled music instruments. Organization Science, 17(1), 45–63.Google Scholar
  119. Jeppesen, L. B., & Lakhani, K. R. (2010). Marginality and problem-solving effectiveness in broadcast search. Organization Science, 21(5), 1016–1033.Google Scholar
  120. Kafouros, M. I., & Forsans, N. (2012). The role of open innovation in emerging economies: Do companies profit from the scientific knowledge of others? Journal of World Business, 47(3), 362–370.Google Scholar
  121. Karo, E., & Kattel, R. (2011). Should “open innovation” change innovation policy thinking in catching-up economies? Considerations for policy analyses. Innovation-The European Journal of Social Science Research, 24(1–2), 173–198.Google Scholar
  122. Katila, R., & Ahuja, G. (2002). Something old, something new: A longitudinal study of search behavior and new product introduction. Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1183–1194.Google Scholar
  123. Katz, R., & Allen, T. J. (1982). Investigating the not invented here (NIH) syndrome—A look at the performance, tenure, and communication patterns of 50 R-AND-D project groups. R&D Management, 12(1), 7–19.Google Scholar
  124. Kessler, M. M. (1963). Bibiliographic coupling between scientific papers. American Documentation, 14(1), 10–25.Google Scholar
  125. Keupp, M. M., & Gassmann, O. (2009). Determinants and archetype users of open innovation. R&D Management, 39(4), 331–341.Google Scholar
  126. Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3(3), 383–397.Google Scholar
  127. Kohler, T., Füller, J., Stieger, D., & Matzler, K. (2011). Avatar-based innovation: Consequences of the virtual co-creation experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 160–168.Google Scholar
  128. Kohler, T., Matzler, K., & Füller, J. (2009). Avatar-based innovation: Using virtual worlds for real-world innovation. Technovation, 29, 395–407.Google Scholar
  129. Koruna, S. M. (2004). External technology commercialisation—Policy guidelines. International Journal of Technology Management, 27(2–3), 241–254.Google Scholar
  130. Lakhani, K. R., & Von Hippel, E. (2003). How open source software works: “Free” user-to-user assistance. Research Policy, 32(6), 923–943.Google Scholar
  131. Lampel, J., Jha, P. P., & Bhalla, A. (2012). Test-driving the future: How design competitions are changing innovation. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(2), 71–85.Google Scholar
  132. Lane, P. J., Koka, B. R., & Pathak, S. (2006). The reification of absorptive capacity: A critical review and rejuvenation of the construct. Academy of Management Review, 31(4), 833–863.Google Scholar
  133. Lane, P. J., & Lubatkin, M. (1998). Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning. Strategic Management Journal, 19(5), 461–477.Google Scholar
  134. Laursen, K., & Salter, A. (2004). Searching high and low: What types of firms use universities as a source of innovation? Research Policy, 33(8), 1201–1215.Google Scholar
  135. Laursen, K., & Salter, A. (2006). Open for innovation: The role of openness in explaining innovation performance among UK manufacturing firms. Strategic Management Journal, 27(2), 131–150.Google Scholar
  136. Lee, J. A., Chu, S. Y., Willard, F. S., Cox, K. L., Galvin, R. J. S., Peery, R. B., et al. (2011). Open innovation for phenotypic drug discovery: the pd2 assay panel. Journal of Biomolecular Screening, 16(6), 588–602.Google Scholar
  137. Lee, G. K., & Cole, R. E. (2003). From a firm-based to a community-based model of knowledge creation: The case of the Linux kernel development. Organization Science, 14(6), 633–649.Google Scholar
  138. Lee, S. M., Hwang, T., & Choi, D. (2012). Open innovation in the public sector of leading countries. Management Decision, 50, 147–162.Google Scholar
  139. Lee, Y. G., Park, S. H., & Song, Y. I. (2009). Which is better for a firm’s financial performance: an externally oriented or inwardly oriented innovation strategy? An empirical study on Korean SMEs. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, 17(1), 57–73.Google Scholar
  140. Lee, S., Park, G., Yoon, B., & Park, J. (2010). Open innovation in SMEs—An intermediated network model. Research Policy, 39(2), 290–300.Google Scholar
  141. Leimeister, J. M., Huber, M., Bretschneider, U., & Krcmar, H. (2009). Leveraging crowdsourcing: activation-supporting components for IT-based ideas competition. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(1), 197–224.Google Scholar
  142. Lerner, J., & Tirole, J. (2002). Some simple economics of open source. Journal of Industrial Economics, 50(2), 197–234.Google Scholar
  143. Levinthal, D. A., & March, J. G. (1993). The myopia of learning. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 95–112.Google Scholar
  144. Li, J. T., & Kozhikode, R. K. (2009). Developing new innovation models: Shifts in the innovation landscapes in emerging economies and implications for global R&D management. Journal of International Management, 15(3), 328–339.Google Scholar
  145. Lichtenthaler, U. (2005). External commercialization of knowledge: Review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(4), 231–255.Google Scholar
  146. Lichtenthaler, U. (2007). The drivers of technology licensing: An industry comparison. California Management Review, 49(4), 67–89.Google Scholar
  147. Lichtenthaler, U. (2008a). Open innovation in practice: An analysis of strategic approaches to technology transactions. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 55(1), 148–157.Google Scholar
  148. Lichtenthaler, U. (2008b). Integrated roadmaps for open innovation. Research-Technology Management, 51(3), 45–49.Google Scholar
  149. Lichtenthaler, U. (2008c). Relative capacity: Retaining knowledge outside a firm’s boundaries. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 25(3), 200–212.Google Scholar
  150. Lichtenthaler, U. (2008d). Opening up strategic technology planning: Extended roadmaps and functional markets. Management Decision, 46(1–2), 77–91.Google Scholar
  151. Lichtenthaler, U. (2008e). External technology commercialisation projects: Objectives, processes and a typology. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 20(4), 483–501.Google Scholar
  152. Lichtenthaler, U. (2009). Outbound open innovation and its effect on firm performance: Examining environmental influences. R&D Management, 39(4), 317–330.Google Scholar
  153. Lichtenthaler, U. (2010). Technology exploitation in the context of open innovation: Finding the right ‘job’ for your technology. Technovation, 30, 429–435.Google Scholar
  154. Lichtenthaler, U. (2011a). Open innovation: Past research, current debates, and future directions. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(1), 75–93.Google Scholar
  155. Lichtenthaler, U. (2011b). Implementation steps for successful out-licensing. Research-Technology Management, 54(5), 47–53.Google Scholar
  156. Lichtenthaler, U., & Ernst, H. (2006). Attitudes to externally organising knowledge management tasks: a review, reconsideration and extension of the NIH syndrome. R&D Management, 36(4), 367–386.Google Scholar
  157. Lichtenthaler, U., & Lichtenthaler, E. (2009). A capability-based framework for open innovation: Complementing absorptive capacity. Journal of Management Studies, 46(8), 1315–1338.Google Scholar
  158. Lichtenthaler, U., & Lichtenthaler, E. (2010). Technology transfer across organizational boundaries: absorptive capacity and desorptive capacity. California Management Review, 53(1), 154–170.Google Scholar
  159. Lichtenthaler, U., & Muethel, M. (2012). The role of deliberate and experiential learning in developing capabilities: Insights from technology licensing. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 29(2), 187–209.Google Scholar
  160. Lohmann, S., Niesenhaus, J., Heim, P., & Ziegler, J. (2009). Fostering knowledge flow and community engagement in the development of interactive entertainment. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 15(8), 1722–1734.Google Scholar
  161. Love, J. H., Roper, S., & Bryson, J. R. (2011). Openness, knowledge, innovation and growth in UK business services. Research Policy, 40(10), 1438–1452.Google Scholar
  162. Mamtora, J., Wolstenholme, J. K., & Haddow, G. (2014). Environmental sciences research in northern Australia, 2000-2011: A bibliometric analysis within the context of a national research assessment exercise. Scientometrics, 98(1), 265–281.Google Scholar
  163. March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  164. Marjanovic, S., Fry, C., & Chataway, J. (2012). Crowdsourcing based business models: In search of evidence for innovation 2.0. Science and Public Policy, 39(3), 318–332.Google Scholar
  165. Martinez-Torres, M. R., Toral, S. L., Barrero, F., & Cortes, F. (2010). The role of Internet in the development of future software projects. Internet Research, 20(1), 72–86.Google Scholar
  166. Mayer, H. (2010). Catching up: The role of state science and technology policy in open innovation. Economic Development Quarterly, 24(3), 195–209.Google Scholar
  167. Mehlman, S. K., Uribe-Saucedo, S., Taylor, R. P., Slowinski, G., Carreras, E., & Arena, C. (2010). Better practices for managing intellectual assets in collaborations. Research-Technology Management, 53(1), 55–66.Google Scholar
  168. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  169. Minshall, T., Mortara, L., Valli, R., & Probert, D. (2010). Making “asymmetric” partnerships work. Research-Technology Management, 53(3), 53–63.Google Scholar
  170. Moon, S. (2011). What determines the openness of a firm to external knowledge? Evidence from the Korean service sector. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, 19(2), 185–200.Google Scholar
  171. Morgan, L., & Finnegan, P. (2010). Open innovation in secondary software firms: An exploration of managers’ perceptions of open source software. Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, 41(1), 76–95.Google Scholar
  172. Mortara, L., & Minshall, T. (2011). How do large multinational companies implement open innovation? Technovation, 31, 586–597.Google Scholar
  173. Mowery, D. C. (2009). Plus ca change: Industrial R&D in the “third industrial revolution”. Industrial and Corporate Change, 18(1), 1–50.Google Scholar
  174. Müller-Seitz, G., & Reger, G. (2009). Is open source software living up to its promises? Insights for open innovation management from two open source software-inspired projects. R&D Management, 39(4), 372–381.Google Scholar
  175. Müller-Seitz, G., & Reger, G. (2010a). Networking beyond the software code? An explorative examination of the development of an open source car project. Technovation, 30(11–12), 627–634.Google Scholar
  176. Müller-Seitz, G., & Reger, G. (2010b). ‘Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’ as a role model? Lessons for open innovation from an exploratory examination of the supposedly democratic-anarchic nature of Wikipedia. International Journal of Technology Management, 52(3–4), 457–476.Google Scholar
  177. Munsch, K. (2009). Open model innovation. Research-Technology Management, 52(3), 48–52.Google Scholar
  178. Nagaoka, S., & Kwon, H. U. (2006). The incidence of cross-licensing: A theory and new evidence on the firm and contract level determinants. Research Policy, 35(9), 1347–1361.Google Scholar
  179. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242–266.Google Scholar
  180. Nakagaki, P., Aber, J., & Fetterhoff, T. (2012). The challenges in implementing open innovation in a global innovation-driven corporation. Research-Technology Management, 55(4), 32–38.Google Scholar
  181. Napp, J. J., & Minshall, T. (2011). Corporate venture capital investments for enhancing innovation: Challenges and solutions. Research-Technology Management, 54(2), 27–36.Google Scholar
  182. Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  183. Newman, M. E. J., & Girvan, M. (2004). Finding and evaluating community structure in networks. Physical Review E, 69(2), 026113.Google Scholar
  184. Neyens, I., Faems, D., & Sels, L. (2010). The impact of continuous and discontinuous alliance strategies on startup innovation performance. International Journal of Technology Management, 52(3–4), 392–410.Google Scholar
  185. Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14–37.Google Scholar
  186. Parida, V., Westerberg, M., & Frishammar, J. (2012). Inbound open innovation activities in high-tech SMEs: The impact on innovation performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 50(2), 283–309.Google Scholar
  187. Parjanen, S., Hennala, L., & Konsti-Laakso, S. (2012). Brokerage functions in a virtual idea generation platform: Possibilities for collective creativity? Innovation-Management Policy and Practice, 14(3), 363–374.Google Scholar
  188. Penin, J., & Wack, J. P. (2008). Research tool patents and free-libre biotechnology: A suggested unified framework. Research Policy, 37(10), 1909–1921.Google Scholar
  189. Penrose, E. T. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Perr, J., Appleyard, M. M., & Sullivan, P. (2010). Open for business: emerging business models in open source software. International Journal of Technology Management, 52(3–4), 432–456.Google Scholar
  191. Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 116–145.Google Scholar
  192. Prugl, R., & Schreier, M. (2006). Learning from leading-edge customers at The Sims: Opening up the innovation process using toolkits. R&D Management, 36(3), 237–250.Google Scholar
  193. Pullen, A. J. J., De Weerd-Nederhof, P. C., Groen, A. J., & Fisscher, O. A. M. (2012). Open innovation in practice: Goal complementarity and closed NPD networks to explain differences in innovation performance for SMEs in the medical devices sector. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(6), 917–934.Google Scholar
  194. Raasch, C., Herstatt, C., & Balka, K. (2009). On the open design of tangible goods. R&D Management, 39(4), 382–393.Google Scholar
  195. Rafols, I., Hopkins, M. M., Hoekman, J., Siepel, J., O’Hare, A., Perianes-Rodríguez, A., & Nightingale, P. (2014). Big Pharma, little science? A bibliometric perspective on Big Pharma’s R&D decline. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 81, 22–38.Google Scholar
  196. Rafols, I., Leydesdorff, L., O’Hare, A., Nightingale, P., & Stirling, A. (2012). How journal rankings can suppress interdisciplinary research: A comparison between Innovation Studies and Business & Management. Research Policy, 41(7), 1262–1282.Google Scholar
  197. Rajala, R., Westerlund, M., & Möller, K. (2012). Strategic flexibility in open innovation—Designing business models for open source software. European Journal of Marketing, 46(10), 1368–1388.Google Scholar
  198. Remneland-Wikhamn, B., & Wikhamn, W. (2011). Open innovation climate measure: The introduction of a validated scale. Creativity and Innovation Management, 20(4), 284–295.Google Scholar
  199. Rigby, D. K., & Zook, C. (2002). Open-market innovation. Harvard Business Review, 80(10), 80–89.Google Scholar
  200. Robertson, P. L., Casali, G. L., & Jacobson, D. (2012). Managing open incremental process innovation: Absorptive capacity and distributed learning. Research Policy, 41(5), 822–832.Google Scholar
  201. Robertson, G. M., & Mayr, L. M. (2011). Collaboration versus outsourcing: the need to think outside the box. Future Medicinal Chemistry, 3(16), 1995–2020.Google Scholar
  202. Rolandsson, B., Bergquist, M., & Ljungberg, J. (2011). Open source in the firm: Opening up professional practices of software development. Research Policy, 40(4), 576–587.Google Scholar
  203. Rosenkopf, L., & Nerkar, A. (2001). Beyond local search: Boundary-spanning, exploration, and impact in the optical disk industry. Strategic Management Journal, 22(4), 287–306.Google Scholar
  204. Rothaermel, F. T., & Deeds, D. L. (2004). Exploration and exploitation alliances in biotechnology: A system of new product development. Strategic Management Journal, 25(3), 201–221.Google Scholar
  205. Rusu, A., Kuokkanen, K., & Heier, A. (2011). Current trends in the pharmaceutical industry—A case study approach. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 44(3), 437–440.Google Scholar
  206. Sandulli, F. D., & Chesbrough, H. (2009). The two sides of open business models. Universia Business Review, 22, 12–39.Google Scholar
  207. Schiele, H. (2010). Early supplier integration: The dual role of purchasing in new product development. R&D Management, 40(2), 138–153.Google Scholar
  208. Schiele, H. (2012). Accessing supplier innovation by being their preferred customer. Research-Technology Management, 55(1), 44–50.Google Scholar
  209. Segarra-Cipres, M., Bou-Llusar, J. C., & Roca-Puig, V. (2012). Exploring and exploiting external knowledge: The effect of sector and firm technological intensity. Innovation-Management Policy and Practice, 14(2), 203–217.Google Scholar
  210. Seldon, T. (2011). Beyond patents: Effective intellectual property strategy in biotechnology. Innovation-Management Policy and Practice, 13(1), 55–61.Google Scholar
  211. Sharabchiev, J. T. (1988). Comparative analysis of two methods of cluster analysis of bibliographic references. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskaya Informatsiya, 2(4), 25–28.Google Scholar
  212. Shu, W., & Chuang, Y. H. (2012). Wikis as an effective group writing tool: A study in Taiwan. Online Information Review, 36(1), 89–103.Google Scholar
  213. Simiyu, K., Masum, H., Chakma, J., & Singer, P. A. (2010). Turning science into health solutions: KEMRI’s challenges as Kenya’s health product pathfinder. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 10(1), S10.Google Scholar
  214. Sjodin, D. R., Eriksson, P. E., & Frishammar, J. (2011). Open innovation in process industries: A lifecycle perspective on development of process equipment. International Journal of Technology Management, 56, 225–240.Google Scholar
  215. Slowinski, G., Hummel, E., Gupta, A., & Gilmont, E. R. (2009). Effective practices for sourcing innovation. Research-Technology Management, 52(1), 27–34.Google Scholar
  216. Slowinski, G., & Sagal, M. W. (2010). Good practices in open innovation. Research-Technology Management, 53(5), 38–45.Google Scholar
  217. Slowinski, G., & Zerby, K. W. (2008). Protecting IP in collaborative research. Research-Technology Management, 51(6), 58–65.Google Scholar
  218. Spaeth, S., Stuermer, M., & Von Krogh, G. (2010). Enabling knowledge creation through outsiders: Towards a push model of open innovation. International Journal of Technology Management, 52, 411–431.Google Scholar
  219. Spithoven, A., Clarysse, B., & Knockaert, M. (2010a). Building absorptive capacity to organise inbound open innovation in traditional industries. Technovation, 30(2), 130–141.Google Scholar
  220. Spithoven, A., Frantzen, D., & Clarysse, B. (2010b). Heterogeneous firm-level effects of knowledge exchanges on product innovation: Differences between dynamic and lagging product innovators. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(3), 362–381.Google Scholar
  221. Stam, W. (2009). When does community participation enhance the performance of open source software companies? Research Policy, 38(8), 1288–1299.Google Scholar
  222. Szulanski, G. (1996). Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 27–43.Google Scholar
  223. Teece, D. J. (1986). Profiting from technological innovation—Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy. Research Policy, 15(6), 285–305.Google Scholar
  224. Teece, D. J. (1998). Capturing value from knowledge assets: The new economy, markets for know-how, and intangible assets. California Management Review, 40(3), 55–79.Google Scholar
  225. Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319–1350.Google Scholar
  226. Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.Google Scholar
  227. Terwiesch, C., & Xu, Y. (2008). Innovation contests, open innovation, and multiagent problem solving. Management Science, 54(9), 1529–1543.Google Scholar
  228. Tether, B. S. (2002). Who co-operates for innovation, and why—An empirical analysis. Research Policy, 31(6), 947–967.Google Scholar
  229. Tickle, M., Adebanjo, D., & Michaelides, Z. (2011). Developmental approaches to B2B virtual communities. Technovation, 31(7), 296–308.Google Scholar
  230. Todtling, F., Van Reine, P. P., & Dorhofer, S. (2011). Open innovation and regional culture—Findings from different industrial and regional settings. European Planning Studies, 19(11), 1885–1907.Google Scholar
  231. Toral, S. L., Martinez-Torres, M. R., & Barrero, F. J. (2009a). Virtual communities as a resource for the development of OSS projects: the case of Linux ports to embedded processors. Behaviour and Information Technology, 28(5), 405–419.Google Scholar
  232. Toral, S. L., Torres, R. M., & Barrero, F. (2009b). Modelling mailing list behaviour in open source projects: the case of ARM embedded linux. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 15(3), 648–664.Google Scholar
  233. Traitler, H., & Saguy, I. S. (2009). Creating successful innovation partnerships. Food Technology, 63(3), 22–35.Google Scholar
  234. Trott, P., & Hartmann, D. (2009). Why ‘open innovation’ is old wine in new bottles. International Journal of Innovation Management, 13(4), 715–736.Google Scholar
  235. Tsai, W. P. (2001). Knowledge transfer in intraorganizational networks: Effects of network position and absorptive capacity on business unit innovation and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 996–1004.Google Scholar
  236. Tukel, O. I., Kremic, T., Rom, W. O., & Miller, R. J. (2011). Knowledge-salvage practices for dormant R&D projects. Project Management Journal, 42(1), 59–72.Google Scholar
  237. Van de Vrande, V., De Jong, J. P. J., Vanhaverbeke, W., & De Rochemont, M. (2009). Open innovation in SMEs: Trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation, 29(6–7), 423–437.Google Scholar
  238. Van de Vrande, V., Lemmens, C., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2006). Choosing governance modes for external technology sourcing. R&D Management, 36(3), 347–363.Google Scholar
  239. Van de Vrande, V., Vanhaverbeke, W., & Duysters, G. (2011). Additivity and complementarity in external technology sourcing: The added value of corporate venture capital investments. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 58(3), 483–496.Google Scholar
  240. Van de Vrande, V., Vanhaverbeke, W., & Gassmann, O. (2010). Broadening the scope of open innovation: Past research, current state and future directions. International Journal of Technology Management, 52(3–4), 221–235.Google Scholar
  241. Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2009). How to normalize coocurrence data? An analysis of some well-known similarity measures. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(8), 1635–1651.Google Scholar
  242. Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2010). Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 84(2), 523–538.Google Scholar
  243. Van Eck, N. J., Waltman, L., Dekker, R., & Van den Berg, J. (2010). A comparison of two techniques for bibliometric mapping: Multidimensional scaling and VOS. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(12), 2405–2416.Google Scholar
  244. Veugelers, R. (1997). Internal R&D expenditures and external technology sourcing. Research Policy, 26(3), 303–315.Google Scholar
  245. Vladutz, G., & Cook, J. (1984). Bibliographic coupling and subject relatedness. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science, 21, 204–207.Google Scholar
  246. Vogel, R., & Güttel, W. H. (2013). The dynamic capability view in strategic management: A bibliometric review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(4), 426–446.Google Scholar
  247. Von Hippel, E. (1988). The sources of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  248. Von Hippel, E. (2005). Democratizing innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIR Press.Google Scholar
  249. Von Hippel, E., & Katz, R. (2002). Shifting innovation to users via toolkits. Management Science, 48(7), 821–833.Google Scholar
  250. Von Hippel, E., & Von Krogh, G. (2003). Open source software and the “private-collective” innovation model: Issues for organization science. Organization Science, 14(2), 209–223.Google Scholar
  251. Von Hippel, E., & Von Krogh, G. (2006). Free revealing and the private-collective model for innovation incentives. R&D Management, 36(3), 295–306.Google Scholar
  252. Von Krogh, G., Spaeth, S., & Lakhani, K. R. (2003). Community, joining, and specialization in open source software innovation: A case study. Research Policy, 32(7), 1217–1241.Google Scholar
  253. Wagner, E. B. (2011). Why prize? The surprising resurgence of prizes to stimulate innovation. Research-Technology Management, 54(6), 32–36.Google Scholar
  254. Wang, M. Y. (2012). Exploring potential R&D collaborators with complementary technologies: The case of biosensors. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(5), 862–874.Google Scholar
  255. Wang, Y., Vanhaverbeke, W., & Roijakkers, N. (2012). Exploring the impact of open innovation on national systems of innovation—A theoretical analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(3), 419–428.Google Scholar
  256. Weinberg, B. H. (1974). Bibliographic coupling—Review. Information Storage and Retrieval, 10(5–6), 189–196.Google Scholar
  257. Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180.Google Scholar
  258. West, J. (2003). How open is open enough? Melding proprietary and open source platform strategies. Research Policy, 32(7), 1259–1285.Google Scholar
  259. West, J., & Bogers, M. (2014). Leveraging external sources of innovation: A review of research on open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), 814–831.Google Scholar
  260. West, J., & Gallagher, S. (2006). Challenges of open innovation: The paradox of firm investment in open-source software. R&D Management, 36(3), 319–331.Google Scholar
  261. West, J., & Lakhani, K. R. (2008). Getting clear about communities in open innovation. Industry and Innovation, 15(2), 223–231.Google Scholar
  262. Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and hierarchies, analysis and antitrust implications—A study of the economics of internal organization. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  263. Wuehrer, G. A., & Smejkal, A. E. (2013). The knowledge domain of the academy of international business studies (AIB) conferences: A longitudinal scientometric perspective for the years 2006–2011. Scientometrics, 95(2), 541–561.Google Scholar
  264. Ye, W. W., Xu, P. P., Jia, Y. H., & Jiang, F. (2012). Crowdsourcing for open innovations. Applied Mathematics and Information Sciences, 6(3), 741–747.Google Scholar
  265. Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  266. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  267. Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185–203.Google Scholar
  268. Zajac, E., & Olsen, C. P. (1993). From transaction costs to transactional value analysis: Implications for the study of interorganizational strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 30(1), 131–145.Google Scholar
  269. Zdrazil, B., Pinto, M., Vasanthanathan, P., Williams, A. J., Balderud, L. Z., Engkvist, O., et al. (2012). Annotating human p-glycoprotein bioassay data. Molecular Informatics, 31(8), 599–609.Google Scholar
  270. Zhao, X. Y., & Zheng, Y. N. (2011). Development of Chinese science and technology intermediaries and their integration into the open innovation paradigm. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 23(1), 25–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrián Kovács
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bart Van Looy
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Bruno Cassiman
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Research Foundation Flanders (FWO)BrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation (MSI), Faculty of Business and Economics (FEB)KU LeuvenLouvainBelgium
  3. 3.Institute for Governance StudiesUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Centre for R&D Monitoring (ECOOM)KU LeuvenLouvainBelgium
  5. 5.Strategic Management DepartmentIESE Business SchoolBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations