Patents as instruments for exploring innovation dynamics: geographic and technological perspectives on “photovoltaic cells”
- 960 Downloads
The recently developed Cooperative Patent Classifications of the U.S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) provide new options for an informed delineation of samples in both USPTO data and the Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PatStat) of EPO. Among the “technologies for the mitigation of climate change” (class Y02), we zoom in on nine material technologies for photovoltaic cells; and focus on one of them (CuInSe2) as a lead case. Two recently developed techniques for making patent maps with interactive overlays—geographical ones using Google Maps and maps based on citation relations among International Patent Classifications (IPC)—are elaborated into dynamic versions that allow for online animations and comparisons by using split screens. Various forms of animation are discussed. The longitudinal development of Rao-Stirling diversity in the IPC-based maps provided us with a heuristics for studying technological diversity in terms of generations of the technology. The longitudinal patterns are clear in USPTO data more than in PatStat data because PatStat aggregates patent information from countries in different stages of technological development, whereas one can expect USPTO patents to be competitive at the technological edge.
KeywordsInnovation Trajectory Patent Classification Map Generations Photovoltaics
We are grateful to comments on a previous version of this manuscript by Jan Youtie (Georgia Tech) and Wilfried van Sark (Utrecht University). We also thank two anonymous referees for their constructive comments.
- Arthur, W. B. (2009). The nature of technology. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Blondel, V. D., Guillaume, J. L., Lambiotte, R., & Lefebvre, E. (2008). Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 8(10), 10008.Google Scholar
- Bornmann, L., & Leydesdorff, L. (2011). Which cities produce excellent papers worldwide more than can be expected? A new mapping approach—Using Google Maps—Based on statistical significance testing. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(10), 1954–1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Breschi, S., & Lissoni, F. (2004). Knowledge networks from patent data. In H. F. Moed, W. Glänzel, & U. Schmoch (Eds.), Handbook of quantitative science and technology research (pp. 613–643). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- Granstrand, O. (1999). The economics and management of intellectual property: Towards intellectual capitalism. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Griliches, Z. (1994). Productivity, R&D and the data constraint. American Economic Review, 84(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
- Hall, B. H., Jaffe, A. B., & Trajtenberg, M. (2002). The NBER patent-citations fata file: Lessons, insights, and methodological tools. In A. B. Jaffe & M. Trajtenberg (Eds.), Patents, citations, & innovations (pp. 403–459). Cambrigde, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Hanneman, R. A., & Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to social network methods. Riverside, CA: University of California, Riverside. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/.
- Heimeriks, G., Alkemade, F., & Leydesdorff, L. (in preparation). The path and place dependent development evolution of PV technology.Google Scholar
- Jaffe, A. B. (1986). Technological opportunity and spillovers of R&D: Evidence from firm’s patents, profits, and market value. American Economic Review, 76(5), 984–1001.Google Scholar
- Jaffe, A. B., & Trajtenberg, M. (2002). Patents, citations, and innovations: A window on the knowledge economy. Cambridge, MA/London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Kay, L., Newman, N., Youtie, J., Porter, A. L., & Rafols, I. (in press). Patent overlay mapping: Visualizing technological distance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, preprint at arXiv:1208.4380.Google Scholar
- Leydesdorff, L., & Ahrweiler, P. (in press). In search of a network theory of innovations: Relations, positions, and perspectives. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. doi: 10.1002/asi.23127.
- Leydesdorff, L., Kushnir, D., & Rafols, I. (2012). Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC). Scientometrics. doi: 10.1007/s11192-012-0923-2.
- McGrath, C., Krackhardt, D., & Blythe, J. (2003). Visualizing complexity in networks: Seeing both the forest and the trees. Connections, 25(1), 37–47.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2009). Science, technology and industry scoreboard. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Porter, A. L., & Cunningham, S. W. (2005). Tech mining. Competitive Intelligence Magazine, 8(1), 30–36.Google Scholar
- Rotolo, D., Rafols, I., Hopkins, M. M., & Leydesdorff, L. (in preparation). Mapping De-Facto governance in the case of emerging science and technologies. http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.4672.
- Schmookler, J. (1962). Economic sources of inventive activity. The Journal of Economic History, 22, 1–20.Google Scholar
- Schoen, A., Villard, L., Laurens, P., Cointet, J.-P., Heimeriks, G., & Alkemade, F. (2012). The network structure of technological developments; technological distance as a walk on the technology map. Paper presented at the Science & Technology Indicators (STI) Conference 2012 Montreal.Google Scholar
- Sci2 Team. (2009). Science of science (Sci2) tool. Indiana University and SciTech Strategies. https://sci2.cns.iu.edu.
- Shafarman, W. N., & Stolt, L. (2003). Cu (InGa) Se2 solar cells. In A. Luque & S. Hegedus (Eds.), Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering (pp. 567–616). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Unold, T., & Kaufmans, C. A. (2012). Chalcopyrite thin film materials and solar cells, Chap. 1.18. In W. G. J. H. M. van Sark (Ed.) Photovoltaic technology, Vol. 1. In A. Sayigh (Ed.) Comprehensive renewable energy. Elsevier, UK, pp. 5–11.Google Scholar
- USPTO. (2009). Pilot program for green technologies including greenhouse gas reduction, Federal Register 74(234, 8 December 2009), 64666–64669. http://www.uspto.gov/patents/law/notices/74fr64666.pdf.