Dynamic patterns of technology collaboration: a case study of the Chinese automobile industry, 1985–2010
- 739 Downloads
To investigate patterns of technology collaboration within the Chinese automobile industry, this study employs a unique dataset of patent applications that reveal a record of 64,938 collaborative relations in the industry during the period from 1985 to 2010. Our results indicate that over 60 % of the total collaborations were conducted after China entered the WTO. The invention and utility types of patents account for 98 % of the total collaborations throughout the sample period. Using a network analysis method, we find that the key differences between domestic enterprises collaborating with indigenous enterprises (DD collaboration) and with foreign firms (DF collaboration) are in patent types and technology domains. The DF network is also denser and more centralized than the DD network, although the amount of nodes and links of the DD network is greater than that of the DF collaboration network. The analysis and visualization of the collaboration networks and corresponding largest components reveal that a large number of domestic enterprises prefer to collaborate with top global automobile manufacturers. We also find that a number of universities have become key players in the collaborations among industry, universities and research institutes. This study provides a deeper understanding of technology collaborations from various perspectives and also highlights several avenues for future research.
KeywordsCollaboration Network Patent Evolution process Automobile industry China
This research is funded by national Science Foundation of China (grant no.71302133; grant no.71233002), Youth Project of Ministry of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Funding (grant no.13YJC790154), and the Sichuan University’s Special Research Program for the Philosophy Social Science from the Subordinate Universities of Ministry of Education’s Basic Research Foundation (SKYB201302; SKX201004).
- Abrami, R. M., Kirby, W. C., & McFarlan, F. W. (2014). Why China can’t innovate. Harvard Business Review, 92, 107–111.Google Scholar
- Bloomberg. (2010). China ends US’s reign as largest auto market. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aE.x_r_l9NZE. Accessed 17 Sep 2013.
- Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., & Freeman, L. C. (2002). Ucinet for Windows: Software for social network analysis. Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies.Google Scholar
- Chesbrough, H. (2003). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
- Dunning, J. H. (1988). Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon. The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions, 19, 1–31.Google Scholar
- Handcock, M. S., Hunter, D. R., Butts, C. T., Goodreau, S. M., & Morris, M. (2008). statnet: Software tools for the representation, visualization, analysis and simulation of network data. Journal of Statistical Software, 24, 1548.Google Scholar
- Saxenian, A. (1994). Regional advantage: Culture and competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Uzzi, B. (1996). The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect. American Sociological Review, 61, 674–698.Google Scholar
- Von Hippel, E. (2007). The sources of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Wang, H. (2003). Policy reforms and foreign direct investment. The case of the Chinese automobile industry. Journal of Economics and Business, 6, 287–314.Google Scholar