, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 2185–2205 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Educational reforms and internationalization of universities: evidence from major regions of the world

  • Ghulam Akhmat
  • Khalid Zaman
  • Tan ShukuiEmail author
  • Tauseef Ahmed


Internationalization of universities has become a worldwide phenomenon as global economic integration continues to make its way forcefully into the higher education. The objective of the study is to develop a model for internationalization of universities with the transformation of some promising macroeconomic variables i.e., educational reforms and economic growth in the seven largest regions of the world [namely, East Asia and Pacific (sample 25 countries); Europe and Central Asia (40 countries); Latin America and Caribbean (27 countries); Middle East and North Africa (17 countries); North America (22 countries); South Asia (7 countries) and Sub-Saharan Africa (21 countries)]. The data has been analyzed by panel fixed effect regression from the period of 1990–2011. In addition to transform inputs into output, the study employed eleven indicators of education and five indicators for growth, where the resulting vector is internationalization. The results show the dynamic linkages between educational indicators and economic factors in the selected regions of the World. In East Asia and Pacific region, tertiary and higher education expenditures per student increase the economic factors. Higher education is a powerful driver of long-term growth in Europe and Central Asia. Governments of the state should have to focus on higher education enrolment, as it does not have any significant contribution to increase GDP; gross capital formation and FDI in Latin America and Caribbean region. Higher education enrolment in MENA region significantly increases growth factors on the cost of increase gross national expenditures. Investment in general education and other generic human capital is of the utmost importance in creating an enabling environment for FDI in North America. It is imperative for South Asia to encourage the skill levels and education opportunities for females, in order to maximize the effects of FDI on the female human capital stock and therefore economic growth. Tertiary school enrolment and tertiary expenditures per student identified the importance of tertiary education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The results conclude that educational indicators improve the economic gains, which ultimately reap out the benefit of internationalization.


Internationalization Educational reforms Growth factors World regions 



This work was financially supported by the National 985 Project of Non-traditional Security at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, P. R. China. Authors are thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions. Any remaining errors are the authors own responsibility.


  1. ADB. (2010). A survey on the relationship between education and growth with implications for developing Asia. ADB Economics Working Paper Series 236. Asian Development Bank, Manila.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 290–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergerhoff, J., Borghans, L., Seegers, P. K., & Veen, T. (2013). International education and economic growth. Retrieved July 27, 2013, from
  4. Bhattacharya, R., & Wolde, H. (2010). Constraints on growth in the MENA region. IMF working paper WP/10/30. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from
  5. Bolden, R., Morote, E., & McMullen, M. (2000). Higher education and economic growth in the latin American emerging markets. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from
  6. Byun, K., Jon, J., & Kim, D. (2013). Quest for building world-class universities in South Korea: Outcomes and consequences. Higher Education, 65, 645–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calderon, A. (2012). Massification continues to transform higher education. University World News, issue 237. Retrieved December 17, 2012, from
  8. Calvo, C., & Hernandez, M. A. (2006). Foreign direct investment and poverty in Latin America. Paper Presented at the Globalisation and Economic Policy, Fifth Annual Postgraduate Conference in Leverhulme Centre for Research on Globalisation and Economic Policy, April 21–22, University of Nottingham, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Cho, Y. H., & Palmer, J. D. (2013). Stakeholders’ views of South Korea’s higher education internationalization policy. Higher Education, 65, 291–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooray, A., & Mallick, S. (2011). What explains cross-country growth in South Asia? Female education and the growth effect of international openness. BWPI Working Paper 145. Retrieved December 15, 2012
  11. Dee. (2008). Productivity of higher education institutions and the effects of barriers to trade in higher education services. Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  12. Etzkowitz, H., Webster, A., Gebhardt, C., & Terra, B. R. C. (2000). The future of the university and the university of the future: Evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm. Research Policy, 29(2), 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. EU. (2012). The higher education modernisation agenda. Navigation path. European Commission. Retrieved July 28, 2013, from
  14. Greens, M. F. (2012). Universities must be clear and honest about internationalization. University World News, Issue 217. Retrieved July 27, 2013, from
  15. Hanushek, E., & Woessmann, L. (2009). Poor student learning explains the Latin American growth puzzle. VOX: Research-based policy analysis and commentary from leading economists. Retrieved June 27, 2013, from
  16. Hanusheka, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2012). Schooling, educational achievement, and the Latin American growth puzzle. Journal of Development Economics, 99, 497–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Inglesi-Lotz, R., & Pouris, A. (2013). The influence of scientific research output of academics on economic growth in South Africa: An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) application. Scientometrics, 95, 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jons, H., & Hoyler, M. (2013). Global geographies of higher education: The perspective of world university rankings. Geoforum, 46, 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. MEXT. (2013). Chapter 2: Internationalization of universities and their local contribution. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from
  20. Mok, K. H. (2006). Questing for internationalization of Universities in East Asia: Critical reflections. Paper presented at the International Symposium at Osaka University, January 13–14, 2006, Japan.Google Scholar
  21. Montanini, M. (2013). Supporting tertiary education, enhancing economic development. Strategies for effective higher education funding in Sub-Saharan Africa. ISPI working paper. Retrieved August 3, 2013, from
  22. Morris, B. J. (2009). Internationalizing the university: Theory, practice, organization and execution. Journal of Emerging Knowledge on Emerging Markets, 1(1), 143–151.Google Scholar
  23. NASULGC. (2007). A national action agenda for internationalizing higher education. Washington: New York Avenue.Google Scholar
  24. OECD. (2002). Foreign direct investment for development: Maximizing benefits, minimizing costs. Paris Cedex: OECD Publications Service.Google Scholar
  25. OECD. (2004). Internationalisation of higher education: Policy brief. OECD Observer. Retrieved June 16, 2013, from
  26. OECD. (2007). Cross-border tertiary education: A way towards capacity development. Paris: OECD and IBRD/The World Bank.Google Scholar
  27. OECD. (2010). The high cost of low educational performance: The long-run economic impact of improving PISA outcomes. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olds, K. (2007). Global assemblage: Singapore, foreign universities, and the construction of a “Global Education Hub”. World Development, 35(6), 959–975.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  29. PSU. (2009). University office of international programs: Strategic plan, 2009–2013. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved July 27, 2013, from
  30. Sakellariou, C. (2010). Access to and equity of higher education in East Asia. Retrieved July 27, 2013, from
  31. UN. (2009). The millennium development goals report 2009. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  32. UNESCO. (2008). Overcoming inequality: Why governance matters. Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  33. UNESCO. (2011). Regional overview: East Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved July 18, 2013, from
  34. UNESCO (2012). Govt. Education spending: sources and methods. UNESCO’s Institute for Statistics. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from
  35. UNICEF. (2002). Education and literacy. Retrieved June 17, 2013, from
  36. Vinluan, L. R. (2012). Research productivity in education and psychology in the Philippines and comparison with ASEAN countries. Scientometrics, 91, 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Waters, M. (2012). Modernising higher education and the workforce. University World News, Issue 243. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from
  38. WES. (2012). Trends in international student mobility. World Education Services, Research Report 01. WES Research and Advisory Services, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  39. World Bank. (2008a). Accelerating catch-up: Tertiary education for growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Region Human Development Department, World Bank.Google Scholar
  40. World Bank. (2012a). World development indicator data base. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  41. World Bank. (2012b). Putting higher education to work: Skills and research for growth in East Asia. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  42. World Bank. (2008b). The road not traveled: Education reform in the Middle East and North Africa. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  43. World Penn Table. (2012). Penn World Table Version 7.1. Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania, Nov 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013, from

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghulam Akhmat
    • 1
  • Khalid Zaman
    • 2
  • Tan Shukui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tauseef Ahmed
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Public AdministrationHuazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Management SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyAbbottabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations