A routine for measuring synergy in university–industry–government relations: mutual information as a Triple-Helix and Quadruple-Helix indicator
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Mutual information in three (or more) dimensions can be considered as a Triple-Helix indicator of possible synergy in university–industry–government relations. An open-source routine th4.exe makes the computation of this indicator interactively available at the internet, and thus applicable to large sets of data. Th4.exe computes all probabilistic entropies and mutual information in two, three, and, if available in the data, four dimensions among, for example, classes such as geographical addresses (cities, regions), technological codes (e.g. OECD’s NACE codes), and size categories; or, alternatively, among institutional addresses (academic, industrial, public sector) in document sets. The relations between the Triple-Helix indicator—as an indicator of synergy—and the Triple-Helix model that specifies the possibility of feedback by an overlay of communications, are also discussed.