, Volume 99, Issue 1, pp 27–35

A routine for measuring synergy in university–industry–government relations: mutual information as a Triple-Helix and Quadruple-Helix indicator



Mutual information in three (or more) dimensions can be considered as a Triple-Helix indicator of possible synergy in university–industry–government relations. An open-source routine th4.exe makes the computation of this indicator interactively available at the internet, and thus applicable to large sets of data. Th4.exe computes all probabilistic entropies and mutual information in two, three, and, if available in the data, four dimensions among, for example, classes such as geographical addresses (cities, regions), technological codes (e.g. OECD’s NACE codes), and size categories; or, alternatively, among institutional addresses (academic, industrial, public sector) in document sets. The relations between the Triple-Helix indicator—as an indicator of synergy—and the Triple-Helix model that specifies the possibility of feedback by an overlay of communications, are also discussed.


Indicator Triple Helix Quadruple Helix Software Information theory Mutual information Mutual redundancy 

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loet Leydesdorff
    • 1
  • Han Woo Park
    • 2
  • Balazs Lengyel
    • 3
  1. 1.Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR)University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Media and CommunicationYeungNam UniversityGyeongsan-siSouth Korea
  3. 3.International Business School BudapestBudapestHungary

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