Scientometrics

, Volume 97, Issue 1, pp 75–97 | Cite as

Identifying research facilitators in an emerging Asian Research Area

  • Philip S. Cho
  • Huy Hoang Nhat Do
  • Muthu Kumar Chandrasekaran
  • Min-Yen Kan
Article

Abstract

We introduce a novel set of metrics for triadic closure among individuals or groups to model how co-authorship networks become more integrated over time. We call this process of triadic, third-party mediated integration, research facilitation. We apply our research facilitation or RF-metrics to the development of the Pan-Asian SNP (PASNP) Consortium, the first inter-Asian genomics network. Our aim was to examine if the consortium catalyzed research facilitation or integration among the members and the wider region. The PASNP Consortium is an ideal case study of an emerging Asian Research Area because its members themselves asserted a regional Asian identity. To validate our model, we developed data mining software to extract and match full author and institutional information from the PDFs of scientific papers.

Keywords

Triadic closure Pan-Asian SNP Consortium Asian Research Area RF-metric Research facilitation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This article was supported by the Fetzer Franklin Trust project on Culture and Cognition, National University of Singapore—Global Asia Institute project on Mapping the Technological and Cultural Landscape of Scientific Development in Asia (grant AC-2010-1-004), and John Templeton Foundation project on Religion’s Impact on Human Life. We acknowledge Sy Bac Vo for assistance in the development of Eq. (3). Color printing supported by Asian Biopoleis Project grant MOE2009-T2-2-013.

References

  1. Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999) Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science, 286(5439), 509–512.Google Scholar
  2. Basu, A. (2001). A comparative analysis of India and other Asian countries based on science, technology and development indicators. Research Evaluation, 10(1), 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biemann, C. (2006). Chinese whispers An efficient graph clustering algorithm and its application to natural language processing problems. In Proceedings of the first workshop on graph based methods for natural language processing, TextGraphs-1 (pp. 73–80).Google Scholar
  4. Burt, R. S. (2000). The network structure of social capital. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, 345–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho, P. S., Bullock, N., & Ali, D. (2013). The bioinformatic basis of Pan-Asianism. East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal, 7(2), 1–27. doi:10.1215/18752160-2142980.
  6. Councill, I. G., Giles, C. L., & Kan, M. Y. (2008). Parscit: An open-source CRF reference string parsing package. In Proceedings of the international conference on language resources and evaluation. European Language Resources Association.Google Scholar
  7. Do, H. H. N., Chandrasekaran, M. K., Cho, P. S., & Kan, M. Y. (2013). Extracting and matching authors and affiliations in scholarly documents. In Joint conference on digital libraries. New York: ACM (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
  8. Duara, P. (2001). The discourse of civilization and Pan-Asianism. Journal of World History, 12(1), 99–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Frame, D. J., & Carpenter, M. P. (1979) International research collaboration. Social Studies of Science, 9(4), 481–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garg, K. (2002). Scientometrics of laser research in India and China. Scientometrics, 55(1), 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. The American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guan, J., & Ma, N. (2007). A bibliometric study of China’s semiconductor literature compared with other major Asian countries. Scientometrics, 70(1), 107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haustein, S., Tunger, D., Heinrichs, G., & Baelz, G. (2011). Reasons for and developments in international scientific collaboration: Does an Asia–Pacific research area exist from a bibliometric point of view? Scientometrics, 86(3), 729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Karl, R. (1998). Creating Asia: China in the world at the beginning of the twentieth century. The American Historical Review, 103(4), 1096–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khan, G. F., & Park, H. W. (2012). Editorial: Triple helix and innovation in Asia using scientometrics, webometrics, and informetrics. Scientometrics, 90(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kossinets, G., & Watts, D. J. (2006). Empirical analysis of an evolving social network. Science, 311(5757), 88–90.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar, R., Tripathi, R., & Tiwari, M. (2011). A case study of impact of patenting in the current developing economies in Asia. Scientometrics, 88(2), 575–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leclerc, M., & Gagné, J. (1994). International scientific cooperation: The continentalization of science. Scientometrics, 31, 261–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lewis, M. W., & Wigen, K. E. (1997) The myth of continents: A critique of metageography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  20. Luukkonen, T., Persson, O., & Sivertsen, G. (1992). Understanding patterns of international scientific collaboration. Science, Technology & Human Values, 17(1), 101–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maoz, Z. (2009). The effects of strategic and economic interdependence on international conflict across levels of analysis. American Journal of Political Science, 53(1), 223–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 415–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Murthy, R. (2009). India is “Thailand” to Asia, say scientists. Asia Times Online.Google Scholar
  24. Normile, D. (2004). Consortium hopes to map human history in Asia. Science, 306, 1667.Google Scholar
  25. Obstfeld, D. (2005) Social networks, the tertius iungens orientation, and involvement in innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(1), 100–130.Google Scholar
  26. Okubo, Y., Miquel, J., Frigoletto, L., & Doré, J. (1992). Structure of international collaboration in science: Typology of countries through multivariate techniques using a link indicator. Scientometrics, 25, 321–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rapoport, A. (1953). Spread of information through a population with socio-structural bias. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 15(4), 523–533.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  28. Salton, G., & McGill, M. (1983) Introduction to modern information retrieval. Auckland: McGraw-Hill.MATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Schott, T. (1988) International influence in science: Beyond center and periphery. Social Science Research, 17(3), 219–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schubert, A., & Braun, T. (1990) International collaboration in the sciences 1981–1985. Scientometrics, 19, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shils, E. (1975). Center and periphery. In Essays in macrosociology (pp. 3–16). Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Shin, J. C., Lee, S. J., & Kim, Y. (2012) Knowledge-based innovation and collaboration: A triple-helix approach in Saudi Arabia. Scientometrics, 90(1), 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tang, J., Wu, S., Sun, J., & Su, H. (2012). Cross-domain collaboration recommendation. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD ’12) (pp. 1285–1293).Google Scholar
  34. The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. (2009). Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia. Science, 326(5959), 1541–1545.Google Scholar
  35. Watts, D. J., & Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of small-world networks. Nature, 393(6684), 440–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wineman, J. D., Kabo, F. W., & Davis, G. F. (2009). Spatial and social networks in organizational innovation. Environment and Behavior, 41(3), 427–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip S. Cho
    • 1
  • Huy Hoang Nhat Do
    • 2
  • Muthu Kumar Chandrasekaran
    • 2
  • Min-Yen Kan
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Asia Research InstituteNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Interactive and Digital Media InstituteNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations