Careers in science: policy issues according to Nature and Science editorials
This study analyzes the editorials in Science and Nature published between 2000 and 2012 about careers in science. Of the total body of documents, 8.8 % dealt with science careers. The editorials were manually classified by topics and then mapped using the VOSviewer. This revealed six easily distinguishable clusters: career conditions in science, the attractiveness of science as a career, merit-based career policies, the effect of research funding on careers, specific groups underrepresented in science, and mobility of scientists. The paper summarizes the main thrust of the arguments in these editorials. There is strong agreement about the problems in scientific careers, but less consensus on the solutions to these problems. The paper also explores whether mapping on the basis of automatically identified terms could have provided adequate results, but concludes that manual classification is needed.
KeywordsAcademic careers Scientific careers Classification Bibliometric mapping Editorials
JEL classificationJ21 J23 J24 J60 J70
For their help with various aspects of the preparation of the manuscript I would like to thank several CWTS colleagues: Cornelis A. van Bochove, Martijn S. Visser, Bert J. van der Wurff, Ludo Waltman, Nees Jan van Eck, Wolfgang Kaltenbrunner, Inge C. M. van der Weijden, and Paul Wouters.
- Commission of the European communities (2003). Researchers in the European Research Area. One Profession, Multiple Careers.Google Scholar
- Kreckel, R., Burkhardt, A., Lenhardt, G., Pasternack, P., & Stock, M. (2008). Zwischen Promotion und Professur: das wissenschaftliche Personal in Deutschland im Vergleich mit Frankreich, Großbritannien, USA, Schweden, den Niederlanden, Österreich und der Schweiz. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsanstalt.Google Scholar
- National Research Council (2005). Bridges to independence: Fostering the independence of new investigators in biomedical research. Washington, DC: National Research Council.Google Scholar
- Rice, C. (2012). Why women leave academia and why universities should be worried. The Guardian Higher Education Network. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved June 1, 2012.Google Scholar
- van Balen, B., & van den Besselaar, P. (2007). Universitaire onderzoeksloopbanen: een verkenning van problemen en oplossingen. Den Haag: Rathenau Instituut.Google Scholar
- van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2011). Text mining and visualization using VOSviewer. International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics Newsletter, 7(3), 50–54.Google Scholar
- Zimmer, C. (2012). A sharp rise in retractions prompts calls for reform. New York Times. New York City: The New York Times Company. Retrieved June 1, 2012.Google Scholar