, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 1161–1173

Visualizing and comparing four facets of scholarly communication: producers, artifacts, concepts, and gatekeepers


DOI: 10.1007/s11192-012-0849-8

Cite this article as:
Ni, C., Sugimoto, C.R. & Cronin, B. Scientometrics (2013) 94: 1161. doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0849-8


This paper extends Borgman’s (Communication Research 16: 583, 1989) three-facet framework (artifacts, producers, concepts) for bibliometric analyses of scholarly communication by adding a fourth gatekeepers. The four-facet framework was applied to the field of Library and Information Science to test for variations in the networks produced using operationalizations of each of these four facets independently. Fifty-eight journals from the Information Science and Library Science category in the 2008 Journal Citation Report were studied and the network proximity of these journals based on Venue-Author-Coupling (producer), journal co-citation analysis (artifact), topic analysis (concept) and interlocking editorial board membership (gatekeeper) was measured. The resulting networks were examined for potential correlation using the Quadratic Assignment Procedure. The results indicate some consensus regarding core journals, but significant differences among some networks. Holistic measures of scholarly communication that take multiple facets into account are proposed. This work is relevant in an assessment-conscious and metrics-driven age.


Producers Artifacts Concepts Gatekeepers Scholarly communication Bibliometrics 

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaoqun Ni
    • 1
  • Cassidy R. Sugimoto
    • 1
  • Blaise Cronin
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Library and Information ScienceIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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