Mapping Iranian patents based on International Patent Classification (IPC), from 1976 to 2011
Patents are used as an indicator to assess the growth of science and technology in a given country or area. They are being examined to determine research potentials of research centers, universities, and inventors. The aim of this study is to map the past and current trends in patenting activities with a view to better understanding and tracking the changing nature of science and technology in Iran. The patenting activity in the Iran was investigated for the period 1976–2011, based on the USPTO, WIPO, and EPO (Esp@cenet). We analyzed the affiliation of inventers and collected patents which have at least an Iranian inventor. The collected data were analyzed applying Microsoft Excel. Analytical results demonstrate that between 1976 and 2011, 212 patents have been registered by Iranian inventors in the three above-mentioned databases. The average number of Iranian patents registered per year has increased significantly from 25 in 1976–1980 period to 119 in 2006–2011. It was noted that the highest number of registered patents (27 %) were in “chemistry, metallurgy” area of International Patent Classification (IPC), followed by “human necessities” (18 %), “electricity” (17 %), and “performing operations; transporting” (15 %). Overall, it can be concluded that patent-activities are highly country-specific, the results indicate that Iran is focused on “chemistry, metallurgy” technology.
KeywordsPatents International patent offices Patent database Iranian invertors Scientometrics Patent trends Patent analysis Content analysis Topic map analysis Iran
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments that helped to improve the paper.
- Abbott, F. M. (2007). Intellectual property rights in world trade. In A. T. Guzman & A. O. Sykes (Eds.), Research handbook in international economic law (pp. 444–484). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
- Archibugi, D. (1992). Patenting as an indicator of technological innovation: a review. Science and Public Policy, 19(6), 357–368.Google Scholar
- Archibugi, D., & Pianta, M. (1992). The technological specialization of advanced countries. Report to the EEC on international science and technology activities. Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Bhattacharya, S. (2007). Delineating the patent data: a case study of prolific patenting institutions of India and China. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, 27(1), 87–95.Google Scholar
- Braun, T., Glanzel, W., & Grupp, H. (1995). The scientometric weight of 50 nations in 27 science areas, 1989–1993. Part I. All fields combined, mathematics, engineering, chemistry and physics. Scientometrics, 33(3), 263–293; Part II. Life Sciences, Scientometrics, 34(2), 207–237.Google Scholar
- European Commission (1997). European report on science and technology indicators (REIST) 1997. Retrieved September 29, 2011 from http://cordis.europa.eu/indicators/publications.htm.
- European Commission (2003). Third european report on science and technology indicators 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2011 from http://cordis.europa.eu/indicators/publications.htm.
- Griliches, Z. (1990). Patent statistics as economic indicators: a survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 28(4), 1661–1707.Google Scholar
- Kung, M. H., & Lin, H. Y. (2003). The dynamics of innovation in Taiwan: the patent analysis respective. In: S. C. H. Paul (Chair), International Conference on Industrial Science and Technology Innovation: Policy Issues and Challenges in a Critical Era, Taipei, Taiwan, 2003.Google Scholar
- OECD (1994). The measurement of scientific and technological activities using patent data as science and technology indicator—patent manual. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Parent, A., Bertrand, F., Côté, G., & Archambault, E. (2003). Scientometric study on collaboration between India and Canada, 1990–2001: phase 1 of the 2004 Canada–India S and T mapping study. Prepared for: Departments of Foreign Affairs Canada, International Trade Canada, and Industry Canada. Science-Metrix 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2011 from http://www.science-metrix.com/pdf/Science-Metrix_Canada-India_Collaboration_Report.pdf.
- Schmookler, J. (1962). Economic sources of inventive activity. The Journal of Economic History, 22(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
- Schmookler, J. (1966). Invention and economic growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Schmookler, J. (1972). Patents, invention and economic change. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Van Zeebroeck, N., Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, B., & Han, W. (2005). Issues in measuring the degree of technological specialisation with patent data. No. 05-016. RS, Working Papers CEB from ULB—Universite Libre de Bruxelles, April 2005. Retrieved September 29, 2011 from http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/solwpaper/05-016.htm.
- WIPO (2011). International Patent Classification (version 2011)—guide. Guide to the IPC (2011). Retrieved September 29, 2011 from http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/classifications/ipc/en/guide/guide_ipc.doc.