Advertisement

Scientometrics

, Volume 90, Issue 1, pp 163–176 | Cite as

Has globalization strengthened South Korea’s national research system? National and international dynamics of the Triple Helix of scientific co-authorship relationships in South Korea

  • Ki-Seok Kwon
  • Han Woo ParkEmail author
  • Minho So
  • Loet Leydesdorff
Article

Abstract

We trace the structural patterns of co-authorship between Korean researchers at three institutional types (university, government, and industry) and their international partners in terms of the mutual information generated in these relations. Data were collected from the Web of Science during the period 1968–2009. The traditional Triple-Helix indicator was modified to measure the evolving network of co-authorship relations. The results show that international co-authorship relations have varied considerably over time and with changes in government policies, but most relations have become stable since the early 2000s. In other words, the national publication system of Korea has gained some synergy from R&D internationalization during the 1990s, but the development seems to stagnate particularly at the national level: whereas both university and industrial collaborations are internationalized, the cross-connection within Korea has steadily eroded.

Keywords

Co-authorship International collaboration University–industry–government relationship South Korea Triple Helix R&D internationalization Globalization National research system Innovation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge a support from the Social Science Korea (SSK) Program funded by National Research Foundation of South Korea; NRF-2010-330-B00232.

References

  1. Abramo, G., D’Angelo, C. A., & Pugini, F. (2007). The measurement of Italian universities’ research productivity by a non parametric-bibliometric methodology. Scientometrics, 76, 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson, N. (1963). Information theory and coding. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, S. J. D., Black, G. C., Clemmons, J. R., Paula, E., & Stephan, P. E. (2005). Scientific teams and institutional collaborations: Evidence from U.S. universities, 1981–1999. Research Policy, 34(3), 259–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albuquerque, E. M. (2001). Scientific infrastructure and catching-up process: Notes about a relationship illustrated by science and technology statistics. Revista Brasileira de Economia, 55(4), 545–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altbach, P. (2007). Empires of knowledge and development. In P. Altbach & J. Balán (Eds.), World class worldwide: Transforming research universities in Asia and Latin America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bak, H. J. (2006). Characteristics and transformation of Korean academic science: Focusing on the trend of academic R&D expenditure since 1980s. Social Theory, 30, 213–244.Google Scholar
  7. Bordons, M., Gómez, I., Fernández, M. T., Zulueta, M. A., & Méndez, A. (1996). Local, domestic and international scientific collaboration in biomedical research. Scientometrics, 37(2), 279–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun, T., & Glänzel, W. (1996). International collaboration: Will it be keeping alive East European Research? Scientometrics, 36(2), 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chung, S. (2005). Catch up through international linkage, science, technology and the Korean experience. Science and Public Policy, 29(6), 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chung, S. H., & Seol, S. S. (2010). Stages and drivers for the development of basic scientific research in Korea. Korean Journal of Technology Innovation Society, 13(3), 587–616.Google Scholar
  11. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: From national systems and mode 2 to a triple helix of university–industry–government relations. Research Policy, 29(22), 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Georghiou, L. (1998). Global cooperation in research. Research Policy, 27(6), 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glänzel, W. (2001). National characteristics in international scientific co-authorship relations. Scientometrics, 51, 69–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glänzel, W., & Schubert, A. (2010). Analysing scientific networks through co-authorship, Chapter 11. In Moed, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of quantitative science and technology research (pp. 257–276). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  15. Godin, B., & Gingras, Y. (2000). The place of universities in the system of knowledge production. Research Policy, 29(2), 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gómez, I., Bordons, M., Fernández, M. T., & Morillo, F. (2009). Structure and research performance of Spanish universities. Scientometrics, 79(1), 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gordon, M. D. (1980). A critical reassessment of inferred relations between multiple authorship, scientific collaboration, the production of papers and their acceptance for publications. Scientometrics, 2, 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. He, Z. L. (2009). International collaboration does not have greater epistemic authority. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(10), 2151–2164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hwang, K. (2007). International collaboration in multilayered center-periphery in the globalization of science and technology. Science Technology Human Values, 33, 101–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jakulin, A., & Bratko, I. (2004). Quantifying and visualizing attribute interactions: An approach based on entropy. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.AI/0308002.
  21. Katz, J. S., & Hicks, D. M. (1996). A systemic view of British Science. Scientometrics, 35, 133–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Katz, J. S., & Hicks, D. (1997). How much is a collaboration worth? A calibrated bibliometric model. Scientometrics, 40(3), 541–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Katz, J. S., & Martin, B. R. (1997). What is research collaboration? Research Policy, 26, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. KICOS. (2008). Statistics on International R&D Program. Seoul: Korea Foundation for International Cooperation of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  25. Kim, L. (1997). Imitation to innovation: The dynamics of Korea’s technological learning. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kim, M. J. (2005). Korean science and international collaboration, 1995–2000. Scientometrics, 63(2), 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim, Y. J., Yeo, M. S., & Oh, D. (2010). Measuring the quality of research performance by relative rank-normalized impact factor (R2nIF). Asian Research Policy, 1, 27–42.Google Scholar
  28. Krippendorff, K. (2009). Information of interactions in complex systems. International Journal of General Systems, 38(6), 669–680.CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  29. Kwon, K. S. (2009, Feb 27). Emergence of research and entrepreneurial activities of Korean universities. Paper presented at the conference on university-industry linkages and economic performance, College of Social Science, Seoul National University.Google Scholar
  30. Laudel, G. (2002). What do we measure by co-authorships? Research Evaluation, 11(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee, S., & Bozeman, B. (2005). The impact of research collaboration on scientific productivity. Social Studies of Science, 35(5), 673–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee, M., Kim, K., Choi, Y., Song, C., & Kim, E. (2008). Exploratory study on the international S&T cooperation with developing countries. Washington, DC: Science and Technology Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  33. Lemarchand, G. A. (2010). The long-term dynamics of co-authorship scientific networks. Iberoamerican Countries (1973–2006). arXiv:1001.2837v1.Google Scholar
  34. Lengyel, B., & Leydesdorff, L. (2011). Regional innovation systems in Hungary: The failing synergy at the national level. Regional Studies, 45(5), 677–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leydesdorff, L. (2010). Redundancy in systems which entertain a model of themselves: Interaction information and the self-organization of anticipation. Entropy, 12(1), 63–79. doi: 10.3390/e12010063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leydesdorff, L., & Rafols, I. (2011). How do emerging technologies conquer the world? An exploration of patterns of diffusion and network formation. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(5), 846–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leydesdorff, L., & Sun, Y. (2009). National and international dimensions of the triple helix in Japan: University–industry–government versus international co-authorship relations. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(4), 778–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leydesdorff, L., & Wagner, C. S. (2008). International collaboration in science and the formation of a core group. Journal of Informetrics, 2(4), 317–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McGill, W. J. (1954). Multivariate information transmission. Psychometrika, 19(2), 97–116.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. Melin, G., & Persson, O. (1996). Studying research collaboration using co-authorship. Scientometrics, 36, 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. MOE. (1974). Report on students studying abroad. Seoul: Korean Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  42. MOST. (2001). 2000 Science and technology annual. Seoul: Korean Ministry of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  43. MOST. (2003). The 20 years of HAN Project. Seoul: Ministry of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  44. Narin, F. (1991). Globalization of research, scholarly information, and patents—ten year trends. The Serials Librarian, 21(2), 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Narin, F., Stevens, K., & Whitlow, E. S. (1991). Scientific co-operation in Europe and the citation of multinationally authored papers. Scientometrics, 21, 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. NSF-NSB. (2010). Science and engineering indicators 2010. Arlington, VA: National Science Board, National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics.Google Scholar
  47. Ordonez, G. (2008). International research collaboration, research team performance, and scientific and technological capabilities in Colombia—a bottom-up perspective. PhD dissertation in public policy. Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  48. Park, H. W., & Leydesdorff, L. (2008). Korean journals in the Science Citation Index: What do they reveal about the intellectual structure of S&T in Korea? Scientometrics, 75(3), 439–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Park, H. W., & Leydesdorff, L. (2010). Longitudinal trends in networks of university–industry–government relations in South Korea: The role of programmatic incentives. Research Policy, 39, 640–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Persson, O., Glänzel, W., & Danell, R. (2004). Inflationary bibliometrics values: The role of scientific collaboration and the need for relative indicators in evaluative studies. Scientometrics, 60(3), 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ponds, R. (2009). The limits to internationalization of scientific research collaboration. Journal of Technology Transfer, 34, 76–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ramsden, P. (1994). Describing and explaining research productivity. Higher Education, 28, 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rigby, J., & Edler, J. (2005). Peering inside research networks: Some observations on the effect of the intensity of collaboration on the variability of research quality. Research Policy, 34(6), 784–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Savanur, K., & Srikanth, R. (2010). Modified collaborative coefficient: A new measure for quantifying the degree of research collaboration. Scientometrics, 84(2), 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schmoch, U., & Schubert, T. (2008). Are international co-publications an indicator for quality of scientific research? Scientometrics, 74(3), 361–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379–423, 623–656.Google Scholar
  57. Shapiro, M., So, M. H., & Park, H. W. (2010). Quantifying the national innovation system: Inter-regional collaboration networks in South Korea. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management. A special issue on Triple Helix, 22(7), 845–857.Google Scholar
  58. Shin, J. C., & Cummings, W. K. (2010). Multilevel analysis of academic publishing across disciplines: Research preference, collaboration, and time on research. Scientometrics, 85, 581–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shrum, W., & Campion, P. (2000). Are scientists in developing countries isolated? Science Technology Society, 5, 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smeby, J., & Try, S. (2005). Departmental contexts and faculty research activity in Norway. Research in Higher Education, 46(6), 593–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Theil, H. (1972). Statistical decomposition analysis. Amsterdam: North-Holland.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  62. Van Raan, A. F. J. (1998). The influence of international collaboration of the impact of the research results. Scientometrics, 42(3), 423–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wagner, C. S. (2008). The new invisible college. Washington, DC: Brookings Press.Google Scholar
  64. Wagner, C. S., Brahmakulam, I., Jackson, B., & Wong, A. (2001). Science and technology collaboration: Building capacity in developing countries? Prepared for the World Bank, RAND.Google Scholar
  65. Wagner, C. S., & Leydesdorff, L. (2005). Network structure, self-organization, and the growth of international collaboration in science. Research Policy, 34(10), 1608–1618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wagner, C. S., & Leydesdorff, L. (2006). Measuring the globalization of knowledge networks. Blue sky. Manuscript submitted in September 2006, p. 12.Google Scholar
  67. Yim, D., Kim, K., Chung, S., & Lee, J. (2008), Globalization of science and technology and the responses of the Korean government. In Summer conference of Korean Technology Innovation Society, South Korea.Google Scholar
  68. Yu, S., Yim, D., Park, I., & Youn, J. (1999). A policy research on Korea’s international cooperative R&D activities. Seoul: Science and Technology Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  69. Yun, M., & Ahn, K. (2002). The characteristics of structure and level of science activity in Korea: An analysis by SCI. Seoul: STEPI.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ki-Seok Kwon
    • 1
  • Han Woo Park
    • 2
    Email author
  • Minho So
    • 3
  • Loet Leydesdorff
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Public AdminstrationKyungil UniversityGyeongsan-siSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Media & CommunicationYeungNam UniversityGyeongsan-siSouth Korea
  3. 3.Office of Academic InformationKorea Advanced Institute of Science & TechnologyDaejeonSouth Korea
  4. 4.Amsterdam School of Communication ResearchUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations