Scientometrics

, Volume 86, Issue 1, pp 27–37

Is there a ‘gender gap’ in authorship of the main Brazilian psychiatric journals at the beginning of the 21st century?

  • Mauro Vitor Mendlowicz
  • Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho
  • Jerson Laks
  • Leonardo Franklin Fontenelle
  • Alexandre Martins Valença
  • William Berger
  • Ivan Figueira
  • Gláucia Azambuja de Aguiar
Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of a “gender gap” in the authorship of the four most important peer-reviewed psychiatric journals in Brazil and to quantify its magnitude. In addition, we examined the patterns of change in this gap during the period extending from 2001 to 2008 and variations according to the total number of authors, the type of article (original vs. non-original studies), and the journals themselves. A total of 1,036 articles were analyzed. We found that the proportion of female overall participation has increased from 2001 to 2008. Nevertheless, the incremental rate was accounted mostly by the growth of the participation in non-original articles. While the average annual increment for original articles was virtually null (.01%), for the non-original articles the corresponding figure was 3.7%. We also found that the chance of a woman being first author was about three times greater in original papers as compared to non-original ones at the beginning of the study period; this differential declined by 11% per year during this period. A different pattern emerged from the analysis of female last authorship. Year of publication and type of study were still associated with the chance of a woman being the last author but without interaction. Further, the journals themselves were found to be related with female last authorship: the chance of a woman being the last author in an article published in the Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria was significantly smaller than in the other three journals. Our findings indicate clearly that some progress in being achieved in eliminating the gender gap also in field of Psychiatry and highlight the need for further research in this area.

Keywords

Authorship Gender gap Scientometrics Bibliometrics Psychiatry 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1993). Women in academic psychiatry and research. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 849–851.Google Scholar
  2. Bhattacharyya, N., & Shapiro, N. L. (2000). Increased female authorship in otolaryngology over the past three decades. Laryngoscope, 110, 358–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bressan, R., Gerolin, J., & Mari, J. J. (2005). The modest but growing presence of Brazil in mental health and psychiatric research assessment of the 1998–2002 period. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 38, 649–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) (2008). Brasil sobe duas posições no ranking da produção científica. http://www.capes.gov.br/servicos/salaimprensa/noticias/noticia_0709.html.
  5. European Commission (2006). She Figures 2006women and science statistics and indicators. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2006. http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/pdf/she_figures_2006_en.pdf.
  6. Feramisco, J. D., Leitenberger, J. J., Redfern, S. I., Bian, A., Xie, X. J., & Resneck, J. S. Jr. (2009). A gender gap in the dermatology literature? Cross-sectional analysis of manuscript authorship trends in dermatology journals during three decades. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 60, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Figueira, I., Jacques, R., & Leta, J. (2003). A comparison between domestic and international publications in Brazilian psychiatry. Scientometrics, 56, 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Figueira, I., Leta, J., & De Meis, L. (1999). Avaliação da produção científica dos principais periódicos brasileiros de psiquiatria no período de 1981 a 1995 [Evaluating the scientific production among the main Brazilian psychiatric journals from 1981 to 1995], Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 21, 2001–2008.Google Scholar
  9. Glänzel, W., Leta, J., & Thijs, B. (2006). Science in Brazil. Part 1: A macro-level comparative study. Scientometrics, 67, 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gonçalves, R. R., Kieling, C., Bressan, R. A., Mari, J. J., & Rohde, L. A. (2009). The evaluation of scientific productivity in Brazil: An assessment of the mental health field. Scientometrics, 80, 529–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jagsi, R., Guancial, E. A., Worobey, C. C., Henault, L. E., Chang, Y. C., Starr, R., et al. (2006). The gender gap in authorship of Academic Medical Literature—A 35-year perspective. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kværner, K. J., Aasland, O. G., & Botten, G. S. (1999). Female medical leadership: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, 318, 91–94.Google Scholar
  13. Lane, J. (2010). Let’s make science metrics more scientific. Nature, 464, 488–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leta, J. (2003). As mulheres na ciência brasileira: crescimento, contrastes e um perfil de sucesso. Revista de Estudos Avançados, 49, 271–284.Google Scholar
  15. Leta, J., Glänzel, W., & Thijs, B. (2006). Science in Brazil. Part 2: Sectoral and institutional research profiles. Scientometrics, 67, 87–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leta, J., Jacques, R., Figueira, I., & Meis, L. (2001). Central international visibility of Brazilian psychiatric publications from 1981 to 1995. Scientometrics, 50, 241–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Leta, J., & Lewison, G. (2003). The contribution of women in Brazilian science: A case study in astronomy, immunology and oceanography. Scientometrics, 57, 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lewison, G. (2001). The quantity and quality of female researchers: A bibliometric study of Iceland. Scientometrics, 52, 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Melo, H. P., & Oliveira, A. B. (2006). A produção científica brasileira no feminino. Cadernos Pagu, 27, 301–331.Google Scholar
  20. Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (2009). Indicadores nacionais de ciência e tecnologia (C&T): comparações internacionaisprodução científica. http://acessibilidade.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/2078.html.
  21. Opgenhaffen, M., Vansteelandt, K., Germeau, P., & Pieters, G. (2008). Pieters Toename van het percentage vrouwelijke auteurs in de internationale psychiatrische vakliteratuur sinds 1970 [Increase in the percentage of female authors in the international psychiatric literature since 1970], Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, 50, 419–423.Google Scholar
  22. Razzouk, D., Zorzetto, R., Dubugras, M. T. B., Gerolin, J., & Mari, J. J. (2006). Mental health and psychiatry research in Brazil: The scientific production in a five-year period (1999–2003). Revista de Saúde Pública, 40, 93–100.Google Scholar
  23. Rossi, A. S. (1965). Women in science: Why so few? Social and psychological influences restrict women’s choice and pursuit of carriers in science. Science, 148, 1196–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schienbinger, L. (2001). O feminismo mudou a ciência? Bauru: Edusc.Google Scholar
  25. Sidhu, R., Rajashekhar, P., Lavin, V. L., Parry, J., Attwood, J., Holdcroft, A., et al. (2009). The gender imbalance in academic medicine: a study of female authorship in the United Kingdom. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 102, 337–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singh, P. P., & Jatoi, A. (2008). Do gender-based disparities in authorship also exist in cancer palliative care? A 15-year survey of the cancer palliative care literature. Journal of Cancer Education, 23, 192–194.Google Scholar
  27. Stack, S. (2002). Gender and scholarly productivity: The case of criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Justice, 30, 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Webster, B. (2001). Polish women in science: A bibliometric analysis of Polish science and its publication outputs, 1980–1999. Research Evaluation, 10, 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zorzetto, R., Razzouk, D., Dubugras, M. T. B., Gerolin, J., Schor, N., Guimarães, J. A., et al. (2006). The scientific production in health and biological sciences of the top 20 Brazilian universities. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 39, 1513–1520.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Vitor Mendlowicz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho
    • 3
  • Jerson Laks
    • 2
    • 4
  • Leonardo Franklin Fontenelle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexandre Martins Valença
    • 1
    • 5
  • William Berger
    • 2
  • Ivan Figueira
    • 2
  • Gláucia Azambuja de Aguiar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Mental HealthUniversidade Federal Fluminense (MSM-UFF) NiteroiBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of PsychiatryUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB–UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Quantitative Methods in HealthEscola Nacional de Saúde Pública (ENSP-FIOCRUZ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Psychiatry Service of the Hospital Universitário Pedro ErnestoUniversidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Avenida 28 de SetembroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  5. 5.Universidade Severino SombraVassourasBrazil

Personalised recommendations