, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 3–27 | Cite as

A comparison of the knowledge-based innovation systems in the economies of South Korea and the Netherlands using Triple Helix indicators

  • Han Woo Park
  • Heung Deug Hong
  • Loet Leydesdorff


This paper elaborates on the Triple Helix model for measuring the emergence of a knowledge base of socio-economic systems. The ‘knowledge infrastructure’ is measured using multiple indicators: webometric, scientometric, and technometric. The paper employs this triangulation strategy to examine the current state of the innovation systems of South Korea and the Netherlands. These indicators are thereafter used for the evaluation of the systemness in configurations of university-industry-government relations. South Korea is becoming somewhat stronger than the Netherlands in terms of scientific and technological outputs and in terms of the knowledge-based dynamics; South Korea’s portfolio is more traditional than that of the Netherlands. For example, research and patenting in the biomedical sector is underdeveloped. In terms of the Internet-economy, the Netherlands seem oriented towards global trends more than South Korea; this may be due to the high component of services in the Dutch economy.


Knowledge Base Innovation System Global Trend Multiple Indicator High Component 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Akadémiai Kiadó 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Han Woo Park
    • 1
  • Heung Deug Hong
    • 2
  • Loet Leydesdorff
    • 3
  1. 1.YeungNam University
  2. 2.KangWon National University
  3. 3.University of AmsterdamAmsterdam

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