Counting methods are decisive for rankings based on publication and citation studies
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For all rankings of countries research output based on number of publications or citations compared with population, GDP, R&D and public R&D expenses, and other national characteristics the counting method is decisive. Total counting (full credit to a country when at least one of the authors is from this country) and Fractional Counting (a country receives a fraction of full credit for a publication equal to the fraction of authors from this country) of publications give widely different results. Counting methods must be stated, rankings based on different counting methods cannot be compared, and Fractional Counting is to be preferred.
KeywordsExpense Total Counting Counting Method Research Output National Characteristic
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