, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 85–93 | Cite as

Counting methods are decisive for rankings based on publication and citation studies

  • Marianne Gauffriau
  • Peder Olesen Larsen


For all rankings of countries research output based on number of publications or citations compared with population, GDP, R&D and public R&D expenses, and other national characteristics the counting method is decisive. Total counting (full credit to a country when at least one of the authors is from this country) and Fractional Counting (a country receives a fraction of full credit for a publication equal to the fraction of authors from this country) of publications give widely different results. Counting methods must be stated, rankings based on different counting methods cannot be compared, and Fractional Counting is to be preferred.


Expense Total Counting Counting Method Research Output National Characteristic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Akadémiai Kiadó 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marianne Gauffriau
    • 1
  • Peder Olesen Larsen
    • 2
  1. 1.Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen (Denmark)
  2. 2.Steno Institute, Aarhus University

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