Small Business Economics

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 1–18 | Cite as

The emergence of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship

  • Niccolò GhioEmail author
  • Massimiliano Guerini
  • Erik E. Lehmann
  • Cristina Rossi-Lamastra


In the past decade, a new and promising literature has been established linking endogenous growth theory to knowledge spillovers and entrepreneurship theory: the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE). This study conducts a bibliometric analysis of scholarly research on this fruitful and promising strand of the literature. It highlights the increasing importance and acceptance of KSTE in the scientific community worldwide, its emergence across different fields in economics, management and policy and also the issues and questions raised. Based on all articles on KSTE published in refereed journals in the past 15 years (1999–2013), we identify the key academic journals, the main issues and subjects addressed and the backward and forward citations. We also identify the authors and their connections in terms of coauthorships to reconstruct the scientific community debating on KSTE. We are confident that our work will benefit scholars intending to leverage KSTE in their research in that it summarizes the main academic conversations within this theoretical perspective and set the boundaries of the network of scholars developing it.


Knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship Knowledge spillovers Entrepreneurship Bibliometric analysis 


  1. Acosta, M., Coronado, D., & Flores, E. (2011). University spillovers and new business location in high-technology sectors: Spanish evidence. Small Business Economics, 36(3), 365–376.Google Scholar
  2. Acs, Z. J., Anselin, L., & Varga, A. (2002). Patents and innovation counts as measures of regional production of new knowledge. Research Policy, 31(7), 1069–1085.Google Scholar
  3. Acs, Z. J., & Armington, C. (2006). Entrepreneurship, geography and American economic growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (1987). Innovation, market structure, and firm size. Review of Economics and Statistics, 69(4), 567–574.Google Scholar
  5. Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (1988). Innovation in large and small firms: An empirical analysis. American Economic Review, 78(4), 678–690.Google Scholar
  6. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Braunerhjelm, P., & Carlsson, B. (2004). The missing link: The knowledge filter and endogenous growth (discussion paper). Stockholm: Center for Business and Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  7. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Braunerhjelm, P., & Carlsson, B. (2012a). Growth and entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 39(2), 289–300.Google Scholar
  8. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., & Feldman, M. P. (1994). R&D spillovers and recipient firm size. Review of Economics and Statistics, 76(2), 336–340.Google Scholar
  9. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., & Lehmann, E. E. (2013). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 757–774.Google Scholar
  10. Acs, Z. J., Braunerhjelm, P., Audretsch, D. B., & Carlsson, B. (2009a). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32(1), 15–30.Google Scholar
  11. Acs, Z. J., Brooksbank, D. J., O’Gorman, C., Pickernell, D., & Terjesen, S. (2012b). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship: An application to foreign direct investment. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 15(2), 237–261.Google Scholar
  12. Acs, Z. J., Plummer, L. A., & Sutter, R. (2009b). Penetrating the knowledge filter in “rust belt” Economies. Annals of Regional Studies, 43(4), 989–1012.Google Scholar
  13. Acs, Z. J., & Sanders, M. (2012). Patents, knowledge spillovers, and entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 39(4), 801–817.Google Scholar
  14. Acs, Z. J., & Sanders, M. (2013). Knowledge spillover entrepreneurship in an endogenous growth model. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 775–795.Google Scholar
  15. Agarwal, R., Audretsch, D. B., & Sarkar, M. B. (2007). The process of creative construction: Knowledge spillovers, entrepreneurship and economic growth. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(3–4), 236–286.Google Scholar
  16. Agarwal, R., Echambadi, R., Franco, A. M., & Sarkar, M. B. (2004). Knowledge transfer through inheritance: Spin-out generation, development, and survival. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4), 501–511.Google Scholar
  17. Aghion, P., & Howitt, P. (1992). A model of growth through creative destruction. Econometrica, 60(2), 323–351.Google Scholar
  18. Andersson, M., Baltzopoulos, A., & Lööf, H. (2012). R&D strategies and entrepreneurial spawning. Research Policy, 41(1), 54–68.Google Scholar
  19. Andersson, M., & Hellerstedt, K. (2009). Location attributes and start-ups in knowledge-intensive business services. Industry and Innovation, 16(1), 103–121.Google Scholar
  20. Anselin, L., Varga, A., & Acs, Z. J. (1997). Local geographic spillovers between university research and high technology innovations. Journal of Urban Economics, 42(3), 422–448.Google Scholar
  21. Armington, C., & Acs, Z. J. (2002). The determinants of regional variation in new firm formation. Regional Studies, 36(1), 33–45.Google Scholar
  22. Arrow, K. (1962a). Economic welfare and the allocation of resources for invention. In R. Nelson (Ed.), The rate and direction of inventive activity (pp. 609–626). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Arrow, K. J. (1962b). The economic implications of learning by doing. Review of Economic Studies, 29(3), 155–173.Google Scholar
  24. Audretsch, D. B. (1995). Innovation and industry evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Audretsch, D. B. (2007). Entrepreneurship capital and economic growth. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 23(1), 63–78.Google Scholar
  26. Audretsch, D. B. (2009). The entrepreneurial society. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 34(3), 245–254.Google Scholar
  27. Audretsch, D. B., & Belitski, M. (2013). The missing pillar: the creativity theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 819–836.Google Scholar
  28. Audretsch, D. B., Dohse, D., & Niebuhr, A. (2010). Cultural diversity and entrepreneurship: A regional analysis for Germany. The Annals of Regional Science, 45(1), 55–85.Google Scholar
  29. Audretsch, D. B., & Feldman, M. P. (1996). Innovation in cities: Science-based diversity, specialization and localized competition. European Economic Review, 43(2), 409–429.Google Scholar
  30. Audretsch, D. B., & Fritsch, M. (1994). The geography of firm births in Germany. Regional Studies, 28(4), 359–365.Google Scholar
  31. Audretsch, D. B., Hülsbeck, M., & Lehmann, E. E. (2012). Regional competitiveness, university spillovers and entrepreneurial activity. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 587–601.Google Scholar
  32. Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2004). Entrepreneurship capital and economic performance. Regional Studies, 38(8), 949–959.Google Scholar
  33. Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2007a). The theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship. Journal of Management Studies, 44(7), 1242–1254.Google Scholar
  34. Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2007b). The localisation of entrepreneurship capital: Evidence from Germany. Papers in Regional Science, 86(3), 351–365.Google Scholar
  35. Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2008). Resolving the knowledge paradox: Knowledge-spillover entrepreneurship and economic growth. Research Policy, 37(10), 1697–1705.Google Scholar
  36. Audretsch, D. B., Keilbach, M., & Lehmann, E. E. (2006). Entrepreneurship and economic growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Audretsch, D. B., & Lehmann, E. E. (2005). Does the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship hold for regions? Research Policy, 34(8), 1191–1202.Google Scholar
  38. Audretsch, D. B., Lehmann, E. E., & Warning, S. (2004). University spillovers: Does the kind of science matter? Industry and Innovation, 11(3), 193–205.Google Scholar
  39. Audretsch, D. B., Lehmann, E. E., & Warning, S. (2005). University spillovers and new firm location. Research Policy, 34(7), 1113–1122.Google Scholar
  40. Audretsch, D. B., & Link, A. (2012). Valuing an entrepreneurial enterprise. Small Business Economics, 38(2), 139–145.Google Scholar
  41. Audretsch, D. B., & Stephan, P. E. (1996). Company-scientist locational links: The case of biotechnology. American Economic Review, 86(3), 641–652.Google Scholar
  42. Audretsch, D. B., & Stephan, P. E. (1999). Knowledge spillovers in biotechnology: Sources and incentives. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 9(1), 97–107.Google Scholar
  43. Audretsch, D. B., & Thurik, A. R. (2001). What’s new about the new economy? Sources of growth in the managed and entrepreneurial economies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(1), 267–315.Google Scholar
  44. Bae, J., & Koo, J. (2009). The nature of local knowledge and new firm formation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 18(3), 473–496.Google Scholar
  45. Bae, J., Wezel, F. C., & Koo, J. (2011). Cross-cutting ties, organizational density, and new firm formation in the U.S. biotech industry, 1994–98. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 295–311.Google Scholar
  46. Bishop, P. (2012). Knowledge, diversity and entrepreneurship: A spatial analysis of new firm formation in Great Britain. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 24(7–8), 641–660.Google Scholar
  47. Block, J. H., Thurik, R., & Zhou, H. (2013). What turns knowledge into innovative products? The role of entrepreneurship and knowledge spillovers. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 23(4), 693–718.Google Scholar
  48. Bonaccorsi, A., Colombo, M. G., Guerini, M., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2013). University specialization and new firm creation across industries. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 837–863.Google Scholar
  49. Bonardo, D., Paleari, S., & Vismara, S. (2010). The M&A dynamics of European science-based entrepreneurial firms. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(1), 141–180.Google Scholar
  50. Bozeman, B., Fay, D., & Slade, C. P. (2013). Research collaboration in universities and academic entrepreneurship: The-state-of-the-art. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(1), 1–67.Google Scholar
  51. Braunerhjelm, P., Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., & Carlsson, B. (2010). The missing link: Knowledge diffusion and entrepreneurship in endogenous growth. Small Business Economics, 34(2), 105–125.Google Scholar
  52. Breznitz, S. M., & Feldman, M. P. (2012). The engaged university. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(2), 139–157.Google Scholar
  53. Bruton, G. D., Ahlstrom, D., & Li, H.-L. (2010). Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: Where are we now and where do we need to move in the future? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(3), 421–440.Google Scholar
  54. Carlsson, B., Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., & Braunerhjelm, P. (2009). Knowledge creation, entrepreneurship, and economic growth: A historical review. Industrial and Corporate Change, 18(6), 1193–1229.Google Scholar
  55. Carlsson, B., Braunerjhelm, P., McKelvey, M., Olofsson, C., Persson, L., & Ylinenpää, H. (2013). The evolving domain of entrepreneurship research. Small Business Economics, 41, 913–930.Google Scholar
  56. Carlsson, B., & Fridh, A. C. (2002). Technology transfer in United States universities. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 12(1–2), 199–232.Google Scholar
  57. Cheng, S., & Li, H. (2012). New firm formation facing cultural and racial diversity. Papers in Regional Science, 91(4), 759–774.Google Scholar
  58. Colombo, M. G., Mustar, P., & Wright, M. (2010). Dynamics of science-based entrepreneurship. Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  59. Colombo, M. G., & Piva, E. (2012). Firms’ genetic characteristics and competence-enlarging strategies: A comparison of academic and non-academic high-tech start-ups. Research Policy, 41(1), 79–92.Google Scholar
  60. Criaco, G., Minola, T., Migliorini, P., & Serarols-Tarrés, C. (2013). To have and have not: Founders’ human capital and university start-up survival. The Journal of technology Transfer,. doi: 10.1007/s10961-013-9312-0.Google Scholar
  61. Cumming, D., & Johan, S. (2010). The differential impact of the internet on spurring regional entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(5), 857–883.Google Scholar
  62. De Silva, D. G., & McComb, R. (2012). Research universities and regional high-tech firm start-up and exit. Economic Inquiry, 50(1), 112–130.Google Scholar
  63. Evans, D. S., & Leighton, L. S. (1990). Small business formation by unemployed and employed workers. Small Business Economics, 2(4), 319–330.Google Scholar
  64. Feldman, M. P. (2001). The entrepreneurial event revisited: Firm formation in a regional context. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(4), 861–891.Google Scholar
  65. Feldman, M. P., & Audretsch, D. B. (1999). Innovation in cities: Science-based diversity, specialization and localized competition. European Economic Review, 43(2), 409–429.Google Scholar
  66. Festel, G. (2013). Academic spin-offs, corporate spin-outs and company internal start-ups as technology transfer approach. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(4), 454–470.Google Scholar
  67. Florida, R. L. (2002). The rise of the creative class. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  68. Florida, R. L. (2004). Cities and the creative class. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Fritsch, M., & Aamoucke, R. (2013). Regional public research, higher education, and innovative start-ups: An empirical investigation. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 865–885.Google Scholar
  70. Gonzalez-Pernia, J. L., Pena-Legazkue, I., & Vendrell-Herrero, F. (2012). Innovation, entrepreneurial activity and competitiveness at a sub-national level. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 561–574.Google Scholar
  71. Griliches, Z. (1979). Issues in assessing the contribution of research and development to productivity growth. Bell Journal of Economics, 10(1), 92–116.Google Scholar
  72. Guerini, M., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2014). How university and industry knowledge interact to determine local entrepreneurship. Applied Economic Letters, 21(8), 513–516.Google Scholar
  73. Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2014). Academics’ start-up intentions and knowledge filters: an individual perspective of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics,. doi: 10.1007/s11187-013-9526-4.Google Scholar
  74. Hayter, C. S. (2013). Conceptualizing knowledge-based entrepreneurship networks: Perspectives from the literature. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 899–911.Google Scholar
  75. Hülsbeck, M., Lehmann, E. E., & Starnecker, A. (2013). Performance of technology transfer offices in Germany. Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(3), 199–215.Google Scholar
  76. Jacobs, J. (1969). The economy of cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  77. Jaffe, A. B. (1989). Real effects of academic research. American Economic Review, 79(5), 957–970.Google Scholar
  78. Jaffe, A. B., Trajtenberg, M., & Henderson, R. (1993). Geographic localization of knowledge spillover as evidenced by patent citations. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 63(3), 577–598.Google Scholar
  79. Karnani, F. (2013). The university’s unknown knowledge: Tacit knowledge, technology transfer and university spin-offs findings from an empirical study based on the theory of knowledge. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(3), 235–250.Google Scholar
  80. Kim, Y., Kim, W., & Yang, T. (2012). The effect of the triple helix system and habitat on regional entrepreneurship: Empirical evidence from the U.S. Research Policy, 41(1), 154–166.Google Scholar
  81. Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Cichago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Kirzner, I. M. (1997). Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of Economic Literature, 35(1), 60–85.Google Scholar
  83. Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  84. Knoben, J., Ponds, R., & van Oort, F. (2011). Employment from new firm formation in the Netherlands: Agglomeration economies and the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23(3–4), 135–157.Google Scholar
  85. Koo, J., & Cho, K.-R. (2011). New firm formation and industry clusters: A case of the drugs industry in the U.S. Growth and Change, 42(2), 179–199.Google Scholar
  86. Krugman, P. (1991). Increasing returns and economic geography. Journal of Political Economy, 99(3), 483–499.Google Scholar
  87. Lasch, F., Robert, F., & Le Roy, F. (2013). Regional determinants of ICT new firm formation. Small Business Economics, 40(3), 671–686.Google Scholar
  88. Lee, S. Y., Florida, R. L., & Acs, Z. J. (2004). Creativity and entrepreneurship: A regional analysis of new firm formation. Regional Studies, 38(8), 879–891.Google Scholar
  89. Lee, I. H., Hong, E., & Sun, L. (2013). Regional knowledge production and entrepreneurial firm creation: Spatial dynamic analyses. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 2106–2115.Google Scholar
  90. Lehmann, E. E., Braun, T. V., & Krispin, S. (2012). Entrepreneurial human capital, complementary assets, and takeover probability. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(5), 589–608.Google Scholar
  91. Leyden, D. P., & Link, A. (2013). Knowledge spillovers, collective entrepreneurship, and economic growth: The role of universities. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 797–817.Google Scholar
  92. Li, X., & Mitchell, R. K. (2009). The pace and stability of small enterprise innovation in highly dynamic economies: A China-based template. Journal of Small Business Management, 47(3), 370–397.Google Scholar
  93. Lichtenberg, F. R., & Siegel, D. S. (1989). The effect of control changes on the productivity of U.S. manufacturing plants. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 2(2), 60–67.Google Scholar
  94. Lucas, R. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22(1), 3–42.Google Scholar
  95. Marshall, A. (1920). Principles of economics. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  96. Michelacci, C. (2003). Low returns in R&D due to the lack of entrepreneurial skills. Economic Journal, 113(484), 207–225.Google Scholar
  97. O’Gorman, C., Byrne, C., & Pandya, O. D. (2008). How scientists commercialise new knowledge via entrepreneurship. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(1), 23–43.Google Scholar
  98. Persson, O., Danell, R., & Schneider, J. W. (2009). How to use Bibexcel for various types of bibliometric analysis. In Celebrating Scholarly Communication Studies: A Festschrift for Olle Persson at his 60th Birthday, international society for scientometrics and informetrics (pp. 9–24). Umeå and Sydney: Aalborg, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  99. Plummer, L. A., & Acs, Z. J. (2014). Localized competition in the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(1), 121–136.Google Scholar
  100. Qian, H., & Acs, Z. J. (2013). An absorptive capacity theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 40(2), 185–197.Google Scholar
  101. Qian, H., Acs, Z. J., & Stought, R. R. (2013). Regional systems of entrepreneurship: the nexus of human capital, knowledge and new firm formation. Journal of Economic Geography, 13(4), 559–587.Google Scholar
  102. Raasch, C., Lee, V., Spaeth, S., & Herstatt, C. (2013). The rise and fall of interdisciplinary research: The case of open source innovation. Research Policy, 42(5), 1138–1151.Google Scholar
  103. Reynolds, P. D. (1994). Autonomous firm dynamics and economic growth in the United States, 1986–1990. Regional Studies, 28(4), 429–442.Google Scholar
  104. Reynolds, P. D., Miller, B., & Maki, W. R. (1995). Explaining regional variation in business births and deaths: U.S. 1976–88. Small Business Economics, 7(5), 389–407.Google Scholar
  105. Reynolds, P., Storey, D., & Westhead, P. (1994). Cross-national comparisons of the variation in new firm formation rates. Regional Studies, 28(4), 443–456.Google Scholar
  106. Romer, P. (1986). Increasing returns and long run growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002–1037.Google Scholar
  107. Romer, P. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), S71–S102.Google Scholar
  108. Santarelli, E., & Tran, H. T. (2012). Growth of incumbent firms and entrepreneurship in Vietnam. Growth and Change, 43(4), 638–666.Google Scholar
  109. Saxenian, A. (1994). Regional advantage: Culture and competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). Theorie der Wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung (‘‘The theory of economic development’’) (trans: Opie, D.). Leipzig: Dunker & Humblot. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Schumpeter, J. A. (1942). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  112. Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11(4), 448–469.Google Scholar
  113. Shane, S. (2001). Technological opportunities and new firm creation. Management Science, 47(2), 205–220.Google Scholar
  114. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  115. Shu, C., Liu, C., Gao, S., & Shanley, M. (2013). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship in alliances. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,. doi: 10.1111/etap.12024.Google Scholar
  116. Solow, R. M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), 65–94.Google Scholar
  117. Stam, E. (2013). Knowledge and entrepreneurial employees: A country-level analysis. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 887–898.Google Scholar
  118. Stenholm, P., Acs, Z. J., & Wuebker, R. (2013). Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(1), 176–193.Google Scholar
  119. Storey, D. J. (1991). The birth of new firms—does unemployment matter? A review of the evidence. Small Business Economics, 3(3), 167–178.Google Scholar
  120. Stuetzer, M., Obschonka, M., Sternberg, R., & Cantner, U. (2014). Regional characteristics, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial activity. Small Business Economics, 42(2), 221–244.Google Scholar
  121. Urbano, D., & Alvarez, D. (2014). Institutional dimensions and entrepreneurial activity: An international study. Small Business Economics, 42(4), 703–716.Google Scholar
  122. Veciana, J., & Urbano, D. (2008). The institutional approach to entrepreneurship research. Introduction. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(4), 365–379.Google Scholar
  123. Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research: An editor’s perspective. Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence, and growth, 3, 119–138.Google Scholar
  124. Wennberg, K., Wiklundc, J., & Wright, M. (2011). The effectiveness of university knowledge spillovers: Performance differences between university spinoffs and corporate spinoffs. Research Policy, 40(8), 1128–1143.Google Scholar
  125. Wong, P. K., Lee, L., & Der Foo, M. (2008). Occupational choice: The influence of product vs. process innovation. Small Business Economics, 30(3), 267–281.Google Scholar
  126. Zucker, L. G., Darby, M. R., & Brewer, M. B. (1998). Intellectual human capital and the birth of U.S. biotechnology enterprises. American Economic Review, 88(1), 290–306.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niccolò Ghio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Massimiliano Guerini
    • 2
  • Erik E. Lehmann
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Cristina Rossi-Lamastra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Management, Economics and Industrial EngineeringPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.DESTECUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.School of Business and EconomicsAugsburg UniversityAugsburgGermany
  4. 4.CCSEBergamoItaly
  5. 5.CCSEAugsburgGermany

Personalised recommendations