Female self-employment and children
- 3.8k Downloads
Several analyses report a positive correlation between fertility and female self-employment; however, scholars disagree about the direction of this relationship. Knowing about the causal relationship is important because the relevant mechanisms and possible implications differ tremendously. This paper studies two competing hypotheses: Is self-employment more attractive to women because they have children? Or, is it occupation-specific characteristics of self-employed women that impact their fertility? This work applies a unique approach by utilizing exogenous variation in both children and self-employment.
KeywordsSelf-employment Causality Gender Female entrepreneurship Children
JEL ClassificationsL26 M13 J13
I am grateful to seminar participants at the I&O Seminar in Groningen, as well as two anonymous referees, for many helpful comments.
- Angrist, J. D., & Evans, W. N. (1998). Children and their parents’ labor supply: Evidence from exogenous variation in family size. American Economic Review, 88(3), 450–477.Google Scholar
- Begall, K., & Mills, M. C. (2012). The influence of educational field, occupation, and occupational sex segregation on fertility in the Netherlands. European Sociological Review. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcs051.
- Bernhardt, E. M. (1993). Fertility and employment. European Sociological Review, 9(1), 25–42.Google Scholar
- Bianchi, S. M., & Casper, L. M. (2000). American families. Population Bulletin, 55(4). Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
- Birley, S., Moss, C., & Saunders, P. (1987). Do women entrepreneurs require different training. American Journal of Small Business, 12(1), 27–35.Google Scholar
- Bronars, S. G., & Grogger, J. (1994). The economic consequences of unwed motherhood: Using twin births as a natural experiment. The American Economic Review, 84(5), 1141–1156.Google Scholar
- Broussard, N. H., Chami, R., & Hess, G. D. (2013). (Why) do self-employed parents have more children? Review of Economics of the Household. doi: 10.1007/s11150-013-9190-0.
- Brush, C. G. (1990). Women and enterprise creation. In S. K. Gould & J. Parzen (Eds.), Enterprising women: Local initiatives for job creation (pp. 37–55). France: OECD Publications and Information Centre.Google Scholar
- Caputo, R. K., & Dolinsky, A. (1998). Women’s choice to pursue self-employment: The role of financial and human capital of household members. Journal of Small Business Management, 36(3), 8–17.Google Scholar
- Carrasco, R., & Ejrnæs, M. (2003). Self-employment in Denmark and Spain: Institution, economic conditions and gender differences. Centre for Applied Microeconometrics Working Papers no. 06, University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
- Chaganti, R. (1986). Management in women-owned enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management, 24(4), 18–29.Google Scholar
- Chiburis, R. C., Das, J., & Lokshin, M. (2011). A practical comparison of the bivariate probit and linear IV estimators. Economics Letters 117(3), 762–766.Google Scholar
- European Social Survey. (2012). ESS-1 2002, ESS-2 2004, ESS-3 2006, ESS-4 2008, ESS-5 2010 Documentation report. Bergen, European Social Survey Data Archive, Norwegian Social Science Data Services.Google Scholar
- Giannetti, M., & Simonov, A. (2004). On the determinants of entrepreneurial activity: Social norms, economic environment and individual characteristics. Swedish Economic Policy Review, 11(2), 269–313.Google Scholar
- Holmquist, C., & Sundin, E. (1988). Women as entrepreneurs in Sweden—conclusions from a survey. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 1988, 626–642.Google Scholar
- Jokela, M., Hintsa, T., Hintsanen, M., & Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2010). Adult temperament and childbearing over the life course. European Journal of Personality, 24(2), 151–166.Google Scholar
- Kaplan, E. (1988). Women entrepreneurs: Constructing a framework to examine venture success and failure. In B. Kirchoff et al. (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (pp. 643–653). Boston, MA: Babson College.Google Scholar
- Scott, C. E. (1986). Why more women are becoming entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 24, 37–44.Google Scholar
- Sørensen, J. B. (2007). Bureaucracy and entrepreneurship: Workplace effects on entrepreneurial entry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(3), 387–412.Google Scholar
- Stuart, T., & Sorenson, O. (2003). The geography of opportunity: Spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms. Research Policy, 32(2), 229–253.Google Scholar
- Wilde, E. T., Batchelder, L., & Ellwood, D. T. (2010). The mommy track divides: The impact of childbearing on wages of women of differing skill levels. NBER working paper no. 16582. Google Scholar
- Wooldridge, J. M. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar