Small Business Economics

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 445–465 | Cite as

GEM research: achievements and challenges

  • Claudia Álvarez
  • David Urbano
  • José Ernesto Amorós
Article

Abstract

This article analyzes the content and evolution of research based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) project. We conducted a rigorous search of articles published in journals within the Thomson Reuters’ Social Sciences Citation Index® through an exploratory analysis focused on articles using GEM data. The main findings of this study reveal that the institutional approach is the most commonly used conceptual framework. Also, although there are still few academic publications using GEM data, the number of articles is increasing, as are opportunities for future research.

Keywords

Global entrepreneurship monitor GEM Literature review Institutional approach Social Sciences Citation Index 

JEL classification

L26 B25 M13 O57 

References

  1. Acs, Z. J., & Amorós, J. E. (2008a). Introduction: The startup process. Estudios de Economía, 35(2), 121–132.Google Scholar
  2. Acs, Z. J., & Amorós, J. E. (2008b). Entrepreneurship and competitiveness dynamics in Latin America. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 305–322.Google Scholar
  3. Acs, Z. J., & Armington, C. (2006). Entrepreneurship, geography and American economic growth. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Acs, Z. J., Autio, E., & Szerb, L. (2012). National systems of entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications. GMU School of public policy research paper no. 2012-08. Available at SSRN: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2008160.
  5. Acs, Z. J., Desai, S., & Hessels, J. (2008a). Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 219–234.Google Scholar
  6. Acs, Z. J., Desai, S., & Klapper, L. (2008b). What does “entrepreneurship” data really show? Small Business Economics, 31(3), 265–281.Google Scholar
  7. Acs, Z. J., O’Gorman, C., Szerb, L., & Terjesen, S. (2007). Could the Irish miracle be repeated in Hungary? Small Business Economics, 28(2), 123–142.Google Scholar
  8. Acs, Z. J., & Szerb, L. (2007). Entrepreneurship, economic growth and public policy. Small Business Economics, 28(2), 109–122.Google Scholar
  9. Acs, Z. J., & Szerb, L. (2011). Global entrepreneurship and development index, 2011. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  10. Acs, Z. J., & Varga, A. (2005). Entrepreneurship, agglomeration and technological change. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 323–334.Google Scholar
  11. Aidis, R., Estrin, S., & Mickiewicz, T. (2008). Institutions and entrepreneurship development in Russia: A comparative perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(6), 656–672.Google Scholar
  12. Aidis, R., Estrin, S., & Mickiewicz, T. (2012). Size matters: entrepreneurial entry and government. Small Business Economics, 39(1), 119–139.Google Scholar
  13. Aldrich, H. E., & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. L. Sexton & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), The art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3–23). New York: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  14. Alvarez, S. A., & Busenitz, L. W. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. Journal of Management, 27, 755–775.Google Scholar
  15. Álvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2011a). Una década de investigación sobre el GEM: Logros y retos. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 46, 16–37.Google Scholar
  16. Álvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2011b). Environmental factors and entrepreneurial activity in Latin America. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 48, 31–45.Google Scholar
  17. Álvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2011c). Environment and entrepreneurial activity: A system dynamics approach. Dyna, 86(5), 594–600.Google Scholar
  18. Álvarez, A., Valencia de Lara, P., Barraza, S., & Legato, A. M. (2010). Factors determining the entrepreneurial consolidation in Latin America. African Journal of Business Management, 4(9), 1717–1722.Google Scholar
  19. Álvarez-Herranz, A., & Valencia de Lara, P. (2011). Entrepreneurial motivation as a determinant of South American firm consolidation. African Journal of Business Management, 5(17), 7481–7487.Google Scholar
  20. Amorós, J. E. (2011). The global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) project: A Latin-American context approach. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 46, 1–15.Google Scholar
  21. Amorós, J. E., Atienza, M., & Romaní, G. (2008). Formal and informal equity funding in Chile. Estudios de Economia, 35(2), 179–194.Google Scholar
  22. Amorós, J. E., Bosma, N., & Levie, J. (2013a). Ten years of global entrepreneurship monitor: Accomplishments and prospects. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 5(2), 120–152.Google Scholar
  23. Amorós, J. E., Felzensztein, C., & Gimmon, E. (2013b). Entrepreneurial opportunities in peripheral versus core regions in Chile. Small Business Economics, 40(1), 119–139.Google Scholar
  24. Anokhin, S., & Schulze, W. S. (2009). Entrepreneurship, innovation, and corruption. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 465–476.Google Scholar
  25. Arenius, P., & De Clercq, D. (2005). A network-based approach on opportunity recognition. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 249–265.Google Scholar
  26. Arenius, P., & Ehrstedt, S. (2008). Variation in the level of activity across the stages of the entrepreneurial startup process-evidence from 35 countries. Estudios de Economía, 35(2), 133–152.Google Scholar
  27. Arenius, P., & Kovalainen, A. (2006). Similarities and differences across the factors associated with women’s self-employment preference in the Nordic countries. International Small Business Journal, 24(1), 31–59.Google Scholar
  28. Arenius, P., & Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 233–247.Google Scholar
  29. Audretsch, D. B., & Thurik, R. (2001). What’s new about the new economy? Sources of growth in the managed and entrepreneurial economies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(1), 267.Google Scholar
  30. Autio, E., & Acs, Z. (2010). Intellectual property protection and the formation of entrepreneurial growth aspirations. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 4(3), 234–251.Google Scholar
  31. Baughn, C. C., Chua, B., & Neupert, K. E. (2006). The normative context for women’s participation in entrepreneurship: A multicountry study. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 30(5), 687–708.Google Scholar
  32. Berger, B. (1991). The culture of entrepreneurship. San Francisco: ICS Press.Google Scholar
  33. Bergmann, H., & Sternberg, R. (2007). The changing face of entrepreneurship in Germany. Small Business Economics, 28(2–3), 205–221.Google Scholar
  34. Bjørnskov, C., & Foss, N. J. (2008). Economic freedom and entrepreneurial activity: Some cross-country evidence. Public Choice, 134(3–4), 307–328.Google Scholar
  35. Bosma, N. (2013). The global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) and its impact on entrepreneurship research. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 9(2), 143–248.Google Scholar
  36. Bosma, N., Acs, Z., Autio, E., Coduras, A., & Levie, J. (2009). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2008 executive report. London Business School, London, UK, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile, and Babson College, Wellesley, MA, US.Google Scholar
  37. Bosma, N., & Levie, J. (2010). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2009 executive report. Babson Park, MA: Babson College, Santiago, Chile: Universidad del Desarollo and Reykjavík, Iceland: Háskólinn Reykjavík University, London, UK: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association.Google Scholar
  38. Bosma, N., & Schutjens, V. (2007). Patterns of promising entrepreneurial activity in European regions. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 98(5), 675–686.Google Scholar
  39. Bosma, N., & Schutjens, V. (2011). Understanding regional variation in entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial attitude in Europe. The Annals of Regional Science, 47(3), 711–742.Google Scholar
  40. Bowen, H. P., & De Clercq, D. (2008). Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort. Journal of International Business Studies, 39, 747–767.Google Scholar
  41. Brixy, U., Sternberg, R., & Stüber, H. (2012). The selectiveness of the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Small Business Management, 50(1), 105–131.Google Scholar
  42. Brockhaus, R. H. (1987). Entrepreneurial folklore. Journal of Small Business Management, 25(3), 1–6.Google Scholar
  43. Busenitz, L. W., Gomez, C., & Spencer, J. W. (2000). Country institutional profiles: Unlocking entrepreneurial phenomena. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 994–1003.Google Scholar
  44. Busenitz, L. W., Page West, G., I. I. I., Shepherd, D., Nelson, T., Chandler, G. N., & Zacharakis, A. (2003). Entrepreneurship research in emergence: Past trends and future directions. Journal of Management, 29(3), 285–308.Google Scholar
  45. Bygrave, W. D., & Hofer, C. W. (1991). Theorizing about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 16(2), 13–22.Google Scholar
  46. Carsrud, A. L., & Johnson, R. W. (1989). Entrepreneurship: A social psychological perspective. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 1, 21–31.Google Scholar
  47. Chepurenko, A. (2010). Small entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity of population in Russia in the context of the economic transformation. Historical Social Research-Historische Sozialforschung, 35(2), 301–319.Google Scholar
  48. Collins, O. F., Moore, D. G., & Unwalla, D. B. (1964). The enterprising man. East Lancing, MI: MSU Business Studies.Google Scholar
  49. Cooper, A. C., Gimeno-Gascon, J., & Woo, C. Y. (1994). Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(5), 371–395.Google Scholar
  50. Danis, W. M., De Clercq, D., & Petricevic, O. (2011). Are social networks more important for new business activity in emerging than developed economies? An empirical extension. International Business Review, 20, 394–408.Google Scholar
  51. Davidsson, P. (2003). The domain of entrepreneurship research: Some suggestions. In J. Katz & D. Shepherd (Eds.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth: Cognitive approaches to entrepreneurship research (pp. 315–372). Oxford, UK: Elsevier/JAI Press.Google Scholar
  52. De Clercq, D., & Arenius, P. (2006). The role of knowledge in business start-up activity. International Small Business Journal, 24(4), 339–358.Google Scholar
  53. De Clercq, D., Hessels, J., & van Stel, A. (2008). Knowledge spillovers and new ventures’ export orientation. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 283–303.Google Scholar
  54. De Clercq, D., Danis, W. D., & Dakhli, M. (2010). The moderating effect of institutional context on the relationship between associational activity and new business activity in emerging economies. International Business Review, 19, 85–101.Google Scholar
  55. De Clercq, D., Lim, D. S., & Oh, C. H. (2013). Individual-level resources and new business activity: The contingent role of institutional context. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 37(2), 303–330.Google Scholar
  56. Driga, O., Lafuente, E., & Vaillant, Y. (2009). Reasons behind the relatively lower entrepreneurial activity levels of rural women: Looking into rural Spain. Sociologia Ruralis, 49(1), 70–96.Google Scholar
  57. Du, Q., & Vertinsky, I. (2011). International patterns of ownership structure choices of start-ups: Does the quality of law matter? Small Business Economics, 37(2), 235–254.Google Scholar
  58. Elam, A., & Terjesen, S. (2010). Gendered institutions and cross-national patterns of business. European Journal of Development Research, 22, 331–348.Google Scholar
  59. Estrin, S., & Mickiewicz, T. (2011). Institutions and female entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 37(4), 397–415.Google Scholar
  60. Fernández, J., Liñán, F., & Santos, F. J. (2009). Cognitive aspects of potential entrepreneurs in Southern and Northern Europe: an analysis using GEM data. Revista de Economía Mundial, 23, 151–178.Google Scholar
  61. Frederick, H., & Monsen, E. (2011). New Zealand’s perfect storm of entrepreneurship and economic development. Small Business Economics, 37(2), 187–204.Google Scholar
  62. Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 696–706.Google Scholar
  63. Gnyawali, D. R., & Fogel, D. S. (1994). Environments for entrepreneurship development: Key dimensions and research implications. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 18(4), 43–62.Google Scholar
  64. González-Álvarez, N., & Solís-Rodríguez, V. (2011). Discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities: A gender perspective. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 111(5), 755–775.Google Scholar
  65. Greene, P., & Brown, T. (1997). Resource needs and the dynamic capitalism typology. Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 161–173.Google Scholar
  66. Hessels, J., Grilo, I., Thurik, R., & van der Zwan, P. (2011). Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 21(3), 447–471.Google Scholar
  67. Hessels, J., van Gelderen, M., & Thurik, R. (2008). Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 323–339.Google Scholar
  68. Hessels, J., & van Stel, A. (2011). Entrepreneurship, export orientation, and economic growth. Small Business Economics, 37(2), 255–268.Google Scholar
  69. Ho, Y., & Wong, P. (2007). Financing, regulatory costs and entrepreneurial propensity. Small Business Economics, 28(2/3), 187–204.Google Scholar
  70. Hoffman, D. J., & Franke, G. R. (1986). Correspondence analysis: Graphical representation of categorical data in marketing research. Journal of Marketing Research, 23, 213–227.Google Scholar
  71. Holcomb, T. R., Combs, J. G., Sirmon, D. G., & Sexton, J. (2010). Modeling levels and time in entrepreneurship research. An illustration with growth strategies and post-IPO performance. Organizational Research Methods, 13(2), 348–389.Google Scholar
  72. Johannisson, B. (1988). Business formation: A network approach. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 4, 83–99.Google Scholar
  73. Jones-Evans, D., & Thompson, P. (2009). The spatial dispersion of informal investment at a regional level: Evidence from the UK. European Planning Studies, 17(5), 659–675.Google Scholar
  74. Jones-Evans, D., Thompson, P., & Kwong, C. (2011). Entrepreneurship amongst minority language speakers: The Case of Wales. Regional Studies, 45(2), 219–238.Google Scholar
  75. Kelley, D., Bosma, N., & Amorós, J. E. (2011). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2010 global report. Wellesley, MA: Babson College and Universidad del Desarrollo.Google Scholar
  76. Koellinger, P. (2008). Why are some entrepreneurs more innovative than others? Small Business Economics, 31(1), 21–37.Google Scholar
  77. Koellinger, P., & Minniti, M. (2006). Not for lack of trying: American entrepreneurship in black and white. Small Business Economics, 27(1), 59–79.Google Scholar
  78. Koellinger, P., & Minniti, M. (2009). Unemployment benefits crowd out nascent entrepreneurial activity. Economics Letters, 103, 96–98.Google Scholar
  79. Koellinger, P., Minniti, M., & Schade, C. (2007). ‘‘I think I can, I think I can’’: Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 502–527.Google Scholar
  80. Koellinger, P., Minniti, M., & Schade, C. (2013). Gender differences in entrepreneurial propensity. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 75(2), 213–234.Google Scholar
  81. Korosteleva, J., & Mickiewicz, T. (2011). Start-up financing in the age of globalization. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 47(3), 23–49.Google Scholar
  82. Kwon, S., & Arenius, P. (2010). Nations of entrepreneurs: A social capital perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(3), 315–330.Google Scholar
  83. Lafuente, E., Vaillant, Y., & Rialp, J. (2007). Regional differences in the influence of role models: Comparing the entrepreneurial process of rural Catalonia. Regional Studies, 41(6), 779–795.Google Scholar
  84. Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 31(3), 341–364.Google Scholar
  85. Larroulet, C., & Couyoumdjian, J. P. (2009). Entrepreneurship and growth: A Latin American paradox? The Independent Review, 14(1), 81–100.Google Scholar
  86. Lepoutre, J., Justo, R., Terjesen, S., & Bosma, N. (2013). Designing a global standardized methodology for measuring social entrepreneurship activity: The global entrepreneurship monitor social entrepreneurship study. Small Business Economics, 40(3), 693–714.Google Scholar
  87. Lerner, M., & Malach-Pines, A. (2011). Gender and culture in family business: A ten-nation study. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 11(2), 113–131.Google Scholar
  88. Levie, J. (2007). Immigration, in-migration, ethnicity and entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom. Small Business Economics, 28(2–3), 143–169.Google Scholar
  89. Levie, J., & Autio, E. (2008). A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 235–263.Google Scholar
  90. Levie, J., & Autio, E. (2011). Regulatory burden, rule of law, and entry of strategic entrepreneurs: An international panel study. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1392–1419.Google Scholar
  91. Levie, J., & Lerner, M. (2009). Resource mobilization and performance in family and nonfamily businesses in the United Kingdom. Family Business Review, 22(1), 25–38.Google Scholar
  92. Manolova, T. S., Eunni, R. V., & Gyoshev, B. S. (2008). Institutional environments for entrepreneurship: Evidence from emerging economies in Eastern Europe. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 32(1), 203–218.Google Scholar
  93. Martiarena, A. (2013). What’s so entrepreneurial about intrapreneurs? Small Business Economics, 40(1), 27–39.Google Scholar
  94. Maula, M., Autio, E., & Arenius, P. (2005). What drives micro-angel investments? Small Business Economics, 25(5), 459–475.Google Scholar
  95. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  96. McMullen, J. S., Bagby, D. R. & Palich, L. E. (2008). Economic freedom and the motivation to engage in entrepreneurial action. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 32(5), 875–895.Google Scholar
  97. Merino, M., & Vargas, D. (2011). Comparative assessment of entrepreneurial propensity in Latin America: A multi-level perspective. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 46, 38–54.Google Scholar
  98. Minniti, M., & Nardone, C. (2007). Being in someone else’s shoes: The role of gender in nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 28(2–3), 223–238.Google Scholar
  99. Naudé, W., Gries, T., Wood, E., & Meintjies, A. (2008). Regional determinants of entrepreneurial start-ups in a developing country. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 20(2), 111–124.Google Scholar
  100. Nissan, E., Castaño, M. S., & Carrasco, I. (2012). Drivers of non-profit activity: A cross-country analysis. Small Business Economics, 38(3), 303–320.Google Scholar
  101. Nofsinger, J. R., & Wang, W. (2011). Determinants of start-up firm external financing worldwide. Journal of Banking & Finance, 35(9), 2282–2294.Google Scholar
  102. North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  103. North, D. C. (2005). Understanding the process of economic change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Parker, S. C. (2004). The economics of self-employment and entrepreneurship. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Pete, S., Nagy, A., Matis, D., Györfy, L. Z., Benyovszki, A., & Petru, T. P. (2011). Early-stage entrepreneurial aspirations in efficiency-driven economies. Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, 2, 2–18.Google Scholar
  106. Peterson, R., & Valliere, D. (2008). Entrepreneurship and national economic growth: The European entrepreneurial deficit. European Journal of International Management, 2(4), 471–490.Google Scholar
  107. Pinillos, M. J., & Reyes, L. (2011). Relationship between individualist-collectivist culture and entrepreneurial activity: Evidence from global entrepreneurship monitor data. Small Business Economics, 37(1), 23–37.Google Scholar
  108. Ramos-Rodríguez, A. R., Medina-Garrido, J. A., Lorenzo-Gómez, J. D., & Ruiz-Navarro, J. (2010). What you know or who you know? The role of intellectual and social capital in opportunity recognition. International Small Business Journal, 28(6), 566–582.Google Scholar
  109. Ramos-Rodríguez, A. R., Medina-Garrido, J. A., & Ruiz-Navarro, J. (2012). Determinants of hotels and restaurants entrepreneurship: A study using GEM data. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 579–587.Google Scholar
  110. Reynolds, P. (2008). Screening item effects in estimating the prevalence of nascent entrepreneurs. Small Business Economics, 33(2), 151–163.Google Scholar
  111. Reynolds, P., Bosma, N., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I., et al. (2005). Global entrepreneurship monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998–2003. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 205–231.Google Scholar
  112. Reynolds, P., Hay, M., & Camp, S. (1999). Global entrepreneurship monitor 1999 executive report. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation.Google Scholar
  113. Rocha, H., & Sternberg, R. (2005). Entrepreneurship: The role of clusters theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence from Germany. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 267–292.Google Scholar
  114. Roper, S., & Scott, J. M. (2009). Perceived financial barriers and the start-up decision: An econometric analysis of gender differences using GEM data. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 149–171.Google Scholar
  115. Sautet, F. (2013). Local and systemic entrepreneurship: Solving the puzzle of entrepreneurship and economic development. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 37(2), 387–402.Google Scholar
  116. Schøtt, T., & Jensen, K. (2008). The coupling between entrepreneurship and public policy: Tight in developed countries but loose in developing countries. Estudios de Economia, 35(2), 195–214.Google Scholar
  117. Sepúlveda, J. P., & Bonilla, C. A. (2011). The attitude toward the risk of entrepreneurial activity: Evidence from Chile. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 46, 72–80.Google Scholar
  118. Serida, J., & Morales, O. (2011). Using the theory of planned behavior to predict nascent entrepreneurship. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 46, 55–71.Google Scholar
  119. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  120. Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc.Google Scholar
  121. Stephan, U., & Uhlaner, L. (2010). Performance-based vs. socially supportive culture: A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(8), 1347–1364.Google Scholar
  122. Stephen, F., Urbano, D., & van Hemmen, S. (2009). The responsiveness of entrepreneurs to working time regulations. Small Business Economics, 32(3), 259–276.Google Scholar
  123. Sternberg, R., & Litzenberger, T. (2004). Regional clusters in Germany—Their geography and their relevance for entrepreneurial activities. European Planning Studies, 12(6), 767–791.Google Scholar
  124. Sternberg, R., & Wennekers, S. (2005). Determinants and effects of new business creation using global entrepreneurship monitor data. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 193–203.Google Scholar
  125. Steyaert, C., & Hjorth, D. (2006). Entrepreneurship as social change. A third movements in entrepreneurship book. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  126. Steyaert, C., & Katz, J. (2004). Reclaiming the space of entrepreneurship in society: Geographical, discursive and social dimensions. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 16(3), 179–196.Google Scholar
  127. Szerb, L., Rappai, G., Makra, Z., & Terjesen, S. (2007). Informal investment in transition economies: Individual characteristics and clusters. Small Business Economics, 28(2), 257–271.Google Scholar
  128. Terjesen, S., & Amorós, J. E. (2010). Female entrepreneurship in Latin America and the Caribbean: Characteristics, drivers and relationship to economic development. European Journal of Development Research, 22(3), 313–330.Google Scholar
  129. Terjesen, S., & Hessels, J. (2009). Varieties of export-oriented entrepreneurship in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal Management, 26, 537–561.Google Scholar
  130. Terjesen, S., & Szerb, L. (2008). Dice thrown from the beginning? An empirical investigation of determinants of firm level growth expectations. Estudios de Economia, 35(2), 153–178.Google Scholar
  131. Thompson, P., Jones-Evans, D., & Kwong, C. (2009). Women and home-based entrepreneurship: Evidence from the United Kingdom. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 227–239.Google Scholar
  132. Thornton, P. H., Ribeiro-Soriano, D., & Urbano, D. (2011). Socio-cultural and entrepreneurial activity: An overview. International Small Business Journal, 29(2), 105–118.Google Scholar
  133. Tominc, P., & Rebernik, M. (2004). The scarcity of female entrepreneurship. Društvena Istraživanja (Journal for General Social Issues), 13(4–5), 779–802.Google Scholar
  134. Tominc, P., & Rebernik, M. (2007). Growth aspirations and cultural support for entrepreneurship: A comparison of post-socialist countries. Small Business Economics, 28(2), 239–255.Google Scholar
  135. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (2008). Opportunity identification and pursuit: Does an entrepreneur’s human capital matter? Small Business Economics, 30(2), 153–173.Google Scholar
  136. Uhlaner, L., & Thurik, R. (2007). Postmaterialism influencing total entrepreneurial activity across nations. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 17, 161–185.Google Scholar
  137. Urbano, D. (2006). New business creation in Catalonia: Support measures and attitudes towards entrepreneurship. Barcelona, Spain: Generalitat de Catalunya, CIDEM.Google Scholar
  138. Urbano, D., Rojas, A., & Díaz, C. (2010). ¿Hacia dónde va la investigación en el proyecto GEM? Revista Europea de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, 19(2), 15–30.Google Scholar
  139. Vaillant, Y., & Lafuente, E. (2007). Do different institutional frameworks condition the influence of local fear of failure and entrepreneurial examples over entrepreneurial activity? Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 19(4), 313–337.Google Scholar
  140. Valliere, D., & Peterson, R. (2009). Entrepreneurship and economic growth: Evidence from emerging and developed countries. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 21(5–6), 459–480.Google Scholar
  141. van Stel, A., Carree, M., & Thurik, R. (2005). The effect of entrepreneurial activity on national economic growth. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 311–321.Google Scholar
  142. van Stel, A., Storey, D. J., & Thurik, R. (2007). The effect of business regulations on nascent and young business entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 28(2–3), 171–186.Google Scholar
  143. Veciana, J. M., & Urbano, D. (2008). The institutional approach to entrepreneurship research: Introduction. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(4), 365–379.Google Scholar
  144. Verheul, I., van Stel, A., & Thurik, R. (2006). Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 18(2), 151–183.Google Scholar
  145. Verheul, I., Wennekers, S., Audretsch, D. B., & Thurik, R. (2002). An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship: Policies, institutions and culture. In D. B. Audretsch, A. R. Thurik, I. Verheul, & A. R. M. Wennekers (Eds.), Entrepreneurship: Determinants and policy in a European–US comparison. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  146. Wagner, J. (2007). What a difference a Y makes: Female and male nascent entrepreneurs in Germany. Small Business Economics, 28(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
  147. Welter, F., & Smallbone, D. (2011). Institutional perspectives on entrepreneurial behaviour in challenging environments. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 107–125.Google Scholar
  148. Wennekers, S., & Thurik, R. (1999). Linking entrepreneurship and economic growth. Small Business Economics, 13(1), 27–55.Google Scholar
  149. Wennekers, S., van Stel, A., Thurik, R., & Reynolds, P. (2005). Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 293–309.Google Scholar
  150. Wong, P., Ho, Y., & Autio, E. (2005). Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth: Evidence from GEM data. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 335–350.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Álvarez
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Urbano
    • 1
  • José Ernesto Amorós
    • 3
  1. 1.Business Economics DepartmentAutonomous University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y AdministrativasUniversidad de MedellínMedellínColombia
  3. 3.School of Business and EconomicsUniversidad del DesarrolloSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations