Small Business Economics

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 205–231 | Cite as

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data Collection Design and Implementation 1998–2003

  • Paul ReynoldsEmail author
  • Niels Bosma
  • Erkko Autio
  • Steve Hunt
  • Natalie De Bono
  • Isabel Servais
  • Paloma Lopez-Garcia
  • Nancy Chin


The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor research program was designed as a comprehensive assessment of the role of entrepreneurship in national economic growth. The conceptual model reflected in a wide range of factors associated with national variations in entrepreneurial activity and the major contextual features. Empirical tests of the many relationships in the model required four major data collection activities: adult population surveys, unstructured interviews with national experts, self-administered questionnaires completed by national experts, and assembly of relevant standardized measures from existing cross-national data sets. Adult population surveys were implemented to identify those entrepreneurially active, which required a set of precise criteria and careful processing to ensure harmonized counts and prevalence rates across 41 countries. Existing evidence on measures of reliability indicates that the measures met contemporary standards and the project was cost-effective.




Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acs, Z. J., C. Armington and A. Robb, 1999, ‘Measures of Job Flow Dynamics in the U.S. Economy. Upper Marlboro, Maryland’, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for Economic Studies, Discussion Paper.Google Scholar
  2. Adaman, F. and P. Devine, 2002, ‘A Reconsideration of the Theory of Entrepreneurship: A Participatory Approach’, Review of Political Economy, 329–355.Google Scholar
  3. Arenius, P. and M. Minniti, 2005, ‘Perceptual Variables and Nascent Entrepreneurship’, Small Business Economics, this issue.Google Scholar
  4. Barreto, H. 1989The Entrepreneur in Microeconomic TheoryRoutledgeLondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumol, W. J. 1968Entrepreneurship in Economic TheoryAmerican Economic Review586471Google Scholar
  6. Birch, D. L., 1979, ‘The Job Generation Process’. Unpublished report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Program on Neighbourhood and Regional Change for the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  7. Bosma, N., Verhoeven,  2004‘Benchmark Entrepreneurship 2003’EIMZoetermeerunpublished reportGoogle Scholar
  8. Bygrave, W. D., 2004, ‘Financing Entrepreneurs and Their Ventures’, in P. D. Reynolds, W. D. Bygrave, E. Autio, et al. (eds.), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2003, Executive Report, Babson College/Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, London Business School.Google Scholar
  9. Bygrave, W. D., Reynolds, P. D. 2004Who finances startups in the USA? A comprehensive study of informal investors, 1998–2003. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research: 2004Babson CollegeBabson Park, MAin pressGoogle Scholar
  10. Christensen, P. S., Madsen, O. O., Peterson, R. 1994Conceptualizing entrepreneurial opportunity identificationHills, G. E. eds. Marketing and Entrepreneurship: Research Ideas and OpportunitiesQuorum BooksWestport, Connecticut/LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Curtin, R. 1982Indicators of Consumer Behavior: The University of Michigan Survey of ConsumersPublic Opinion Quarterly46340362Google Scholar
  12. Djankov, S., F. De Silanes and A. Shleifer, 2001, The Regulation of Entry NBER Working Paper No. w7892.Google Scholar
  13. European Communities, 2004, Business Demography in Europe, 2004 Edition. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Union, 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Eliason, G., Henrekson, M. 2004‘William J. Baumol: An Entrepreneurial Economist on the Economics of Entrepreneurship’Small Business Economics2317Google Scholar
  15. Gartner, W. B. 1985A framework for describing and classifying the phenomenon of new venture creationAcademy of Management Review10696706Google Scholar
  16. Gartner, W. B. 1990What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship?Journal of Business Venturing51528Google Scholar
  17. Gartner, W. B.Shaver, K. G.Carter, N. M.Reynolds , P. D. eds. 2004The Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: The Process of Business Creation,Sage PublicationsThousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  18. Heritage Foundation, 2000, Index of Economic Freedom 1999, Washington DC: Heritage Foundation and New York: Wall Street Journal.Google Scholar
  19. ILO, 1999, LABORSTA database, Available at Scholar
  20. IMD, 2002, The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2002, Institute for Management Development, Switzerland, ISBN: 2970012162.Google Scholar
  21. International Monetary Fund, 2002, World Economic Outlook Database, Available at Scholar
  22. Katz, J., Gartner, W. B. 1988Properties of Emerging OrganizationsAcademy of Management Review13429441Google Scholar
  23. Kihlstrom, R., Jean-Jacques, L. 1979‘A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation based on Risk Aversion”Journal of Political Economy87719748Google Scholar
  24. Kirzner, I. M. 1979Perception, Opportunity and Profit: Studies in the Theory of EntrepreneurshipUniversity of Chicago PressChicagoGoogle Scholar
  25. Le, A. T. 1999Empirical Studies of Self–employmentJournal of Economic Surveys13381416Google Scholar
  26. Lumpkin, G. T., Dess, G. G. 1996Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking it to PerformanceAcademy of Management Review21135172Google Scholar
  27. Mahoney, J., Michael, S. 2004A Subjective Theory of EntrepreneurshipAlvarez, S. eds. Handbook of Entrepreneurship. BostonKluwer, forthcomingMAGoogle Scholar
  28. OECD1999Main Science and Technology IndicatorsOECDWashington DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Pilat, D., 2001, Firm-Level Data In OECD Member Countries: An Inventory Of Existing Resources, OECD Working paper AH(2001)2.Google Scholar
  30. Reynolds, P. D. 1997Who Starts New Firms? Preliminary Explorations of Firms-in-GestationSmall Business Economics9449462Google Scholar
  31. Reynolds, P. D. 2000‘National Panel Study of U.S. Business Start-ups: Background and Methodology’Katz, J. A. eds. Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence, and GrowthJAI PressStanford, CT153227vol. 4Google Scholar
  32. Reynolds, P. D.,  et al. 2004Nature of Business Start-upsGartner, W. B. eds. The Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: The Process of Business CreationSage PublicationsThousand Oaks, CA244258(Chapter 23)Google Scholar
  33. Reynolds, P. D., Curtin, Richard,  et al. 2004Examples of Analysis: Work File Preparation, Comparisons, and Adjustment of WeightsGartner, W. B. eds. The Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: The Process of Business CreationSage PublicationsThousand Oaks, CA495540(Appendix)Google Scholar
  34. Reynolds, P. D., Miller, B. A. 1992New firm gestation: conception, birth, and implications for researchJournal of Business Venturing7114Google Scholar
  35. Reynolds, P. D., White, S. B. 1993Wisconsin’s Entrepreneurial Climate StudyMarquette University Center for the Study of EntrepreneurshipMilwaukee, WIGoogle Scholar
  36. Reynolds, P. D., White, S. B. 1997The Entrepreneurial Process: Economic Growth, Men, Women, and MinoritiesQuorum BooksWestport, CTGoogle Scholar
  37. Reynolds, P. D., W. D. Bygrave, E. Autio, L. W. Cox and M. Hay, 2003, ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2002’ Executive Report, Babson College/Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, London Business School.Google Scholar
  38. Reynolds, P. D., W. D. Bygrave, E. Autio, et al., 2004, ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2003’, Executive Report, Babson College/Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, London Business School.Google Scholar
  39. Samuelsson, M., 2002, ‘Creating New Ventures: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Nascent Venturing Process’, Jonkoping, Sweden: Jonkoping International Business School Dissertation Series No. 020.Google Scholar
  40. Schwab, K., Sachs, J. 1997The Global Competitiveness Report: 1997World Economic ForumGeneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  41. Schwab, K., Sachs, J. 1998The Global Competitiveness Report: 1998World Economic ForumGeneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith, Adam, 1776, in Edwin Cannan (ed.), An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, NY: Random House, 1994.Google Scholar
  43. Sternberg, R. and A. R. M. Wennekers, 2005, Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation; Investigations Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data, Small Business Economics, This issue.Google Scholar
  44. Thurik, A. R., Wennekers, A. R. M. 2004“Entrepreneurship, small business and economic growth”Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development11140149Google Scholar
  45. United Nations, 1990, Statistical Office of the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, International Standard Classification of Economic Activities: 3rd Edition. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  46. United Nations Development Program, 2003, Human Development Report, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Scholar
  47. UNESCO EFA Monitoring Team, 2002, The 2002 Education for all Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO, Paris, ISBN 92-3-10-103880-X .Google Scholar
  48. UNESCO Statistics World Education Statistics Time Series. Data. (accessed 21/06/2003).Google Scholar
  49. U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, 1999, International Database (IDB) Available at (accessed 26/03/2003).Google Scholar
  50. United States Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, 2004, The Small Business Economy: 2004: A Report to the President, Washington, DC, 2004, Table A.4, pp. 176.Google Scholar
  51. Van Gelderen, M., N. Bosma and R. Thurik, 2005, ‘Success and Risk Factors in the Start-up Phase’, Small Business Economics, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  52. Praag, C. M. 1999Some Classic Views on EntrepreneurshipDe Economist147311335Google Scholar
  53. Verheul, Ingrid, Wennekers, A. R. M., Audretsch, David, Thurik, Roy 2002An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and CultureAudretsch, D. B.Thurik, A. R.Verheul, I.Wennekers, A.R.M. eds. Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European–US ComparisonKluwer Academic PublishersBoston/Dordrecht1181Google Scholar
  54. World Bank2002World Development Indicators 2002International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentWashington, DCGoogle Scholar
  55. World Economic Forum2002Global Competitiveness Report 2001—2002Oxford University PressOxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Reynolds
    • 1
    Email author
  • Niels Bosma
    • 2
  • Erkko Autio
    • 3
  • Steve Hunt
    • 1
  • Natalie De Bono
    • 1
  • Isabel Servais
    • 1
  • Paloma Lopez-Garcia
    • 1
  • Nancy Chin
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  2. 2.London Business SchoolLondonUK
  3. 3.Ecole des HECUniversite de LausanneDorignySwitzerland

Personalised recommendations