Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

, Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 58–62 | Cite as

Exogenous GA3 and flowering induce the conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin in Artemisia annua plants

  • Y. S. Zhang
  • H. C. Ye
  • B. Y. Liu
  • H. Wang
  • G. F. Li


The contents of artemisinin and artemisinic acid were monitored in the Artemisia annua plants treated with GA3 at vegetative and flowering initiation stages. The highest artemisinin content was observed at full bloom. The decrease in artemisinic acid content occurred during the transition from the vegetative stage to the beginning of flowering. Endogenous GA3 content in the leaves peaked at full bloom. At the vegetative stage, in plants treated with various concentrations of GA3 , the content of artemisinin increased while that of artemisinic acid decreased. Apparently, the rate-limiting step in artemisinin biosynthesis was from artemisinic acid to artemisinin. The “bottleneck” of artemisinin biosynthesis was probably unlocked during the flowering or in the vegetative plants treated with GA3 , which triggered off the conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin.

Key words

Artemisia annua artemisinin artemisinic acid amorpha-4,11-diene synthase GA3 development flowering 



dimethylallyl pyrophosphate


farnesyl pyrophosphate


gibberellic acid


geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate


geranyl pyrophosphate


isopentenyl pyrophosphate


polymerase chain reaction


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Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. S. Zhang
    • 1
  • H. C. Ye
    • 1
  • B. Y. Liu
    • 1
  • H. Wang
    • 1
  • G. F. Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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