Influence of Thermomechanical Treatment on Structural-Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties of the Cu–Al–Ni Shape-Memory Alloys
Using the methods of optical and electron microscopy and electron and X-ray diffraction analyses, the influence of thermomechanical treatment on the mechanical properties, average grain size, and structural and phase transformations is investigated in the Cu–Al–Ni triple alloys exhibiting a shape memory effect. In the alloys under study with a fixed content of 3wt% Ni the concentration of aluminum was varied from 9 to 14 wt%. It is shown that in the alloys subjected to thermal treatment, including forging and homogenizing annealing using controlled recrystallization in the austenitic state followed by quenching, the grain-boundary disintegration and segregation disappear. It is found out that the microstructure of the alloys in the hot-forged and hardened states with the content of aluminum 9–10 wt%. consists of the grains of the average dimensions within 60–80 μm, with the content of aluminum 10–12 wt% – 100–350 μm, while in the alloys with the content of aluminum up to 14 12 wt% the average grain size reaches 1 mm. According to the data of mechanical testing at room temperature, with a decrease in the content of aluminum the ultimate tensile strength (σUTS), the yield strength (σМ) and the relative elongation (δ) increase. An improvement of the mechanical properties of the alloys is attributed to the grain structure refinement of the β2-austenite and package substructure of the β'1-and γ'1-martensites as the content of aluminum in the alloys decreases. For instance, in the fine-grained alloys containing 9.2 and 9.5 wt% Al the value of relative elongation remains at a high level (>10%), while for the other alloys with 10–14 wt% Al it does not exceed 5%. As the content of aluminum in the alloys decreases, the character of the specimen fracture under uniaxial tension changes (from brittle to ductile).
Keywordsshape memory mechanical properties structure martensitic phases thermomechanical treatment
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