Russian Journal of Developmental Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 377–385 | Cite as

Changes in Composition of Acid Soluble Proteins and DNA in Chromatin of Rat Liver and Brain Bound and Not Bound to Nuclear Envelope as a Function of Age and under the Influence of Antioxidant Ionol

  • A. N. Prusov
  • E. B. Romanenko
  • B. F. Vanyushin
Biochemistry of Development


In two-day rat pups, the histone H1 content in the brain chromatin was higher than in the liver chromatin, as compared to histone of the nucleosome core. The H1 content in the brain chromatin decreased with the age, while in the liver chromatin it increased. At the same time, in the adult brain chromatin bound to the nuclear envelope, a high level of H1 characteristic of chromatin of the newborn rats was preserved, while in a similar chromatin of the adult liver, the H1 content increased, but still remained less than in the chromatin not bound to the nuclear envelope. In both organs, the composition and quantitation of H1 subfractions were different in chromatins bound and not bound to the nuclear envelope. The chromatin from the liver and brain bound to the nuclear envelope differed also in the composition and quantitation of minor acid soluble proteins. In the presence of the antioxidant ionol, the 5-methylcytosine content in DNA of chromatin of the rat liver bound to the nuclear envelope increased while in the chromatin not bound to the nuclear envelope, it remained unchanged. Thus the chromatins bound and not bound to the nuclear envelope differ in the composition and mount of acid soluble proteins, including histone H1, the contents of these proteins in bound and not bound chromatin are different and change with the age in different ways. The antioxidant ionol affects differently the methylation of bound and not bound chromatin.

Key words

chromatin nuclear envelope ontogenesis histone H1 acid soluble proteins 5-mehtylcytosine ionol 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Belmont, A., Dynamics of Chromatin, Proteins, and Bodies within the Cell Nucleus, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol., 2003, vol. 15, no.3, pp. 304–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bouvier, D., Hubert, J., Seve, A.P., and Bouteille, M., Characterization of Lamina-Bound Chromatin in the Nuclear Shell Isolated from HeLa Cells, Exp. Cell Res., 1985, vol. 156, no.2, pp. 500–512.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Breneman, J.W., Yau, P., Teplitz, R.L., and Bradbury, E.M., A Light Microscope Study of Linker Histone Distribution in Rat Metaphase Chromosomes and Interphase Nuclei, Exp. Cell Res., 1993, vol. 206, no.1, pp. 16–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Buschmann, M.B. and LaVelle, A., Morphological Changes of the Pyramidal Cell Nucleolus and Nucleus in Hamster Frontal Cortex during Development and Aging, Mech. Ageing Devel, 1981, vol. 15, no.4, pp. 385–397.Google Scholar
  5. Chanda, S.K., Ickowicz, R., and Dounce, A.L., High Total Histone Deoxyribonucleic Acid Ratios for Rat Liver Nuclei, Biochem. J., 1973, vol. 135, no.1, pp. 115–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaturvedi, M.M. and Kanungo, M.S., Analysis of Conformation and Function of the Chromatin of the Brain of Young and Old Rats, Mol. Biol. Rep., 1985, vol. 10, no.4, pp. 215–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, P., Jones, K.J., and LaVelle, A.J., Ultrastructural and Morphometric Analysis of Nucleolar and Nuclear Changes During the Early Growth Period in Hamster Facial Neurons, Comp. Neurol., 1990, vol. 302, no.4, pp. 749–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dominguez, V., Pina, B., and Suau, P., Histone H1 Subtype Synthesis in Neurons and Neuroblasts, Development, 1992, vol. 115, no.1, pp. 181–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dubrovskii, I.V. and Berdyshev, G.D., Changes in Chromatin Nucleosome Compactization in the Cttle Liver during Aging, Ukr. Biokhim. Zh., 1986, vol. 58, no.3, pp. 8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fais, D., Prusov, A.N., and Polyakov, V.Yu., The Lack of Histone H1 in the Peripheral Chromatin of Rat Liver Nuclei, Cell Biol. Int. Rep., 1982, vol. 6, no.5, pp. 433–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenwood, P.D. and Brown, I.R., Developmental Changes in DNAse I Digestibility and RNA Template Activity of Neuronal Nuclei Relative to the Postnatal Appearance of a Short DNA Repeat Length, Neurochem. Res., 1982, vol. 7, no.8, pp. 965–976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenwood, P.D., Silver, J.C., and Brown, I.R., Analysis of Histones Associated with Neuronal and Glial Nuclei Exhibiting Divergent DNA Repeat Lengths, J. Neurochem., 1981, vol. 37, no.2, pp. 498–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu, H., Xing, Y., Li, X., et al., DNase I Sensitivity of Nucleus and Chromatin in Six Different Tissues of Old Rats, Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 1999, vol. 30, no.4, pp. 405–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang, H.C. and Cole, R.D., The Distribution of H1 Histone Is Nonuniform in Chromatin and Correlates with Different Degrees of Condensation, J. Biol. Chem., 1984, vol. 259, no.22, pp. 14237–14242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kirnos, M.D., Vasilyev, V.K., and Vanyushin, B.F., Separation of Pyrimidine Deoxyribooligonucleotides According to Length and Composition Using Thin-Layer Chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose, J. Chromatogr., 1975, vol. 104, no.1, pp. 113–122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Konoplya, E.F., Detinkin, O.N., and Zhitkovich, A.V., Strength of Bonds in DNA-Protein Complexes of Rat Liver Nuclei during Aging, Vopr. Med. Khim., 1989, vol. 35, pp. 78–82.Google Scholar
  17. Kravchenko, L.S., Oksman, A.Ya., Glubokovskaya, I.O., and Tereshin, N.M., Effects of Polyene Antibiotics on DNP Fractions Bound and Not Bound to the Nuclear Envelope of Dog Kidney, Biokhimiya, 1979, vol. 41, no.1, pp. 133–142.Google Scholar
  18. Laemmli, U.K., Cleavage of Structural Proteins During the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4, Nature, 1970, vol. 227, pp. 680–685.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lennox, R.W. and Cohen, L.H., The Histone H1 Complements of Dividing and Nondividing Cells of the Mouse, J. Biol. Chem., 1983, vol. 258, no.1, pp. 262–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lewis, C.D., Lebkowski, J.S., Daly, A.K., and Laemmli, U.K., Interphase Nuclear Matrix and Metaphase Scaffolding Structures, J. Cell Sci., 1984, vol. 1, no.1, pp. 103–122.Google Scholar
  21. Manteifel', V.M., Romanenko, E.B., Babadzhanyan, D.P., et al., An Electron Microscope Study of Chromatin in Nuclei of Rat Hepatocytes upon Age-Related Changes of Genome, Molecul. Biologiya (Moscow), 1988, vol. 22, no.4, pp. 1087–1096.Google Scholar
  22. Martou, G. and De Boni, U., Nuclear Topology of Murine, Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons: Changes as a Function of Development, Exp. Cell Res., 2000, vol. 256, no.1, pp. 131–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitsui, Y., Sakagami, H., and Yamada, M., Histone H1 in G1 Arrested, Senescent, and Werner Syndrome Fibroblasts, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 1985, vol. 190, pp. 373–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mizuno, N.S., Stoops, C.E., and Peiffer, R.L., Jr., Nature of the DNA Associated with the Nuclear Envelope of Regenerating Liver, J. Mol. Biol., 1971, vol. 59, pp. 517–525.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Nielsen, J.A., Hudson, L.D., and Armstrong, R.C., Nuclear Organization in Differentiating Oligodendrocytes, J. Cell Sci., 2002, vol. 115, no.21, pp. 4071–4079.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Park, P.C. and De Boni, U., Spatial Rearrangement and Enhanced Clustering of Kinetochores in Interphase Nuclei of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons in vitro: Association with Nucleolar Fusion, Exp. Cell Res., 1992, vol. 203, no.1, pp. 222–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Pearson, E.C., Bates, D.L., Prospero, T.D., and Thomas, J.O., Neuronal Nuclei and Glial Nuclei from Mammalian Cerebral Cortex. Nucleosome Repeat Lengths, DNA Contents and H1 Contents, Eur. J. Biochem., 1984, vol. 144, no.2, pp. 353–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pina, B., Martinez, P., Simon, L., and Suau, P., Differential Kinetics of Histone H1(0) Accumulation in Neuronal and Glial Cells from Rat Cerebral Cortex during Postnatal Development, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1984, vol. 123, no.2, pp. 697–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pina, B., Martinez, P., and Suau, P., Changes in H1 Complement in Differentiating Rat-Brain Cortical Neurons, Eur. J. Biochem., 1987, vol. 164, no.1, pp. 71–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Prusov, A.N., Fais, D., and Polyakov, V.Yu., A Study of Peripheral Chromatin Granules—Anchorosomes, Biokhimiya, 1989, vol. 54, no.11, pp. 1838–1846.Google Scholar
  31. Prusov, A.N., Gazdarov, A.K., Koromyslov, G.F., and Vanyushin, B.F., Isolation and Composition of DNA of Chromatin Peripheral Layer Associated with Nuclear Envelope from Blood Lymphocytes of Healthy Cattle and Animals with Chronic Lympholeucosis, Biokhimiya, 1984, vol. 49, no.7, pp. 1203–1211.Google Scholar
  32. Puvion-Dutilleul, F., Azzarone, B., and Macieira-Coelho, A., Comparison between Proliferative Changes and Nuclear Events during Ageing of Human Fibroblasts in vitro, Mech. Ageing Devel., 1982, vol. 20, no.1, pp. 75–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Romanenko, E.B. and Vanyushin, B.F., Changes of DNA Methylation in Rats during development under the influence of Hydrocortisone, Biokhimiya, 1979, vol. 44, no.1, pp. 78–85.Google Scholar
  34. Romanenko, E.B., Alessenko, A.V., and Vanyushin, B.F., Effect of Sphingomyelin and Antioxidants on the in vitro and in vivo DNA Methylation, Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 1995, vol. 35, no.1, pp. 87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Romanenko, E.B., Demidenko, Z.N., and Vanyushin, B.F., RNA-Polymerase, DNA-Polymerase, DNA-Methyltransferase, and Sphingomyelinase Activities in Liver Nuclei of Rats of Different Ages, Biokhimiya, 1998, vol. 63.Google Scholar
  36. Romanenko, E.B., Pal'mina, N.P., and Vanyushin, B.F., Correlation between Increased DNA Methylation and Antioxidant Activity of Lipids of Mouse Liver Nuclei after Administration of Antioxidant and upon Ehrlich Carcinoma, Biokhimiya, 1979, vol. 44, no.10, pp. 1754–1761.Google Scholar
  37. Sjakste, N.I. and Budylin, A.V., Structural Changes of Chromatin at Different Levels of Its Organization during Aging, Ontogenez, 1992, vol. 23, no.3, pp. 242–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Schaffner, W. and Weismann, C., A Rapid Sensitive and Specific Method for the Determination of Protein in Dilute Solution, Anal. Biochem., 1973, vol. 56, pp. 502–514.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schmidt, G. and Thannhauser, S.J., A Method for the Determination of Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Ribonucleic Acid, and Phosphoproteins in Animal Tissues, J. Biol. Chem., 1945, vol. 161, pp. 83–87.Google Scholar
  40. Spirin, A.S., Spectrophotometric Assay of Total Amounts of Nucleic Acids, Biokhimiya, 1958, vol. 23, pp. 656–658.Google Scholar
  41. Tas, S. and Walford, R.L., Influence of Disulfide-Reducing Agents on Fractionation of the Chromatin Complex by Endogenous Nucleases and Deoxyribonuclease I in Aging Mice, J. Gerontol., 1982, vol. 37, no.6, pp. 673–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Vanyushin, B.F. and Berdyshev, G.D., Molekulyarno-geneticheskie mekhanizmy stareniya (Molecular-Genetic Mechanisms of Aging), Moscow: Nauka, 1977.Google Scholar
  43. Vanyushin, B.F., Lopatina, N.G., Wise, C.K., et al., Butylated Hydroxytoluene Modulates DNA Methylation in Rats, Eur. J. Biochem., 1998, vol. 256, no.3, pp. 518–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Whatley, S.A., Hall, C., and Lim, L., Chromatin Organization in the Rat Hypothalamus during Early Development, Biochem. J., 1981, vol. 196, no.1, pp. 115–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Zongza, V. and Mathias, A.P., The Variation with Age of the Structure of Chromatin in Three Cell Types from Rat Liver, Biochem. J., 1979, vol. 179, no.2, pp. 291–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK "Nauka/Interperiodica" 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Prusov
    • 1
  • E. B. Romanenko
    • 1
  • B. F. Vanyushin
    • 1
  1. 1.Belozersky Research Institute of Physicochemical BiologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations