An Experienced Science Teacher’s Metavisualization in the Case of the Complex System of Carbon Cycling

  • Jung-Yi Hung
  • Hsin-Yi ChangEmail author
  • Jeng-Fung Hung


Science teachers use a large number of visual representations and models in science classes to guide students to understand complex phenomena and to learn to conduct scientific inquiry. Fluent formation and use of visual representation involves metavisualization, which is a process related to metacognition and visualization. However, what kinds of knowledge and skills are involved and interact during successful metavisualization need further research. Moreover, teachers’ metavisualization should be a focus of research since teachers play a mediating role in guiding students to become proficient performers of visualization in science. Therefore, in this study, we investigated how an experienced science teacher performed metavisualization via qualitative data collection techniques including think-aloud tasks and a follow-up retrospective interview. We identified the relevant knowledge and skills that were involved in the teacher’s metavisualization. Moreover, by focusing on the interaction among the knowledge and skills, we observed three aspects of the teacher’s performance that were salient to her metavisualization, including the use of metavisual strategies, judgement criteria, and the encountered critical points. Drawing upon previous perspectives and this study’s findings, we propose a model of metavisualization by extending an existing model for further research. The findings also provide insight into teacher professional development programs.


Visualization Metavisualization Strategy Critical point Judgement criteria 



The authors would like to thank Kao-Chi Hsu for help with the data collection. This material is based upon work supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under grant MOST103-2511-S-003-070-MY5. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan. This work was also financially supported by the "Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences" of National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) from the Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

Authors’ Contributions

Jung-Yi Hung participated in the data collection and data analysis. Hsin-Yi Chang collaborated with Jung-Yi Hung by participating in the data analysis, and assertion, framework, and model generation processes. Jeng-Fung Hung helped with the data analysis. All the authors jointly conceived of this study, and participated in its design and wrote the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.All the authors claim that none of the material in the manuscript has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Science Education and Environmental EducationNational Kaohsiung Normal UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Program of Learning Sciences, School of Learning InformaticsNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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