Advertisement

Teaching Practices for Enactment of Socio-scientific Issues Instruction: an Instrumental Case Study of an Experienced Biology Teacher

  • David C. Owens
  • Troy D. Sadler
  • Patricia Friedrichsen
Article

Abstract

The identification of high-leverage teaching practices that can be improved through targeted practice should contribute to the enhancement of teachers’ facilitation of instruction and improve student learning outcomes. Researchers have begun to identify subject-specific teaching practices that are expected to enhance science teaching specifically. However, it is not clear what teaching practices look like in classrooms engaging students in learning science through socio-scientific issues. In this instrumental case study, we set out to identify those practices that an experienced secondary biology teacher employed during her successful enactment of socio-scientific issues (SSI) instruction about antibiotic resistance. Using both deductive codes from the literature and inductive coding, we analyzed nine 90-min video-taped lessons that comprised the unit. We identified science teaching practices that were particularly important for her enactment, as well as SSI-specific teaching practices not previously identified in the teaching practices literature, which included contextualizing teaching and learning in the issue, challenging students to analyze the issue from multiple perspectives, and urging students to employ skepticism when analyzing potentially biased information regarding the issue. These findings suggest that the manner in which teachers are currently being prepared is likely lacking in terms of helping teachers develop a full suite of teaching practices that contribute to the successful enactment of SSI instruction. Further research directed at how ideal SSI instruction is achieved and identifying those practices that are requisite to doing so is recommended.

Keywords

Socio-scientific issues Teaching practices Antibiotic resistance Biology education 

References

  1. Allchin, D. (1999). Values in science: an educational perspective. Science and Education, 8, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ball, D. L., & Forzani, F. M. (2009). The work of teaching and the challenge for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 60, 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bausmith, J. M., & Barry, C. (2011). Revisiting professional learning communities to increase college readiness: the importance of pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Researcher, 40, 175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2, 141–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18, 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colburn, A. (2000). An inquiry primer. Science Scope, 23, 42–44.Google Scholar
  7. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Konor of Robert Glaser, 18, 32–42.Google Scholar
  8. Crawford, B. A., Krajcik, J. S., & Marx, R. W. (1999). Elements of a community of learners in a middle school science classroom. Science Education, 83, 701–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  10. Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory Into Practice, 39, 124–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cross, R. T., & Price, R. F. (1996). Science teachers’ social conscience and the role of controversial issues in the teaching of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dawson, V. M. (2011). A case study of the impact of introducing socio-scientific issues into a reproduction unit in a Catholic girls’ school. In T. D. Sadler (Ed.), Socio-scientific issues in the classroom (pp. 313–345). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Denzin, N. K. (1978). The research act: a theoretical introduction to sociological methods (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston: D.C. Heath.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ekborg, M., Ottander, C., Silfver, E., & Simon, S. (2013). Teachers’ experience of working with socio-scientific issues: a large scale and in depth study. Research in Science Education, 43, 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Enyedy, N., & Goldberg, J. S. (2004). Inquiry in interaction: how local adaptations of curricula shape classroom communities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41, 905–935.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erzerberger, C., & Prein, G. (1997). Triangulation: validity and empirically based hypothesis construction. Quality and Quantity, 31, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Friedrichsen, P. J., Sadler, T. D., Graham, K., & Brown, P. (2016). Design of a socio-scientific issue curriculum unit: Antibiotic resistance, natural selection, and modeling. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 7, 1–18.Google Scholar
  19. Goldberg, J., & Welsh, K. M. (2009). Community and inquiry: journey of a science teacher. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 4, 713–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grossman, P., & McDonald, M. (2008). Back to the future: directions for research in teaching and teacher education. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 184–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hanley, P., Ratcliffe, M., & Osborne, J. (2007). Teachers’ experiences of teaching ‘ideas-about-science’ and socio-scientific issues. Paper presented at the 7th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association. Malmö, Sweden.Google Scholar
  22. Harris, R., & Ratcliffe, M. (2005). Socio-scientific issues and the quality of exploratory talk—what can be learned from schools involved in a ‘collapsed day’ project? The Curriculum Journal, 16(4), 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hodson, D. (2003). Time for action: science education for an alternative future. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 645–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jonassen, D. H. (1997). Instructional design models for well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving learning outcomes. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kahn, S., & Zeidler, D. L. (2016). Using our heads and HARTSS*: developing perspective-taking skills for socioscientific reasoning (*Humanities, ARTs, and Social Sciences). Journal of Science Teacher Education, 27, 261–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2012). Gathering feedback for teaching: combining high-quality observations with student surveys and achievement gains. Seattle: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Retrieved from http://www.metproject.org/reports.php.Google Scholar
  28. Karahan, E., & Roehrig, G. (2017). Secondary school students’ understanding of science and their socioscientific reasoning. Research in Science Education, 47, 755–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kennedy, M. M. (2005). Inside teaching: how classroom life undermines reform. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Khishfe, R., & Lederman, N. G. (2006). Teaching nature of science within a controversial topic: integrated versus nonintegrated. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43, 395–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kloser, M. (2014). Identifying a core set of science teaching practices: a Delphi expert panel approach. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51, 1185–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kolstø, S. D. (2000). Consensus projects: teaching science for citizenship. International Journal of Science Education, 22, 645–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kolstø, S. D. (2001). Scientific literacy for citizenship: tools for dealing with the science dimension of controversial socioscientific issues. Science Education, 85, 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lampert, M. (1990). When the problem is not the question and the solution is not the answer: mathematical knowing and teaching. American Educational Research Journal, 27, 29–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lampert, M., & Graziani, F. (2009). Instructional activities as a tool for teachers’ and teacher educators’ learning. The Elementary School Journal, 109, 491–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lave, J. (1991). Situating learning in communities of practice. Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, 2, 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee, H., Yoo, J., Choi, K., Kim, S. W., Krajcik, J., Herman, B. C., & Zeidler, D. L. (2013). Socioscientific issues as a vehicle for promoting character and values for global citizens. International Journal of Science Education, 35, 2079–2113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy.Google Scholar
  39. Owens, D. C., Sadler, T. D., & Zeidler, D. L. (2017). Controversial issues in the science classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 99, 45–49.Google Scholar
  40. Pea, R. D. (1993). Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: psychological and educational considerations (pp. 47–87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Peel, A., Zangori, L., Friedrichsen, P., Hayes, E., & Sadler, T. D. (2018). Students’ model-based explanations about natural selection and antibiotic resistance through socio-scientific issues based learning. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching International Conference. Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  42. Presley, M. L., Sickel, A. J., Muslu, N., Merle-Johnson, D., Witzig, S. B., Izci, K., & Sadler, T. D. (2013). A framework for socio-scientific issues based education. Science Educator, 22, 26.Google Scholar
  43. Ratcliffe, M. (2007). Values in the science classroom—the ‘enacted’ curriculum. The re-emergence of values in science education, pp. 119–132.Google Scholar
  44. Remillard, J. T. (1992). Teaching mathematics for understanding: a fifth-grade teacher’s interpretation of policy. Elementary School Journal, 93, 163–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Remillard, J. T. (2005). Examining key concepts in research on teachers’ use of mathematics curricula. Review of Educational Research, 75, 211–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Remillard, J. T., & Heck, D. J. (2014). Conceptualizing the curriculum enactment process in mathematics education. Zdm, 46, 705–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roberts, D. A., & Bybee, R. W. (2014). Scientific literacy, science literacy, and science education. In N. G. Lederman & S. K. Abell (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (Vol. 2, pp. 111–111). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Rockoff, J. E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: evidence from panel data. The American Economic Review, 94, 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rogoff, B. (1994). Developing understanding of the idea of communities of learners. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 1, 209–229.Google Scholar
  50. Sadler, T. D. (2004). Informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues: A critical review of research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41, 513–536.Google Scholar
  51. Sadler, T. D. (2009). Situated learning in science education: socio-scientific issues as contexts for practice. Studies in Science Education, 45, 1–42.Google Scholar
  52. Sadler, T. D., & Zeidler, D. L. (2005). Patterns of informal reasoning in the context of socioscientific decision making. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42, 112–138.Google Scholar
  53. Sadler, T. D., Amirshokoohi, A., Kazempour, M., & Allspaw, K. M. (2006). Socioscience and ethics in science classrooms: Teacher perspectives and strategies. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43, 353–376.Google Scholar
  54. Sadler, T. D., Barab, S. A., & Scott, B. (2007). What do students gain by engaging in socioscientific inquiry? Research in Science Education, 37, 371–391.Google Scholar
  55. Sadler, T. D., Friedrichsen, P., Graham, K., Foulk, J., Tang, N. E., & Menon, D. (2015). The derivation of an instructional model and design processes for socioscientific issues-based teaching. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching International Conference. Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  56. Sadler, T. D., Romine, W. L., & Topcu, M. S. (2016). Learning science content through socio-scientific issues based instruction: A multi-level assessment study. International Journal of Science Education, 38, 1622–1635.Google Scholar
  57. Sadler, T. D., Foulk, J. A., & Friedrichsen, P. J. (2017). Evolution of a model for socio-scientific issue teaching and learning. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 5, 75–87.Google Scholar
  58. Seidel, T., & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Teaching effectiveness research in the past decade: the role of theory and research design in disentangling meta-analysis results. Review of Educational Research, 77, 454–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Simon, S., & Amos, R. (2011). Decision-making and use of evidence in a socio-scientific problem on air quality. In T. D. Sadler (Ed.), Socio-scientific issues in the classroom (pp. 167–192). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  61. Tidemand, S., & Nielsen, J. A. (2017). The role of socioscientific issues in biology teaching: from the perspective of teachers. International Journal of Science Education, 39, 44–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Van Driel, J., Berry, A., & Meirink, J. (2014). Research on science teacher knowledge. In N. G. Lederman & S. K. Abell (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (Vol. 2, pp. 848–870). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Windschitl, M., Thompson, J., Braaten, M., & Stroupe, D. (2012). Proposing a core set of instructional practices and tools for teachers of science. Science Education, 96, 878–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: design and methods. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Zeidler, D. L. (1997). The central role of fallacious thinking in science education. Science Education, 81, 483–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zeidler, D. L. (2014). Socioscientific issues as a curriculum emphasis: theory, research and practice. In N. G. Lederman & S. K. Abell (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (Vol. II, pp. 697–726). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Zeidler, D. L., Sadler, T. D., Applebaum, S., & Callahan, B. E. (2009). Advancing reflective judgment through socioscientific issues. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46, 74–101.Google Scholar
  68. Zeidler, D. L., Applebaum, S. M., & Sadler, T. D. (2011). Enacting a socioscientific issues classroom: Transformative transformations. In T. D. Sadler (Ed.), Socio-scientific issues in the classroom (pp. 277–305). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Zohar, A., & Nemet, F. (2002). Fostering students’ knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39, 35–62.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Middle Grades and Secondary EducationGeorgia Southern UniversitySavannahUSA
  2. 2.School of EducationUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA
  3. 3.Department of Learning, Teaching, & CurriculumUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations