Electronic and steric effects on singlet and triplet symmetric 2,4-diX-vinylidenes with acyclic, cyclic-saturated, and cyclic-unsaturated structures are compared and contrasted with their corresponding asymmetric 2,5-diX-vinylidenes, at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory (X = H, Me, i-Pr, t-Bu, NH2, OH, OMe, SH, Ph, CN, and CF3). From 64 novel vinylidenes scrutinized, 45 are singlet while the other 19 show triplet ground state. These are suggested by the conductor like polarizable continuum model on both gas-phase and solvent-phase optimized structures. Regardless of X, band gap decreases in going from acyclic to cyclic-saturated and cyclic-unsaturated structures. More importantly nucleophilicity decreases with the same trend for symmetric carbenes. The proton affinity decreases in going from acyclic to cyclic-unsaturated and to cyclic-saturated structures for both symmetric and asymmetric carbenes. Atoms in molecules wavefunction analysis show internal hydrogen bondings for 1s-Me, 1s-i-Pr, 1s-t-Bu, 1s-Ph, 1′s-CF3, 2s-OH, 2′s-t-Bu, and 2′s-OMe.
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This research was supported by Tarbiat Modares University (TMU). Helpful suggestions and cooperation are appreciated from Kaveh Rockyzadeh and Kianoosh Rockyzadeh.
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Khorshidvand, N., Kassaee, M.Z. & Safaei, S. Substituent effects on novel diaminovinylidenes by DFT. Res Chem Intermed (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-020-04092-0
- Electronic effects
- Proton affinity