Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 385–407 | Cite as

Magnetic biochar derived from sewage sludge of concentrated natural rubber latex (CNRL) for the removal of Al3+ and Cu2+ ions from wastewater

  • Khamphe Phoungthong
  • Thitipone SuwunwongEmail author


In order to reduce sewage sludge of concentrated natural rubber latex (CNRL) and transform it into a valuable material for efficient removal of Al3+ and Cu2+ ions from wastewater, magnetic biochar was prepared. In this work, sewage sludge from CNRL was pyrolyzed at various temperatures (300–700 °C) to assess the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the efficiency of magnetic biochar in removing Al3+ and Cu2+ ions from an aqueous medium. Effect of the chemical composition of sewage sludge on the biochar characteristic was evaluated. Sewage sludge is mainly organic matter. The mineral elements silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and calcium (Ca) were also observed in the sewage sludge. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, the contents of P and potassium (K) increased. The inorganic metals chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were present in small quantities. Pyrolysis temperatures 400–500 °C provided good quality magnetic biochar, while with the higher 700 °C pyrolysis temperature, specific surface area and pore volume decreased. The prepared biochar had combined meso- and macro-porous structure. Isotherms of Type II were indicating multilayer adsorption on porous biochar. The pseudo-second-order kinetic models described well Al3+ and Cu2+ adsorption onto magnetic biochar. The leaching test of magnetic biochar shows the releasing of K and Zinc (Zn) which can effect on the sorption of Al3+ and Cu2+. The binding mechanism between magnetic biochar and Al3+/Cu2+ involved surface complexation, ion exchange and cation‒π interaction.

Graphic abstract


Sewage sludge Concentrated natural rubber latex Waste management Biochar Magnetic biochar Adsorption Kinetic Leaching test 

List of symbols




Biochar from sewage sludge


Concentrated natural rubber latex


Initial dye concentration (mg/L)


Equilibrium concentration of dye (mg/L)


Sorbed dye amount per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (mg/g)


Calculated amount of dye sorbed per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (mg/g)


Experimental amount of dye sorbed per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (mg/g)


Sorbed dye amount per gram of sorbent at time t (mg/g)


Pseudo-first-order rate constant (1/min)


Pseudo-second-order rate constant (g/mg min)


Magnetic biochar from sewage sludge


Correlation coefficient


The sum of squares error


Time (min)



This work was supported by the grants from the Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University (No. ENV6103).

Supplementary material

11164_2019_3956_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2798 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Assessment and Technology for Hazardous Waste Management Research Center, Faculty of Environmental ManagementPrince of Songkla UniversitySongkhlaThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM)BangkokThailand
  3. 3.Center of Chemical Innovation for Sustainability (CIS)Mae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  4. 4.School of ScienceMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand

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