An efficiently and quickly synthesized NiO@g-C3N4 nanocomposite-catalyzed green synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives
- 19 Downloads
NiO@g-C3N4 as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives was prepared by impregnation of g-C3N4 with NiO nanoparticles and characterized by various techniques including thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The one-pot synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives using 1 mmol isatin, 1 mmol dimedone (or 4-hydroxycoumarin or ethyl acetoacetate) and 1 mmol malononitrile was carried out in the presence of 50 mg NiO@g-C3N4 in EtOH media at reflux conditions. The results showed that both series of reactions had short reaction times (less than 7 min) and high reaction efficiency (greater than 87%). Some advantages can be cited for this method, including short reaction time, excellent yields, easy workup and a reusable and inexpensive nanocatalyst.
Keywords4-Hydroxycoumarin Dimedone Isatin Malononitrile NiO@g-C3N4 Spirooxindole derivatives
The authors are grateful to the University of Birjand and Payam Noor University of Mashhad for financial support.
- 1.I.O. Ghinea, R.M. Dinica, New synthetic pathways, new applications, in Scope of Selective Heterocycles from Organic and Pharmaceutical Perspective, ed. by R. Varala (InTech, Rijeka, 2017), p. 115Google Scholar
- 2.I.V. Borovlev, O.P. Demidov, G.A. Amangasieva, E.K. Avakyan, N.A. Kurnosova, J. Heterocycl. Chem. 406, 54 (2016)Google Scholar
- 4.S. Budde, J.K. Ega, B. Gavaji, R. Vadde, Int. J. Res. Appl. 2, 365 (2015)Google Scholar
- 6.K. Rad-Moghadama, S. Gholizadeh, IJC 4, 41 (2014)Google Scholar
- 9.A. Allahresani, Iran. J. Catal. 7, 293 (2017)Google Scholar
- 12.J.A. Tanna, R.G. Chaudhary, N.V. Gandhare, A.R. Rai, H.D. Juneja, IJSER 6, 93 (2015)Google Scholar
- 28.S. Riyaz, A. Indrasena, A. Naidu, P.K. Dubey, Indian J. Chem. B 53, 1442 (2014)Google Scholar
- 36.S.J. Chai, Y.F. Lai, J.C. Xu, H. Zheng, Q. Zhu, P.F. Zhang, Advanc. Synth. Catal. 353, 371 (2011)Google Scholar
- 37.L. Zhao, B. Zhou, Y. Li, Heteroatom Chem. 22, 673 (2011)Google Scholar