Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 2383–2401 | Cite as

Photocatalytic degradation of benzothiophene by a novel photocatalyst, removal of decomposition fragments by MCM-41 sorbent

  • Asma Hosseini
  • Hossein FaghihianEmail author


In this study, a catalyst was synthesized by introduction of ZnO onto the surface of FSM-16 catalyst support (ZnO/FSM-16). Impregnation of catalyst support by ZnO proceeded through reacting of FSM-16 nanoparticles with Zn(CH3COO)2 solution followed by calcination of the product. The synthesized photocatalyst was then identified by different methods, and the optical property of the photocatalyst was studied by the DRS method. The results showed that after deposition of photocatalyst on FSM-16 support, the photocatalyst band gap was shifted to the visible region. The photoluminescence studies revealed lower recombination of electron–holes of the photocatalyst after immobilization on FSM-16. The influence of different variables on the photocatalytic performance of the samples was studied. Under optimized conditions, the high degradation efficiency of 97% was obtained by ZnO/FSM-16. The compounds produced from degradation of benzothiophene were recognized by the GC–MS method, and the products containing sulfur were properly adsorbed by MCM-41 sorbent. The photocatalyst showed high regeneration capability, and its activity was mostly preserved after six regeneration cycles.


Benzothiophene Zinc oxide FSM-16 Degradation products Adsorption 



  1. 1.
    R.M. Mohamed, E.S. Aazam, Clean Soil Air Water 43, 421 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Zhao, F. Li, E. Zhou, Z. Sun, Chem. Res. Chin. Univ. 24, 96 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Z. Mehrabadi, H. Faghihian, Spectrochim. Acta A. 204, 248 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, M. Karimi-Shamsabadi, Chem. Eng. J. 228, 631 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.-Y. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, S.-T. Chen, Desalin. Water Treat. 52, 834 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    U. Koch, A. Fotik, H. Weller, A. Henglein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 122, 507 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.R. Westmoreland, D.P. Harrison, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 659 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.A. Behnajady, N. Modirshahla, R. Hamzavi, J. Hazard. Mater. 133, 226 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Nasser, A.B.M. Ali, B. Oskui, J. Reza, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 28, 49 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B.Y. Jibril, A.Y. Atta, Y.M. Al-Waheibi, T.K. Al-Waheibi, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 19, 1800 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Shouro, Y. Moria, T. Nakajima, S. Mishima, Appl. Catal. A Gen. 198, 275 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Tozuka, S. Sasaoka, A. Nagae, K. Moribe, T. Oguchi, K. Yamamoto, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 291, 471 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Matsumoto, T. Sasaki, N. Nishimiya, K. Tsutsumi, Colloids Surf. A. 203, 185 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Xiong, L.Z. Zhang, G.Q. Tang, G.L. Zhang, W.J. Chen, J. Lumin. 110, 17 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    X. Li, Y. Pi, Q. Xia, Z. Li, J. Xiao, Appl. Catal. B Environ. 41, 5077 (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Torki, H. Faghihian, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 338, 49 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.H. Garg, K. Soni, M. Kumar, T. Bhaskar, J.K. Gupta, K.S. Rama Rao, G. Murali Dhar, Catal. Today 198, 263 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.R. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, F. Khodabakhshi-Chermahini, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 20, 695 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. Hazrati, M. Abdouss, A. Vahid, A.A. Miran Beigi, A. Mohammadalizadeh, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 997 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Hosseini, H. Faghihian, A.M. Sanati, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 87, 110 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Esmaili-Hafshejani, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Hazard. Mater. 316, 194 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    V. Džimbeg-Malčić, Ž. Barbarić-Mikočević, K. Itrić, Tech. Gaz. 18, 117 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z. Mehrabadi, H. Faghihian, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 356, 102 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, A. Vancu, Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Zabihi-Mobarakeh, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20, 1421 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Akhundi, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, Adv. Powder Technol. 27, 2496 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Derikvandi, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Hazard. Mater. 321, 629 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Bahrami, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 27, 833 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Z.A. Mirian, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Desalin. Water Treat. 57, 16483 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Matsuzawa, J. Tanaka, S. Sato, T. Ibusuki, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 149, 183 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Mijin, J. Radivojevic, P. Jovancic, Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q. 13, 33 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Ajoudanian, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 36, 162 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, M. Amiri, Powder Technol. 235, 279 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Z. Long, C. Yang, G. Zeng, L. Peng, C. Dai, H. He, Fuel 130, 19 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, S. Khorsandi, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 20, 937 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Moradi, M. Vossoughi, M. Feilizadeh, S.M. Esmaeil Zakeri, M.M. Mohammadi, D. Rashtchian, A. Yoosefi Booshehri, Res. Chem. Intermed. 41, 4151 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Y. Ji, L. Zhou, C. Ferronato, X. Yang, A. Salvador, C. Zeng, J.-M. Chovelon, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 254, 35 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    F.B. Li, X.Z. Li, Chemosphere 48, 1103 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    W. Lu, G. Lu, Y. Luo, A. Chen, J. Mol. Catal. A Chem. 188, 225 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Zhang, D. Zhao, Z. Ma, Y. Wang, Catal. Lett. 138, 111 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Z. Juan, Z. Dishun, Y. Liyan, L. Yongbo, Chem. Eng. J. 156, 528 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    D.H. Tseng, L.C. Juang, H.H. Huang, Int. J. Photoenergy 2012, 1 (2012)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Qiu, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, D. Zeng, Y. Chen, Fuel 147, 195 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryShahreza Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityShahrezaIran

Personalised recommendations