Effect of temperature on structural and optical properties of solvothermal assisted CdS nanowires with enhanced photocatalytic degradation under natural sunlight irradiation
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Photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes is an important topic across the globe. This paper reports the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye using cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires as a photocatalyst under natural sunlight irradiation. The CdS nanowires were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal route using ethylenediamine as a solvent with a series of different reaction temperature from 160 to 200 °C for a fixed time of 24 h. Multiple characterization techniques were used to investigate the structural, morphology, optical and photocatalytic study of as-synthesized CdS samples. The XRD patterns reveal highly crystalline CdS nanomaterials with a hexagonal crystal structure. The FESEM and HRTEM observations clearly confirmed a large number of uniform nanowires grown in different directions and interconnected with each other. The stoichiometric ratio of Cd:S is almost 1:1, confirmed by EDS analysis. Room temperature PL spectra of CdS nanowires exhibit a narrow emission at a wavelength of 512 nm. The CdS nanowires synthesized at 200 °C shows the excellent photocatalytic performance with highest photodegradation efficiency has reached up to 98.75% within 20 min, under sunlight irradiation. The 93.06% and 89.10% photodegradation efficiency were observed in CdS nanowires synthesized at 180 °C and 160 °C, respectively. From these result, it is observed that the crystallite size and morphology of CdS nanowires are the influence factors for the photodegradation efficiency of MB dye. Furthermore, the mechanism of MB dye photodegradation using CdS nanowires was discussed. These CdS nanowires with high photocatalytic activity can be used for future in water pollutant degradation.
KeywordsSolvothermal synthesis Reaction temperature Hexagonal CdS MB dye degradation Sunlight irradiation
The authors would like to acknowledge The Director of INUP, IIT Bombay for providing necessary research facilities and we are grateful to thank the Department of Science and Technology, India under the DST-FIST (SR/FST/PSI-173/2012) program.