As a base-promoted Kolbe–Schmitt carboxylation reaction, the mechanism of synthesis of salicylic acid derivatives from phenols with CO2 in the industry is still unclear, even up to now. In this paper, synthesis of 3,6-dichloro salicylic acid (3,6-DCSA) from 2,5-dichloro phenoxide and CO2 was investigated in the presence of K2CO3. We show the reaction can proceed by itself, but it goes at a slower rate as well as a lower yield, compared to the case with the addition of K2CO3. However, the yield of 3,6-DCSA is only minorly affected by the size of K2CO3, which cannot be explained from the view of catalytic effect. Therefore, K2CO3 may on one hand act as a catalyst for the activation of CO2 so that the reaction can be accelerated, while on the other hand, it also acts as a co-reactant in deprotonating the phenol formed by the side reaction to phenoxide, which is further converted to salicylate.
3,6-Dichrolo salicylic acid Kolbe–Schmitt reaction Carboxylation CO2 utilization
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Financial support from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities is gratefully acknowledged.
C.R. Worthing, S.B. Walker, Pesticides Manual: A World Compendium (British Crop Protection Council, London, 1987), p. 693Google Scholar