Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 41, Issue 11, pp 8211–8231 | Cite as

TiO2/polypyrrole nanocomposites photoactive under visible light synthesized by heterophase polymerization in the presence of different surfactants

  • Blanca E. Castillo-Reyes
  • Víctor M. Ovando-Medina
  • Omar González-Ortega
  • Pedro A. Alonso-Dávila
  • Isaías Juárez-Ramírez
  • Hugo Martínez-Gutiérrez
  • A. Márquez-Herrera
Article

Abstract

TiO2/polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by batch (B) and semi-batch (SB) heterophase polymerization of pyrrole onto TiO2 nanoparticles. Sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were used as surfactants while ammonium persulfate served as oxidizing agent. The resulting nanocomposites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. TiO2/polypyrrole nanoparticles were tested as photocatalysts under visible light in the degradation of methylene blue. Nanocomposites with conductivities between 4.85 × 10−7 and 1.88 × 10−2 S/cm were obtained. It was concluded that the polymerization mode and the surfactant type, used as a stabilizing agent, have a strong effect on the photocatalytic activity of the materials. The best results were obtained when SDS was used and polymerization carried out in SB mode. Percentage of photodegradation under visible light after 15 min was as follows: TiO2 1.7 %, CTAB-SB 25.5 %, SDS-B 39.6 %, CTAB-B 57.5 %, AOT-SB 69.4 %, AOT-B 80.1 %, and SDS-SB 94.1 %; while under UV light irradiation after 60 min the percentages were: SDS-B 64 %, CTAB-SB 67 %, CTAB-B 69 %, TiO2 71 %, AOT-SB 88.2 %, AOT-B 95.0 %, and SDS-SB 96.5 %.

Keywords

Heterophase polymerization Polypyrrole Nanocomposite TiO2 Photocatalyst 

Supplementary material

11164_2014_1886_MOESM1_ESM.tif (791 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 790 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Blanca E. Castillo-Reyes
    • 2
  • Víctor M. Ovando-Medina
    • 1
  • Omar González-Ortega
    • 2
  • Pedro A. Alonso-Dávila
    • 2
  • Isaías Juárez-Ramírez
    • 3
  • Hugo Martínez-Gutiérrez
    • 4
  • A. Márquez-Herrera
    • 5
  1. 1.Ingeniería Química, Coordinación Académica Región Altiplano (COARA)Universidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíMatehualaMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosíMexico
  3. 3.Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Facultad de Ingeniería CivilUniversidad Autónoma de Nuevo LeónSan Nicolás de los GarzaMexico
  4. 4.Centro de Nanociencias y Micro y NanotecnologíasInstituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN)MexicoMexico
  5. 5.Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola, DICIVA, Campus Irapuato-SalamancaUniversidad de GuanajuatoIrapuatoMexico

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