Effect of Ag doping concentration on the electronic and optical properties of anatase TiO2: a DFT-based theoretical study
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The electronic and optical properties of pure and Ag-doped anatase TiO2 have been calculated by spin-polarized density functional theory. Ag-doped TiO2 with different Ag doping concentrations ranging from 2.08 to 8.33 % was investigated, and the electronic and optical properties evaluated. Substitutional Ag doped at Ti sites introduced Ag 4d states just above the valence-band maximum, which may help in shifting visible-light excited electrons to the conduction band. Our results show that increasing the doping concentration will enhance visible-light absorption up to Ag doping concentration of 6.25 %; however, further increase of the doping concentration leads to a decrease in visible-light absorption. These results indicate the possibility of tailoring the band gap and optical absorption of TiO2 doped with Ag by varying the doping concentration. The enhanced visible-light absorption for Ag-doped TiO2 with doping concentration of 6.25 % may be due to the existence of widely distributed Ag 4d states above the valence-band maximum and the optimal doping concentration. Ag doping shifted the absorption edge of TiO2 towards visible light, consistent with recent experimental results. Our calculation results provide a reasonable explanation for the experimental findings.