Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 1981–1996 | Cite as

Photocatalytic degradation of chlorophenols under direct solar radiation in the presence of ZnO catalyst

  • Muneer M. Ba-AbbadEmail author
  • Abdul Amir H. Kadhum
  • Abu Bakar Mohamad
  • Mohd S. Takriff
  • Kamaruzzaman Sopian


The photocatalytic degradation of chlorophenols was evaluated under direct solar radiation using commercial ZnO catalyst. Effects of several parameters such as a catalyst loading, pH of solution and initial concentration on the degradation process have been investigated. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of chlorophenols at the optimum value of the parameters was compared under similar experimental conditions. The results of efficiency and mineralization showed the degradation of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol compound with the first order kinetic rate and the rate constant decreases as the initial concentration of the chlorophenols increase. However, the rate constant was strongly affected by type of chlorophenols compound present either 2-chlorophenol or 2,4-dichlorophenol. The highest removal of chlorophenols was obtained after 120 min and the final intermediate compounds of chlorophenols degradation are lower molecular weight compound consisting of acetic acid which was analyzed through the HPLC.


Chlorophenols Photocatalytic degradation Solar radiation Zinc oxide 



The authors are thankful to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia under the UKM-DLP-2011-064 grant and Hadhramout University of Science and Technology, Yemen for their financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muneer M. Ba-Abbad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdul Amir H. Kadhum
    • 1
  • Abu Bakar Mohamad
    • 1
  • Mohd S. Takriff
    • 1
  • Kamaruzzaman Sopian
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI)Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

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