Photochromic behavior of tetrathienylethene in condensed systems—attempts to control 1,2-dyotropic rearrangement of the closed isomer
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Tetrakis(2-methyl-5-methylthiothien-3-yl)ethene (1) exhibits incomplete photochromism in the powder state, KBr pellet, the amorphous state and a polystyrene film. In contrast, 1 in the single crystalline state does not show any photoreactivity. This chromic system involves three possible photon-modes involving the starting open isomer 1, the corresponding closed isomer trans- 2 and the rearranged isomer trans- 3. Unfortunately, efforts to control the interconversions between these isomers, especially the rearrangement of trans- 2 to trans- 3, have not been fruitful. A possible mechanism for photocyclization of 1 to form trans- 2 is also discussed on the basis of the results of density functional theory calculations together with that for the 1,2-dyotropic rearrangement of trans- 2 to give trans- 3.
KeywordsPhotochemistry Photochromism Reaction mechanism Thiophene
We gratefully acknowledge financial support by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Area “New Frontiers in Photochromism” (No. 471) and the Cooperation for Innovative Technology and Advanced Research in Evolutional Area (CITY AREA) program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan. We also thank Dr. Haruyuki Okamura (Osaka Prefecture University) for his technical assistance and Prof. Takeaki Iwamoto (Tohoku University) for his valuable discussion.
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