Measuring Undergraduates’ Innovation Capacities
This study describes the process of developing and validating an instrument that measures students’ innovation capacities as a higher education outcome. We introduce an interdisciplinary theoretical framework used to generate items and cover extant literature drawn primarily from the fields of higher education and entrepreneurship studies. We further discuss our use of latent trait theory and item response models to guide instrument development and measure scoring. We then provide the results of a second-order confirmatory factor modeling procedure, which indicated robust model fit. We close by discussing findings and offering implications for both higher education scholars and institutional researchers.
KeywordsInnovation Measurement IRT College Impact
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Merrifield Family Foundation for its generous support in funding this research.
- Arum, R., & Roksa, J. (2011). Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2009). Creative thinking VALUE rubric. Retrieved from https://www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/creative-thinking.
- Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2013). It takes more than a major: Employer priorities for college learning and student success. Washington, DC: Hart Research Associates.Google Scholar
- Bagheri, A., & Pihie, Z. A. L. (2014). The factors shaping entrepreneurial intentions. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
- Baron, R. A., & Markman, G. D. (2000). Beyond social capital: How social skills can enhance entrepreneurs’ success. Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 106–116.Google Scholar
- Baumol, W. J. (2004). Education for innovation: Entrepreneurial breakthroughs vs. corporate incremental improvements. Working Paper 10578, National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
- Baumol, W. J. (2010). The microtheory of innovative entrepreneurship. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Boyles, T. (2012). 21st century knowledge, skills, and abilities and entrepreneurial competencies: A model for undergraduate entrepreneurship education. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 15, 41–55.Google Scholar
- De Noble, A., Jung, D., & Ehrlich, S. (1999). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: The development of a measure and its relationship to entrepreneurship. In P. D. Reynolds, W. D. Bygrave, S. Manigart, C. M. Mason, G. D. Meyer, H. J. Sapienza, & K. G. Shaver (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 73–87). Wellesley, MA: Babson College.Google Scholar
- de Vaus, D. (2014). Surveys in social (6th ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Fisher, J. L., & Koch, J. V. (2008). Born not made: The entrepreneurial personality. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
- Fishman, R., Ekowo, M., & Ezeugo, E. (2017). Varying degrees: New America’s annual survey on higher education. Washington, DC: New America Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.newamerica.org/in-depth/varying-degrees.
- Gosling, S. D. (n.d.). A note on alpha reliability and factor structure in the TIPI. Retrieved from http://gosling.psy.utexas.edu/scales-weve-developed/ten-item-personality-measure-tipi/a-note-on-alpha-reliability-and-factor-structure-in-the-tipi/.
- Groves, R., Fowler, F., Couper, M., Lepkowski, J., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2009). Survey methodology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
- Hambleton, R. K., Swaminathan, H., & Rogers, H. J. (1991). Fundamental of item response theory. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
- Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Kegan, (2009). What “form” transforms”? A constructive-developmental approach to transformative learning. In K. Illeris (Ed.), Contemporary theories of learning: Learning theorists…in their own words (pp. 35–52). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Kolek, E. A. (2012). The silent majority: An examination of nonresponse in college student surveys. Doctoral Dissertation. Retrieved from ProQuest/UMI (No. 3545953).Google Scholar
- Kuehn, K. W. (2009). Entrepreneurial intentions research: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 11, 87–98.Google Scholar
- Leung, K.-Y., Lo, C.-T., Sun, H., & Wong, K.-F. (2012). Factors influencing engineering students’ intention to participate in on-campus entrepreneurial activities. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 15, 1–19.Google Scholar
- Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 33(3), 593–617.Google Scholar
- Mars, M. M. (2013). A cross-disciplinary primer on the meaning and primer on the principles of innovation. In M. M. Mars & S. Hoskinson (Eds.), Advances in the study of entrepreneurship, innovation, and economic growth (Vol. 23, pp. 65–81). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Mattare, M. (2008). Teaching entrepreneurship: The case for an entrepreneurial leadership course. In USASBE Proceedings in San Antonio, TX (pp. 78–93).Google Scholar
- Mayhew, M. J., Rockenbach, A. N., Bowman, N. A., Seifert, T. A., & Wolniak, G. C. (2016a). How college affects students: 21st century evidence that higher education works (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Mayhew, M. J., Simonoff, J. S., Baumol, W. J., Selznick, B., Vassallo, S. (2016b). Cultivating innovative entrepreneurs for the 21st Century: A Study of U.S. and German Students. Journal of Higher Education, 87(3), 420–455.Google Scholar
- Muthén, B. O. (2008). Re: How MPLUS computes factor scores [Online discussion forum]. Retrieved from http://www.statmodel.com/discussion/messages/9/3778.html.
- Nickels, A., Rowland, T., & Fadase, O. (2011). Engaging undergraduate students to be agents of social change: Lessons from student affairs professionals. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 17(1), 45–59.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, J. J., Soper, J. C., & Facca, T. M. (2012). Creativity in the entrepreneurship classroom. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 15, 123–131.Google Scholar
- Selznick, B. S. (2017). Higher education for undergraduate innovation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York: New York University.Google Scholar
- Smith, K. (2005). Measuring innovation. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson (Eds.), The oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 148–177). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Streeter, D., Kher, R., & Jaquette, P. (2011). University-wide trends in entrepreneurship education and the rankings: A dilemma. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education., 14(5), 75–92.Google Scholar
- Thompson, N. A. (2009). Ability estimation with item response theory [White paper]. Retrieved from https://www.assess.com/docs/Thompson_(2009)_Ability_estimation_with_IRT.pdf.
- Wagner, T. (2012). Creating innovators: The making of young people who will change the world. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar