Research in Higher Education

, Volume 51, Issue 7, pp 615–640 | Cite as

To See the World or Stay at Home: Applying an Integrated Student Choice Model to Explore the Gender Gap in the Intent to Study Abroad

  • Mark H. Salisbury
  • Michael B. Paulsen
  • Ernest T. Pascarella
Article

Abstract

Although interest in study abroad has grown consistently in recent decades, study abroad professionals and higher education scholars have been unable to explain or rectify the long-standing gender gap in study abroad participation. This study applies an integrated model of the student-choice construct to explore differences between male and female intent to study abroad. Results indicate that, not only can various forms of social and cultural capital predict student decisions about curricular opportunities during college such as study abroad, but gender plays a substantial role in altering the ways in which those forms of capital shape student decisions differently. These findings present a range of implications for researchers interested in better understanding the decision making process of college students as well as study abroad professionals and national policymakers intent on narrowing the gender gap in study abroad participation.

Keywords

College students Study abroad Gender differences Student choice construct Intent 

References

  1. Advancing America’s Priorities Act, S. 3297, 110th Congress, 2nd Session. (2008).Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. D. (2007). Students in a global village: The nexus of choice, expectation, and experience in study abroad. (Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin).Google Scholar
  3. Angulo, S. K. (2008). Identity change in students who study abroad. (Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin).Google Scholar
  4. Astin, A. (1993). What matters in college: Four years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, G. S. (1993). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with a special reference to education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1997). Women’s ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  7. Black, H. T., & Duhon, D. L. (2006). Assessing the impact of business study abroad programs on cultural awareness and personal development. Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), 140–144. doi:10.3200/JOEB.81.3.140-144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Booker, R. W. (2001). Differences between applicants and non-applicants relevant to the decision to apply to study abroad. (Ph.D., University of Missouri—Columbia).Google Scholar
  9. Bordieu, P., & Passerson, J. C. (1977). Reproduction in education, society, and culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Brubaker, C. J. (2006). Student perceptions of self-identified cultural encounters during a short-term study abroad program. (Ph.D., Michigan State University).Google Scholar
  11. Buchmann, C., DiPrete, T. A., & McDaniel, A. (2008). Gender inequalities in education. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 319–337. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlson, J. S. (1990). Study abroad: The experience of American undergraduates. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3–7.Google Scholar
  14. Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. (1991). Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Chickering, A. W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  16. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120. doi:10.1086/228943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cubillos, J. H., Chieffo, L., & Fan, C. (2008). The impact of short-term study abroad programs on L2 listening comprehension skills. Foreign Language Annals, 41, 157–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Darby, J. A. (2006). Evaluating courses: An examination of the impact of student gender. Educational Studies, 32(2), 187–199. doi:10.1080/03055690600631093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dessoff, A. (2006). Who’s not going abroad? International Educator, 15(2), 20–27.Google Scholar
  20. Douglas, C., & Jones-Rikkers, C. G. (2001). Study abroad programs and American student worldmindedness: An empirical analysis. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 13(1), 55–66. doi:10.1300/J066v13n01_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dwyer, M. M. (2004). More is better: The impact of study abroad program duration. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 151–163.Google Scholar
  22. Flash, S. J. (1999). Study abroad program participation effects on academic progress. (Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo).Google Scholar
  23. Galloti, K. M., & Mark, M. C. (1994). How do high school students structure an important life decision? A short-term longitudinal study of the college decision-making process. Research in Higher Education, 35, 589–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gammonley, D., Rotabi, K. S., & Gamble, D. N. (2007). Enhancing global understanding with study abroad: Ethically grounded approaches to international learning. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 27(3–4), 115–135. doi:10.1300/J067v27n03_08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Golay, P. A. (2006). The effects of study abroad on the development of global-mindedness among students enrolled in international programs at Florida State University. (Ed.D., The Florida State University).Google Scholar
  27. Goldstein, S. B., & Kim, R. I. (2006). Predictors of US college students’ participation in study abroad program: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 507–521. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Graban, J. L. (2007). The effects of study abroad experience on student cognitive and affective outcomes of college. (Ph.D., Indiana State University).Google Scholar
  29. Gullahorn, J., & Gullahorn, J. T. (1966). American students abroad, professional versus personal development. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 368, 43–59. doi:10.1177/000271626636800106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hearn, J. C., & Holdsworth, J. M. (2005). Co-curricular activities and students’ college prospects: Is there a connection? In W. G. Tierney, Z. B. Corwin, & J. E. Colyar (Eds.), Preparing for college: Nine elements of effective outreach. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hembroff, L. A., & Rusz, D. L. (1993). Minorities and overseas studies programs: Correlates of differential participation. (Occasional paper on international education exchange no. 30). New York: Council on International Education Exchange.Google Scholar
  32. Hoffa, W. (2007). A history of US study abroad: Beginnings to 1965. Carlisle, PA: The Forum on Education Abroad.Google Scholar
  33. Hossler, D., Schmit, J., & Vesper, N. (1999). Going to college: How social, economic and educational factors influence the decisions students make. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Institute of International Education. (2008). Open doors report 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008, from http://opendoors.iienetwork.org/.
  35. Jackson, J. (2008). Globalization, internationalization, and short-term stays abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 349–358. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jacobs, J. A. (1996). Gender inequality and higher education. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 153–185. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Klahr, S. C. (1998). A descriptive study of the barriers to study abroad in engineering undergraduate education and recommendations for program design. (Ed.D., Montana State University).Google Scholar
  38. Kuh, G. (2001). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual framework and overview of psychometric properties. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research.Google Scholar
  39. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H., Whitt, E. J., & Associates. (2005). Student success in college creating conditions that matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  40. Kuh, G. D., Schuh, J. H., Whitt, E. J., & Associates (1991). Involving colleges: Successful approaches to fostering student learning and personal development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  41. Langley, C. S., & Breese, J. R. (2005). Interacting sojourners: A study of students studying abroad. The Social Science Journal, 42, 313–321. doi:10.1016/j.soscij.2005.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lincoln Commission. (2005). Global competence and national needs: One million Americans studying abroad. Final report. Washington DC: Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Fellowship Program.Google Scholar
  43. Lindsey, E. W. (2005). Study abroad and values development in social work students. Journal of Social Work Education, 41, 229–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Long, S. J., & Freese, J. (2003). Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata (Revised ed.). College Station, Texas: Stata.Google Scholar
  45. Lungren, D., & Rudawsky, D. (1998). Female and male college students’ responses to negative feedback from parents and peers. Sex Roles, 39, 409–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Magnan, S. S., & Back, M. (2007). Social interaction and linguistic gain during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 40, 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and reasoning in college: Gender-related patterns of intellectual development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  48. Mansfield, P. M., & Warwick, J. (2005). Gender differences in students’ and parents’ evaluative criteria when selecting a college. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 15(2), 47–80. doi:10.1300/J050v15n02_03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Massey, D. S., Charles, C. Z., Lundy, G. F., & Fischer, M. J. (2003). The source of the river: The social origins of freshmen at America’s selective colleges and universities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  50. McDonough, P. (1997). Choosing colleges: How social class and schools structure opportunity. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  51. McKeown, J. S. (2006). The impact of study abroad on college student intellectual development. (Ph.D., Syracuse University).Google Scholar
  52. Milstein, T. (2005). Transformation abroad: Sojourning and the perceived enhancement of self-efficacy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 217–238. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.05.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mistretta, W. (2008). Life-enhancing: An exploration of the long-term effects of study abroad. (Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo).Google Scholar
  54. NAFSA: Association of International Educators. (2003). Securing America’s future: Global education for a global age. Washington, DC: Report of the Strategic Task Force on Education Abroad.Google Scholar
  55. Nash, D. (1976). The personal consequences of a year of study abroad. Journal of Higher Education, 47, 191–203. doi:10.2307/1980421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nora, A., Cabrera, A., Hagedorn, L. S., & Pascarella, E. (1996). Differential impacts of academic and social experiences on college-related behavioral outcomes across different ethnic and gender groups at four-year institutions. Research in Higher Education, 37, 427–451. doi:10.1007/BF01730109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pascarella, E. T., Hagedorn, L. S., Whitt, E. J., Yeager, P. M., Edison, M. I., Terenzini, P. T., & Nora, A. (1997). Women’s perceptions of a “chilly climate” and their cognitive outcomes during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 38(2), 109–124.Google Scholar
  58. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. (1991). How college affects students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  59. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (Vol. 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  60. Paulsen, M. B. (1990). College choice: Understanding student enrollment behavior. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 6. Washington, DC: George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development.Google Scholar
  61. Paulsen, M. B. (2001). The economics of human capital and investment in higher education. In M. B. Paulsen & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The finance of higher education: Theory, research, policy, & practice (pp. 55–94). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  62. Paulsen, M. B., & St. John, E. P. (2002). Social class and college costs: Examining the financial nexus between college choice and persistence. The Journal of Higher Education, 73, 189–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Perna, L. W. (2000). Differences in the decision to enroll in college among African-American, Hispanics, and Whites. Journal of Higher Education, 71, 117–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Perna, L. W. (2006). Understanding the relationship between information about college prices and financial aid and students’ college-related behaviors. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 1620–1635. doi:10.1177/0002764206289144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Perna, L. W., & Titus, M. A. (2005). The relationship between parental involvement as social capital and college enrollment: An examination of racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 76, 485–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Peterson, D. L. (2003). The decision to study abroad: Contributing factors and implications for communication strategies. (Ph.D., Michigan State University).Google Scholar
  67. Posey, J. T. Jr. (2003). Study abroad: Educational and employment outcomes of participants versus non participants. (Ph.D., The Florida State University).Google Scholar
  68. Redden, E. (2008). Women abroad and men at home. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/12/04/genderabroad.
  69. Salisbury, M. H., Umbach, P. D., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2009). Going global: Understanding the choice process of the intent to study abroad. Research in Higher Education, 50, 119–143. doi:10.1007/s11162-008-9111-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sax, L. J. (2008). The gender gap in college: Maximizing the developmental potential of women and men. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  71. Sax, L. J., Bryant, A. N., & Harper, C. E. (2005). The differential effects of student-faculty interaction on college outcomes for women and men. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 642–659. doi:10.1353/csd.2005.0067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Seifert, T. A., Goodman, K. M., Lindsay, N., Jorgensen, J. D., Wolniak, G. C., Pascarella, E. T., et al. (2008). The effects of liberal arts experiences on liberal arts outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 49, 107–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sewell, W. H. (1971). Inequality of opportunity for higher education. American Sociological Review, 36, 793–809. doi:10.2307/2093667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shank, M., & Beasley, F. (1998). Gender effects on the university selection process. Journal of Marketing in Higher Education, 8(3), 63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shirley, S. W. (2006). The gender gap in post-secondary study abroad: Understanding and marketing to male students. (Ph.D., The University of North Dakota).Google Scholar
  76. Smith, D. G., Morrison, D. E., & Wolf, L. E. (1994). College as a gendered experience—an empirical-analysis using multiple lenses. Journal of Higher Education, 65, 696–725. doi:10.2307/2943825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. St. John, E. P., Asker, E. H., & Hu, S. (2001). The role of finances in student choice: A review of theory and research. In M. B. Paulsen & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The finance of higher education: Theory, research, policy, & practice (pp. 419–438). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  78. Van Der Meid, J. S. (2003). Asian Americans: Factors influencing the decision to study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9, 71–110.Google Scholar
  79. Wallace, D. H. (1999). Academic study abroad: The long-term impact on alumni careers, volunteer activities, world and personal perspectives. (Ph.D., The Claremont Graduate University).Google Scholar
  80. Washington, D. D. (1998). African-American undergraduate students’ perceptions of and attitudes toward study abroad programs. (Ph.D., George Mason University).Google Scholar
  81. Whitt, E. J., Edison, M. I., Pascarella, E. T., Nora, A., & Terenzini, P. T. (1999). Women’s perceptions of a “chilly climate” and cognitive outcomes in college: Additional evidence. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 163–177.Google Scholar
  82. Whitt, E. J., Pascarella, E. T., Nesheim, B. S. E., Marth, B. P., & Pierson, C. T. (2003). Differences between women and men in objectively measured outcomes, and the factors that influence those outcomes, in the first three years of college. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 587–610. doi:10.1353/csd.2003.0060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Williams, T. R. (2005). Exploring the impact of study abroad on students’ intercultural communication skills: Adaptability and sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9, 356–371. doi:10.1177/1028315305277681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Young, D. Y. (2003). Participation in a study-abroad program and persistence at a liberal arts university. (Ph.D., University of North Texas).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark H. Salisbury
    • 1
  • Michael B. Paulsen
    • 1
  • Ernest T. Pascarella
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational Policy and Leadership Studies, 491 Lindquist Center NorthThe University of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations