Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 25–38 | Cite as

Endangered Golden mahseer Tor putitora Hamilton: a review of natural history

  • Jay P. Bhatt
  • Maharaj K. Pandit


Golden mahseer, Tor putitora Hamilton, one of the largest freshwater fish of the Indian sub-continent, inhabits mainly Himalayan rivers in the foothills. Among numerous freshwater fishes of the sub-continent, Golden mahseer is the most striking due to its large size, attractive golden colour, sustenance and sporting values. Tor putitora is known by various common names such as king mahseer, mighty mahseer and the tiger of water. Being a migratory fish, Golden mahseer undertakes periodic upstream migration during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons from large rivers and higher order streams in the foothills to lower order streams for spawning. In recent years, conservationists, anglers and commercial fishermen have expressed concern over the declining populations of Golden mahseer due to indiscriminate fishing of brooders and juveniles besides the adverse effects of dams. Despite its ecological and economic importance, specific conservation measures by way of protective legal provisos are lacking for Golden mahseer in India. In view of its physical features, ecology and vulnerable conservation status, there is an exigent need to promote the Golden mahseer as a flagship conservation species of the Himalayan rivers. In view of the recent reports of unprecedented river regulation projects on the Himalayan rivers and need to draw global attention of conservationists, we review various aspects of ecology, life history, interesting features, traits and threats associated with the reduced chances of survival of Golden mahseer.


Himalaya Golden mahseer Endangered species Threats Conservation 



Authors thank Mr. Rajendra Mehta for his assistance in map preparation. We are grateful to the all three reviewers and the editor for their critical review of manuscript and valuable suggestions. We also thank Mr. Kumar Manish for his constructive comments and suggestions.

Supplementary material

11160_2015_9409_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill EnvironmentUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental StudiesUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Radcliffe Institute for Advanced StudyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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