Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 25–38 | Cite as

Endangered Golden mahseer Tor putitora Hamilton: a review of natural history

Reviews

Abstract

Golden mahseer, Tor putitora Hamilton, one of the largest freshwater fish of the Indian sub-continent, inhabits mainly Himalayan rivers in the foothills. Among numerous freshwater fishes of the sub-continent, Golden mahseer is the most striking due to its large size, attractive golden colour, sustenance and sporting values. Tor putitora is known by various common names such as king mahseer, mighty mahseer and the tiger of water. Being a migratory fish, Golden mahseer undertakes periodic upstream migration during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons from large rivers and higher order streams in the foothills to lower order streams for spawning. In recent years, conservationists, anglers and commercial fishermen have expressed concern over the declining populations of Golden mahseer due to indiscriminate fishing of brooders and juveniles besides the adverse effects of dams. Despite its ecological and economic importance, specific conservation measures by way of protective legal provisos are lacking for Golden mahseer in India. In view of its physical features, ecology and vulnerable conservation status, there is an exigent need to promote the Golden mahseer as a flagship conservation species of the Himalayan rivers. In view of the recent reports of unprecedented river regulation projects on the Himalayan rivers and need to draw global attention of conservationists, we review various aspects of ecology, life history, interesting features, traits and threats associated with the reduced chances of survival of Golden mahseer.

Keywords

Himalaya Golden mahseer Endangered species Threats Conservation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors thank Mr. Rajendra Mehta for his assistance in map preparation. We are grateful to the all three reviewers and the editor for their critical review of manuscript and valuable suggestions. We also thank Mr. Kumar Manish for his constructive comments and suggestions.

Supplementary material

11160_2015_9409_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. Abrahams M, Kattenfeld M (1997) The role of turbidity as a constraint on predator–prey interactions in aquatic environment. Behav Ecol Soc Biol 40:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali S, Barat A, Kumar P, Sati J, Kumar R, Haldar RS (2014) Study of length–weight relationship and condition factor of the Golden mahseer, Tor putitora from Himalayan rivers of India. J Environ Biol 35:225–228Google Scholar
  3. Arjamand S, Dar SA, Desai AY, Sayani AN, Yusufzai SI, Ashfaq M, Bhola DV, Fofandi MD (2013) Reproductive biology of an endangered coldwater fish Golden mahseer, Tor putitora (Ham.) from Anji mahseer hatchery Reasi (J&K). IOSR J Pharm 3:13–16Google Scholar
  4. Arora R, Julka JP (2013) Phenotype and genotype differentiation between two stocks of Tor putitora (Hamilton) population (pisces: cyprinidae) from Himachal Pradesh, India. Int J Plant Anim Environ Sci 3:31–41Google Scholar
  5. Atkore VM, Sivakumar K, Johnsingh AJT (2011) Patterns of diversity and conservation status of freshwater fishes in the tributaries of river Ramganga in the Shiwaliks of the Western Himalaya. Curr Sci 100:731–736Google Scholar
  6. Badola SP, Singh HR (1980) Food and feeding habits of fishes of the genera Tor, Puntius and Barilius. Proc Indian Nat Sci Acad B46:58–62Google Scholar
  7. Bakawale S, Kanhere RR (2013) Study on the fish species diversity of the river Narmada in Western zone. Res. J Anim Veter Fish Sci 1:18–20Google Scholar
  8. Basavaraja N (2007) Freshwater fish seed resource in India. In: Bondad–Reantaso MG (ed) Assessment of freshwater seed resource for sustainable aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 501, Rome, pp 267–327Google Scholar
  9. Beavan R (1877) Handbook of freshwater fishes of India. L. Reeve & Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernard CKC, Pang T, Lin V, Puska P, Sherman G, Goddard M, Ackland MJ, Sainsbury P, Stachenko S, Morrison H, Clottey C (2005) Can scientists and policy makers work together? J Epid Comm Heal 59:632–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatt JP, Nautiyal P, Singh HR (1998a) Racial structure of Himalayan mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton) in the river Ganga between Rishikesh and Hardwar. Indian J Anim Sci 68:587–590Google Scholar
  12. Bhatt JP, Nautiyal P, Singh HR (1998b) Comparative study of morphometric characters of Himalayan mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton) between Ganga and Gobindsagar reservoir stocks. Indian J Fish 45:85–87Google Scholar
  13. Bhatt JP, Nautiyal P, Singh HR (2000) Population structure of Himalayan mahseer, a large cyprinid fish in the regulated foothill section of the river Ganga. Fish Res 44:267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhatt JP, Nautiyal P, Singh HR (2004) Status (1993–1994) of the endangered fish Himalayan mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton) (Cyprinidae) in the mountain reaches of the river Ganga. Asian Fish Sci 17:341–355Google Scholar
  15. Bhatt JP, Manish K, Pandit MK (2012) Elevational gradients in fish diversity in the Himalaya: water discharge is the key driver of distribution patterns. PLoS ONE 7(9):e46237. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046237 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bingham DM, Kennedy BM, Hanson KC, Smith CT (2014) Loss of genetic integrity in hatchery steelhead produced by juvenile-based brood stock and wild integration: conflicts in production and conservation. Nor Am J Fish Manage 34:609–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bunn SE, Arthington AH (2002) Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environ Manage 30:492–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Choudhary S, Dey S, Dey S, Sagar V, Nair T, Kelkar N (2012) River dolphin distribution in regulated river systems: implications for dry-season. Flow regimes in the Gangetic basin. Aquat Conserv: Mar Freshwat Ecosyst 22:11–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Das SM, Pathani SS (1978) Studies on the biology of Kumaun mahseer Tor putitora (Ham). Adaptation of alimentary tract in relation to feeding habits, body weight and body length. Indian J Anim Sci 48:461–465Google Scholar
  20. Dasgupta M (1982) An investigation on some aspects of biology of mahseer from the North-Eastern India. Ph.D. thesis, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Dasgupta M (1991a) Biometry of the mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton) collected from Garo Hills, Meghalaya. Indian J Fish 38:129–131Google Scholar
  22. Dasgupta M (1991b) Food and feeding habits of the mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton). Indian J Fish 38:212–217Google Scholar
  23. Dasgupta M (1993) A study on food and feeding habits of the mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton). Proc 80th  Indian Sci Congr 3:22–23Google Scholar
  24. David A (1955) Notes on bionomics and some early stages of the Mahanadi mahseer. J As Soc Bengal 19:197–289Google Scholar
  25. Day F (1878) The fishes of India: being a natural history of fishes known to inhabit the seas and freshwater of India, Burma and Ceylon. Taylor and Francis, London, p 778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Desai VR (1972) Notes on the early larval stages of Tor putitora (Hamilton). J Zool Soc India 24:47–51Google Scholar
  27. Dinesh K, Nandeesha MC, Nautiyal P, Aiyappa P (2010) Mahseers in India: a review with focus on conservation. Indian J Anim Sci 80(supplt 1):26–38Google Scholar
  28. Dudgeon D (2011) Asian river fishes in the Anthropocene: threats and conservation challenges in an era of rapid environmental change. J Fish Biol 79:1487–1524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eschmeyer WN, Ferraries Jr CJ, Hoang MD, Long DJ (2004) The catalogue of fishes, online, species of fishes, http://www.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/intro.html.
  30. Everard M, Kataria G (2011) Recreational angling markets to advance the conservation of a reach of the Western Ramganga river, India. Aquat Conserv: Mar Freshwat Ecosyst 21:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gray JE (1833–1834) The illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection General Hardwick. 1:pl. XCIII fig 1, 2:pl XCVI fig 1Google Scholar
  32. Grumbine RE, Pandit MK (2013) Threats from India’s Himalaya dams. Science 339:36–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gupta N, Chadwick MA, Drake N, Sivakumar K, Mathur VB (2013) Importance of protected areas for managing freshwater fish biodiversity in Indian Himalayan rivers. Hydrol Curr Res 4:60Google Scholar
  34. Gupta N, Sivakumar K, Mathur VB, Chadwick MA (2014a) The ‘tiger of Indian rivers’: stakeholders’ perspectives on the golden mahseer as a flagship fish species. Area. doi: 10.1111/area.12124 Google Scholar
  35. Gupta N, Nautiyal P, Borgohain A, Sivakumar K, Mathur VB, Chadwick MA (2014b) Catch-and-release angling as a management tool for freshwater fish conservation in India. Oryx. doi: 10.1017/S0030605314000787 Google Scholar
  36. Gupta N, Raghavan R, Sivakumar K, Mathur VB (2014c) Freshwater fish safe zones: a prospective conservation strategy for river ecosystems in India. Curr Sci 107:949–950Google Scholar
  37. Gupta N, Sivakumar K, Mathur VB, Chadwick MA (2015a) Terrestrial protected areas and managed reaches conserve threatened freshwater fish in Uttarakhand, India. PARKS 21:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gupta N, Bower SD, Raghavan R, Danylchuk AJ, Cooke SJ (2015b) Status of recreational fisheries in India: development, issues, and opportunities. Rev Fish Sci Aquac 23:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta N, Raghavan R, Sivakumar K, Mathur V, Pinder AC (2015c) Assessing recreational fisheries in an emerging economy: knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of catch-and-release anglers in India. Fish Res 165:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gurung TB, Rai AK, Joshi PL, Nepal A, Baidya A, Bist J (2002) Breeding of pond reared golden mahseer (Tor putitora) in Pokhara, Nepal. In: Petr T, Swar SB (eds) Coldwater fisheries in the trans–Himalayan countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper vol 431, pp 147–160Google Scholar
  41. Hamilton F (1822) An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches. Edinburg (1981), Bishan Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Hora SL (1939) The game fishes of India iii: The mahseer or the large scaled barbels of India. 1. The putitor mahseer Barbus (Tor) putitora Hamilton. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 41:272–285Google Scholar
  43. Hora SL (1940) The game fishes of India i. The mahseers and large scaled barbels of India 2. The tor mahseer Barbus (Tor) tor (Hamilton). J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 41:518–525Google Scholar
  44. Hora SL, Mukerji DP (1936) Fish of eastern Doon. Unit Prov Rec Indian Mus Calcutta 38:133–146Google Scholar
  45. IUCN (2015) IUCN red list of threatened species. ver. 2015.1. (http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/search)
  46. IUCN/SSC (2013) Guidelines for reintroductions and other conservation translocations. Version 1.0. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Species Survival Commission, viiii + p 57Google Scholar
  47. Jhingran VG (1982) Fish and fisheries of India (revised and enlarged 2nd edition). Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), DelhiGoogle Scholar
  48. Johal MS, Tandon KK (1981) Age, growth and length–weight relationship of Tor putitora from Gobindsagar, Himachal Pradesh India. In: Fish Bull, special publication on Coldwater fisheries seminar organized by CIFE, Chandigarh, India, pp 43–48Google Scholar
  49. Johal MS, Tandon KK, Sandhu GS (1994) Morphometry of Tor putitora. In: Nautiyal P (ed) Mahseer the game fish. Jagdamba Publication, Dehradun, pp B68–B75Google Scholar
  50. Johal MS, Tandon KK, Sandhu GS (1999) Age and growth of an endangered cold water fish golden mahseer Tor putitora (Ham.) from Gobindsagar, Himachal Pradesh, India. In: Saksena DN (ed) Recent research advances in Ichthyology. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi, pp 59–73Google Scholar
  51. Johnsingh AJT, Negi AS, Mohan D (2006) Golden mahseer conservation in Uttaranchal. Cheetal 43:9–17Google Scholar
  52. Joshi CB (1988) Mahseer fishery of some hill streams in Western Himalayas. Indian J Fish 35:327–329Google Scholar
  53. Joshi CB (1994) Alikhad (Sutlej river system): juvenile habitat and breeding grounds. In: Nautiyal P (ed) Mahseer the game fish. Jagdamba Publication, Dehradun, pp B102–B111Google Scholar
  54. Khajuria B, Langer S, Tripathi NK (2013) Status of Golden mahseer (Tor putitora) in Jammu region (J&K). Int J Rec Sci Res 4:1154–1156Google Scholar
  55. Khan H (1939) Study of sex organ of mahseer (Barbus tor). J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 40:653–656Google Scholar
  56. Khan HA (1994) Fecundity. In: Nautiyal P (ed) Mahseer the game fish. Jagdamba Publication, Dehradun, pp B22–B23Google Scholar
  57. Khan MA, Sinha M (2000) Status of mahseer fishery in north and north-eastern India with a note on their conservation. J Inland Fish Soc 32:28–36Google Scholar
  58. Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1980) A high number of chromosomes in the hillstream cyprinid, Tor putitora (Pisces). Experientia 36:173–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1982) Karyomorphology of two species of Tor (Pisces, Cyprinidae) with a high number of chromosomes. Experientia 38:82–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kishor B, Bhatt JP, Rawat VS, Nautiyal P (1998) Variations in food habit of the Himalayan mahseer—Tor putitora (Ham.) inhabiting the Ganga river system in Garhwal region. Indian J Fish 45:113–118Google Scholar
  61. Kolkolo UM (1996) Quarantine practices used in Papua New Guinea for introductions and transfers of live fish. In: Subasinghe RP, Arthur JR, Shariff M (eds) Health management in Asian aquaculture, Proceedings of the regional expert consultation on aquaculture health management in Asia and the Pacific. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 360, pp 140–142Google Scholar
  62. Lakra WS, Mohindra V, Lal KK (2007) Fish genetics and conservation research in India: status and perspectives. Fish Physiol Biochem 33:475–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lakra WS, Goswami M, Sarkar UK (2010) Conservation biology of Indian mahseer. Indian J Anim Sci 80:98–108Google Scholar
  64. Laskar BA, Bhattacharjee MJ, Dhar B, Mahadani P, Kundu S, Ghosh SK (2013) The species dilemma of Northeast Indian mahseer (actinopterygii: cyprinidae): DNA barcoding in clarifying the riddle. PLoS ONE 8:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Malik DS (2011) Population dynamics and conservation management of Himalayan mahseer (Tor species) in riverine aquatic ecosystem in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand (India). J Appl Nat Sci 3:97–101Google Scholar
  66. McDonald AStJ (1948) Circumventing the mahseer and other sporting fish in India and Burma. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc XLIV:38–59Google Scholar
  67. Menon AGK (1954) Fish geography of the Himalayas. Proc Nat Sci India 20:467–493Google Scholar
  68. Menon AGK (1992) Taxonomy of the mahseer fishes of Genus Tor Gray with description of a new species from Deccan. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 89:210–228Google Scholar
  69. Naeem M, Salam A, Ishtiaq A (2011) Length–weight relationships of wild and farmed Tor putitora from Pakistan. J Appl Ichthyol 27:1133–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nautiyal P (1984) Natural history of the Garhwal Himalayan mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton) II: breeding biology. Proc Indian Acad Sci 93:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nautiyal P (1989) Mahseer conservation—problems and prospects. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 86:32–36Google Scholar
  72. Nautiyal P (1994) The Himalayan or putitor mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton). In: Nautiyal P (ed) Mahseer the game fish. Jagdamba Publications, Dehradun, pp B4–B12Google Scholar
  73. Nautiyal P (2002) The Himalayan mahseer: migratory pattern in relation to ecological characteristics of the Ganga river system in Garhwal Himalaya. In: Vass KK, Raina HS (eds) Fisheries and aquatic resource management. Yugantar Prakashan Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 172–195Google Scholar
  74. Nautiyal P (2006) Rising awareness and efforts to conserve the Indian mahseers. Curr Sci 91:1604Google Scholar
  75. Nautiyal P (2011) The golden mahseer (a threatened fish of Himalaya). Lambert Academic Publishing, Amazon Distribution GmbH, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  76. Nautiyal P (2014) Review of the art and science of Indian mahseer (Game Fish) from nineteenth to twentieth century: road to extinction or conservation? Proc Nat Acad Sci India, Sect B Biol Sci 84:215–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nautiyal P, Lal MS (1984) Food and feeding habits of fingerlings and juveniles of mahseer (Tor putitora Ham) in Nayar river. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 81:642–646Google Scholar
  78. Nautiyal P, Lal MS (1985a) Food and feeding habits of Garhwal Himalayan mahseer in relation to certain abiotic factors. Matsya 11:31–35Google Scholar
  79. Nautiyal P, Lal MS (1985b) Studies on the natural history of Garhwal Himalayan mahseer Tor putitora I Maturation. Indian J Phys Nat Sci 5:36–42Google Scholar
  80. Nautiyal P, Lal MS (1985c) Fecundity of Garhwal Himalayan mahseer, Tor putitora. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 82:253–257Google Scholar
  81. Nautiyal P, Singh HR (1989) River projects and endangered hill stream mahseer Tor putitora in Indian uplands of Garhwal Himalaya, a critical evaluation. Him J Env Zool 3:129–134Google Scholar
  82. Nautiyal P, Rizvi AF, Dhasmana P (2008) Life– history traits and decadal trends in the growth parameters of Golden mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton 1822) from the Himalayan stretch of the Ganga river system. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 8:125–132Google Scholar
  83. Nguyen TTT, Na-Nakorn U, Sukmanomon S, ZiMing C (2008) A study on phylogeny and biogeography of Mahseer species (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using sequence of three mitochondrial DNA gene region. Mol Phyl Evol 48:1223–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ogle SN (2002) Mahseer breeding and conservation and possibilities of commercial culture: the Indian experience. In: Petr T, Swar SB (eds) Coldwater fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 431, pp 193–212Google Scholar
  85. Pandit MK (2006) Continuing the search for pattern among rare plants: are diploid species more likely to be rare? Evol Ecol Res 8:543–552Google Scholar
  86. Pandit MK (2009) Other factors at work in melting Himalaya: follow–up to Xu et al. Conserv Biol l23:1346–1347Google Scholar
  87. Pandit MK (2013) Chipko: failure of a successful conservation movement. In: Sodhi NS, Gibson L, Raven PH (eds) Conservation biology: voices from the tropics. Wiley, Oxford, pp 126–127Google Scholar
  88. Pandit MK, Grumbine RE (2012) Potential effects of ongoing and proposed, hydropower development on terrestrial biological diversity in the Indian Himalaya. Conserv Biol 26:1061–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pandit MK, Manish K, Koh LP (2014) Dancing on the roof of the world: ecological transformation of the Himalayan landscape. Bio Sci 64:980–992Google Scholar
  90. Park Y-S, Chang J, Lek S, Cao W, Brosse S (2003) Conservation strategies for endemic fish species threatened by the three gorges dam. Conserv Biol 17:1748–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pathani SS (1981) Fecundity of mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton). Proc Indian Acad Sci 90:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pathani SS (1994a) Biology of tor and putitor mahseer. In: Nautiyal P (ed) Mahseer the game fish. Jagdamba Publications, Dehradun, pp B86–B90Google Scholar
  93. Pathani SS (1994b) Mahseer of Kumaun lakes: population and its status. In: Nautiyal P (ed) Mahseer the game fish. Jagdamba Publications, Dehradun, pp C44–C48Google Scholar
  94. Pathani SS, Das SM (1979) On induced spawning of mahseer Tor putitora (Hamilton) by mammalian and fish pituitary hormone injection. Sci Cult 45:209–211Google Scholar
  95. Pathani SS, Das SM (1980) A note on length–weight relationship and seasonal condition factor of mahseer Tor tor and T. putitora (Hamilton). J Inland Fish Soc India 12:140–143Google Scholar
  96. Pinder AC, Raghavan R (2013) Conserving the endangered mahseers (Tor spp.) of India: the positive role of recreational fisheries. Curr Sci 104:1472–1475Google Scholar
  97. Pinder AC, Raghavan R, Britton JR (2014) Efficacy of angler catch data as a population and conservation monitoring tool for the flagship mahseer fishes (Tor spp.) of Southern India. Aquat Conserv: Mar Freshwat Ecosyst. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2543 Google Scholar
  98. Pinder AC, Raghavan R, Britton JR (2015) The legendary hump–backed mahseer Tor sp. of India’s River Cauvery: an endemic fish swimming towards extinction? Endang Sp Res 28:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pradhan N, Wagle SK, Gurung TB (2011) Genetic variation of mahseer (Tor putitora) populations from hatchery, lake and rivers of Nepal. In: Gurung TB, Pokharel PK, Upreti CR, Joshi BR, Pradhan SM, Wagle SK (eds) Proceedings of the 8th national workshop on livestock and fisheries research. Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Nepal, pp 35–43Google Scholar
  100. Quinones RM, Grantham TE, Harvey BN, Kiernan JD, Klasson M, Wintzer AP, Moyle PB (2015) Dam removal and anadromous salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) conservation in California. Rev Fish Biol Fish 25:195–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rahman AKA (1989) Freshwater Fish of Bangladesh. Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, p 364Google Scholar
  102. Rahman MA, Mazid MA, Rahman MR, Khan MN, Hossain MA, Hussain MG (2005) Effect of stocking density on survival and growth of critically endangered mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton) in nursery ponds. Aquaculture 249:275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rajvanshi A, Arora R, Mathur VB, Sivakumar K, Sathyakumar S, Rawat GS, Johnson JA, Ramesh K, Dimri N, Maletha A (2012) Assessment of cumulative impacts of hydroelectric projects on aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity in Alaknanda and Bhagirathi basins, Uttarakhand. Wildlife Institute of India, Technical Report, pp 203 plus AppendicesGoogle Scholar
  104. Rana AS, Jha BR, Khatri K (2012) Situation analysis of mahseer conservation in Nepal and prospects of developing angling tourism. In: Shrestha MK, Pant J (eds) Small scale aquaculture for rural livelihood. Symposium Proceedings, pp 182–196Google Scholar
  105. Ranjana VM, Khulbe L, Ponniah AG, Lal KK (2004) Microsatellite loci to assess genetic variation in Tor putitora. J Appl Ichthyol 20:466–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sarkar UK, Pathak AK, Lakra WS (2008) Conservation of fish resources of India: new approaches, assessment and challenges. Biod Conserv 10:2495–2511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sati J, Sah S, Pandey H, Ali S, Sahoo PK, Pande V, Barat A (2013) Phylogenetic relationship and molecular identification of five Indian mahseer species using COI sequence. J Environ Biol 34:933–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sehgal KC (1971) Fisheries survey of Himachal Pradesh and some adjacent areas with special reference to trout, mahseer and allied species. J Bomb Nat Hist Soc 70:458–474Google Scholar
  109. Sharma AP, Mishra A (2002) Present status and prospects of mahseer fishery in Garhwal region of central Himalaya. In: Petr T, Swar SB (eds) Coldwater fisheries in trans Himalayan countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 431, pp 257–272Google Scholar
  110. Sharma KK, Mohan VC, Kouser U (2015) Comparative accounts of merestic count and morphometric measurements of Golden mahseer (Tor putitora) among Chenani hydroelectric dam, Jhajjar stream and Dansar stream, (J&K) India. Indian J Appl Res 5:772–774Google Scholar
  111. Shrestha TK (1994) Migration and spawning of golden mahseer in Himalayan waters of Nepal. J Freshwat Biol 6:71–77Google Scholar
  112. Shrestha TK (1997) Mahseer in the rivers of Nepal disrupted by dams and ranching strategies. RK Printers, Teku, Kathmandu, p 259Google Scholar
  113. Shrestha TK (2002) Ranching mahseer (Tor tor and Tor putitora) in running waters of Nepal. In: Petr T, Swar SB (eds) Coldwater Fisheries in Trans-Himalayan countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 431, pp 297–300Google Scholar
  114. Shrestha C, Rai AK, Gurung TB, Mori K (1990) Successful artificial induced spawning of Himalayan mahseer (Tor putitora Hamilton) in Pokhara Valley, Nepal. In: Hirano R, Hanyn I (eds) Proceedings of the second Asian fisheries forum. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, pp 573–575Google Scholar
  115. Shyam S, Joshi CB (1977) Preliminary observations on the spawning of Tor putitora (Hamilton) in Anji stream, Jammu Province during 1969. Inland J Fish 24:153–158Google Scholar
  116. Singh DP, Lakra WS, Goswami M, Gopalakrishnan A, Chauhan UK (2011) Isolation and characterization of 26 polymorphic microsatellite loci in Golden mahseer, Tor putitora (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and their cross-species amplification in four related species. Conserv Genet Resour 3:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sodhi AS, Saroch JD, Verma J (2013) Fisheries resources of Kashmir: a case study of river Jhelum. J Chem Biol Phys Sci 3:1194–1200Google Scholar
  118. Srivastava SK, Sarkar UK, Patiyal RS (2002) Fishing methods in streams of the Kumaon Himalayan region of India. Asian Fish Sci 15:347–356Google Scholar
  119. Stickney RR (1994) Use of hatchery fish in enhancement progress. Fisheries 19:6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Talwar PK, Jhingran AG (1991) Inland fishes, vol 1. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, p 541Google Scholar
  121. Thomas HS (1897) The rod in India, 3rd edn. W. Thacker & Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  122. Vladykov VD (1934) Environmental and taxonomic characters of fishes. Trans R Can Inst 20:99–140Google Scholar
  123. Walker W (1888) Angling in Kumaun lakes. Thacker, Spink and Co, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  124. William WLC, Tony JP, Daniel P (2005) A fuzzy logic expert system to estimate intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities of marine fishes to fishing. Biol Conserv 124:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. World Commission on Dams (2000) Dams and development: a new framework for decision-making. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  126. WWF (2013) Mahseer conservation in India: Status, challenges and the way forward. In: Proceedings of the Workshop, New Delhi, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  127. Yaqoob M (2002) Production and culture of trout in the Northwest Frontier Province and Northern areas of Pakistan: a review. In: Petr T, Swar SB (eds) Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 431, pp 327–332Google Scholar
  128. Zafar M, Nazir A, Akhtar N, Rab A (2001) Weight–length and condition factor relationship of a fresh water wild mahseer Tor putitora from Korang river Islamabad. Pak J Bio Sci 6:626–627Google Scholar
  129. Zhou S, Smith ADM, Punt AE, Richardson AJK, Gibbs M, Fulton EA, Pascoe S, Bulman C, Bayliss P, Sainsbury K (2010) Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires a change to the selective fishing philosophy. Proc Nat Acad Sci 107:9485–9489PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. ZiMing C, JunXing Y (2004) A new species of the genus Tor from Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Environ Biol Fish 70:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill EnvironmentUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental StudiesUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Radcliffe Institute for Advanced StudyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations