Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 103–116 | Cite as

Behavior and potential threats to survival of migrating lamprey ammocoetes and macrophthalmia

  • Mary L. Moser
  • Aaron D. Jackson
  • Martyn C. Lucas
  • Robert P. Mueller
Reviews

Abstract

Upon metamorphosis, anadromous juvenile lamprey (macrophthalmia) exhibit distinct migration behaviors that take them from larval rearing habitats in streams to the open ocean. While poorly studied, lamprey larvae (ammocoetes) also engage in downstream movement to some degree. Like migrating salmon smolts, lamprey macrophthalmia undergo behavioral changes associated with a highly synchronized metamorphosis. Unlike salmon smolts, the timing of juvenile migration in lamprey is protracted and poorly documented. Lamprey macrophthalmia and ammocoetes are not strong swimmers, attaining maximum individual speeds of less than 1 m s−1, and sustained speeds of less than 0.5 m s−1. They are chiefly nocturnal and distribute throughout the water column, but appear to concentrate near the bottom in the thalweg of deep rivers. At dams and irrigation diversions, macrophthalmia can become impinged on screens or entrained in irrigation canals, suffer increased predation, and experience physical injury that may result in direct or delayed mortality. The very structures designed to protect migrating juvenile salmonids can be harmful to juvenile lamprey. Yet at turbine intakes and spillways, lampreys, which have no swim bladder, can withstand changes in pressure and shear stress large enough to injure or kill most teleosts. Lamprey populations are in decline in many parts of the world, with some species designated as species of concern for conservation that merit legally mandated protections. Hence, provisions for safe passage of juvenile lamprey are being considered at dams and water diversions in North America and Europe.

Keywords

Petromyzontiformes Transformers Passage Metamorphosis Macrophthalmia Ammocoetes 

References

  1. Applegate VC (1950) Natural history of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in Michigan. United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report, Fisheries 55, 237 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Applegate VC, Brynildson CL (1952) Downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the Carp Lake River, Michigan. Trans Am Fish Soc 81:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beamish FWH (1980) Biology of the North American anadromous sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:1924–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beamish RJ, Youson JH (1987) Life history and abundance of young adult Lampetra ayresi in the Fraser River and their possible impacts on salmon and herring stocks in the Strait of Georgia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:525–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bracken FSA, Lucas MC (2013) Potential impacts of small-scale hydroelectric power generation on downstream moving lampreys. River Res Appl 29:1073–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clough SJ, Teague N, Webb H (2014) Even finer bar spacing, how low can you go? In: Turnpenny AWH, Horsfield A (eds) International fish screening techniques. WIT Press, Southampton, pp 57–66Google Scholar
  7. Colotello AH, Pflugrath BD, Brown RS, Brauner CJ, Mueller RP, Carlson TJ, Deng ZD, Ahmann ML, Trumbo BA (2012) The effect of rapid and sustained decompression on barotrauma in juvenile brook lamprey and Pacific lamprey: implications for passage at hydroelectric facilities. Fish Res 129–130:17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CRITFC (Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission) (2011) Tribal Pacific Lamprey Restoration Plan. http://www.critfc.org/salmon-culture/columbia-river-salmon/columbia-river-salmon-species/the-pacific-lamprey/lamprey-plan/. December 2011
  9. CSEWC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada) (2013) Wildlife species assessment, species at risk public registry. Online interactive database. www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca. December 2013
  10. Dauble DD, Moursund RA, Bleich MD (2006) Swimming behavior of juvenile Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata. Env Biol Fish 75:167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dawson HA, Quintella BR, Almeida PR, Treble AJ, Jolley JC (in press) Ecology of larval and metamorphosing lampreys. In: Docker M (ed) The Biology of lampreys, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  12. Docker MF (2009) A review of the evolution of non-parasitism in lampreys and an update of the paired species concept. In: Brown LR, Chase SD, Mesa MG, Beamish RJ, Moyle PB (eds) Biology, management and conservation of lampreys in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 72, Bethesda, MD, pp 71–114Google Scholar
  13. FPC (Fish Passage Center) (2011) FPC lamprey data queries website. http://www.fpc.org/documents/memos/169-11.pdf. November 2011
  14. FPC (Fish Passage Center) (2013) FPC lamprey data queries website. www.fpc.org/lamprey/lamprey_home.html. December 2013
  15. Grabowski SJ (2009) Assessment of potential effects of operation of reclamation facilities on Pacific lamprey in major tributaries of the Columbia River basin. Report to U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, BoiseGoogle Scholar
  16. Hardisty MW, Potter IC (eds) (1971) The biology of lampreys. London, Academic 423 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayes MC, Rubin SP, Chase DM, Hallock M, Cook-Tabor C, Hays R, Luzier CW, Schaller HA, Moser ML (2013) Distribution of Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus in watersheds of Puget Sound based on smolt monitoring data. Northwest Sci 87:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keefer ML, Caudill CC, Peery CA, Moser ML (2013) Context-dependent diel behavior of upstream-migrating anadromous fishes. Environ Biol Fish 96:691–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kostow K (2002) Oregon lampreys: natural history, status, and problem analysis. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR, Information Report 02-1Google Scholar
  20. Kucheryavyi AV, Savvaitova KA, Pavlov DS, Gruzdeva MA, Kuzishchin KV, Stanford JA (2007) Variations of life history strategy of the Arctic lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum from the Utkholok River (Western Kamchatka). J Ichthyol 47:37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lampman RT, Beals TE (2014) A mark-release-recapture study in Congdon Diversion (Naches, WA) to assess dispersal and entrainment of larval/juvenile lamprey. Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management Program, Pacific Lamprey Project. Report to Bureau of Reclamation, Boise, ID 28 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Lampman RT, Beals TE, Johnson E, Luke P, Lumley D (2014) Assessment of juvenile/larval lamprey entrainment in irrigation diversions and canals within the Yakima River Subbasin. Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management Program, Pacific Lamprey Project. Report to Bureau of Reclamation, Boise, ID 61 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Long CW (1968) Diurnal movement and vertical distribution of juvenile anadromous fish in turbine intakes. Fish Bull 66:599–609Google Scholar
  24. Lucas MC, Greaves RK, Bubb DH, Kemp PS (2007) Stanley Mills lamprey report no. 256. Scottish Natural Heritage commissioned report. (ROAME No. F04LH03)Google Scholar
  25. Luzier C, Silver G (2005) Evaluate habitat use and population dynamics of lamprey in Cedar Creek. Report of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the Bonneville Power Administration. www.efw.bpa.gov/IntegratedFWP/technicalreports.aspx. Document ID 00020682-1 (December 2013)
  26. Mesa MG, Weiland LK, Chritiansen, HE (2014) Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River dams. Report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland, OR 64 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Maitland PS, Renaud CB, Quintella BR Close DA (in press) Conservation of native lampreys. In: Docker M (ed) The biology of lampreys, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  28. McIlraith BJ (2011) The adult migration, spatial distribution, and spawning behaviors of anadromous Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the lower Snake River. Unpublished MS thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow, IDGoogle Scholar
  29. Moser ML, Close DA (2003) Assessing Pacific lamprey status in the Columbia River Basin. Northwest Sci 77:116–125Google Scholar
  30. Moser ML, Russon IJ (2009) Development of a separator for juvenile lamprey 2007–2008. Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, Walla Walla, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  31. Moser ML, Vowles AS (2010) Development of a separator for juvenile lamprey 2008–2009. Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, Walla Walla, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  32. Moser ML, Butzerin JM, Dey D (2007) Capture and collection of lampreys: the state of the science. Rev Fish Biol Fish 17:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moursund RA, Dauble DD, Bleich MD (2000) Effects of John Day Dam bypass screens and project operations on the behavior and survival of juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata). Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District, Portland, Oregon 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Moursund RA, Mueller RP, Degerman TM Dauble DD (2001) Effects of dam passage on juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata). Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland, Oregon 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Moursund RA, Mueller RP, Ham KD, Degerman TM, Vucelick ME (2002) Evaluation of the effects of extended length submerged bar screens at McNary Dam on migrating juvenile lamprey (Lampetra tridentata). Report to the for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland, Oregon 31 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Moursund RA, Bleich MD, Ham KD, Mueller RP (2003a) Evaluation of the effects of extended length submerged bar screens on migrating juvenile lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) at John Day Dam in 2002. Report to the for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland, Oregon 29 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. Moursund RA, Dauble DD, Langeslay MJ (2003b) Turbine intake diversion screens: investigating effects on Pacific lamprey. Hydro Rev 22:40–46Google Scholar
  38. Mueller RP, Moursund RA, Bleich MD (2006) Tagging juvenile Pacific lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: methodology, short-term mortality, and influence on swimming performance. N Am J Fish Mgmt 26:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Murdoch SP, Beamish FHW, Docker MF (1991) Laboratory study of growth and interspecific competition in larval lampreys. Trans Am Fish 120:653–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Neitzel D, Dauble DD, Cada G, Richmond M, Guensch G, Mueller RP, Abernethy CS (2004) Survival estimates for juvenile fish subjected to a laboratory-generated shear environment. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Potter IC (1970) The life cycles and ecology of Australian lampreys of the genus Mordacia. J Zool 161:487–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Potter IC (1980) Ecology of larval and metamorphosing lampreys. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:1641–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Potter IC, Huggins RJ (1973) Observations on the morphology, behaviour and salinity tolerance of downstream migrating river lampreys (Lampetra fluviatilis). J Zool 169:365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Quintella BR, Andrade NO, Esphanhol R, Almeida PR (2005) The use of PIT telemetry to study movements of ammocoetes and metamorphosing sea lampreys in river beds. J Fish Biol 66:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Renaud CB (1997) Conservation status of Northern Hemisphere lampreys (Petromyzontidae). J App Ich. 13:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Riley WD, Maxwell DL, Ives MJ, Bendall B (2011) Some observations on the impact of temperature and low flow on the onset of downstream movement of wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts. Aquaculture 262–3:216–223Google Scholar
  47. Robinson TC, Bayer JM (2005) Upstream migration of Pacific lampreys in the John Day River, Oregon: behavior, timing, and habitat use. Northwest Sci 79:106–119Google Scholar
  48. Rose BP, Mesa MG (2012) Effectiveness of common fish screen materials to protect lamprey ammocoetes. N Am J Fish Manag 32:597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rose BP, Mesa MG, Barbin-Zydlewski G (2008) Field-based evaluations of horizontal flatplate fish screens. N Am J Fish Manag 28:1702–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silva S, Gooderham A, Forty M, Morland B, Lucas MC (in press) Egg drift and hatching success in European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: is egg deposition in gravel vital to spawning success? Aquat ConservGoogle Scholar
  51. Sutphin ZA, Hueth CD (2010) Swimming performance of larval Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata). Northwest Sci 84:196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Teague N, Clough SJ (2014) The survival of lamprey on travelling screens at potable water intakes. In: Turnpenny AWH, Horsfield A (eds) International fish screening techniques. WIT Press, Southampton, p 101Google Scholar
  53. Turnpenny AWH, O’Keeffe NJ (2005) Screening for intake and outfalls: A best practice guide. Science report SC030231, Environment Agency, Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  54. Ullén F, Deliagina TG, Orlovsky GN, Grillner S (1997) Visual pathways for postural control and negative phototaxis in lamprey. J Neurophysiol 78:960–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) (2013) Fisheries resources: Pacific lamprey conservation initiative website. www.fws.gov/pacific/Fisheries/sphabcon/Lamprey/index.cfm. December 2013

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary L. Moser
    • 1
  • Aaron D. Jackson
    • 2
  • Martyn C. Lucas
    • 3
  • Robert P. Mueller
    • 4
  1. 1.Northwest Fisheries Science CenterNOAA FisheriesSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Natural ResourcesConfederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian ReservationPendletonUSA
  3. 3.School of Biological and Biomedical SciencesDurham UniversityDurhamUK
  4. 4.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA

Personalised recommendations