Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 381–398 | Cite as

Harvesting for food versus feed: a review of Peruvian fisheries in a global context

  • Pierre FréonEmail author
  • Juan Carlos Sueiro
  • Federico Iriarte
  • Oscar F. Miro Evar
  • Yuri Landa
  • Jean-François Mittaine
  • Marilu Bouchon
Reviews

Abstract

Peru is the top exporter of fishmeal and fish oil (FMFO) worldwide and is responsible for half and a third of global production, respectively. Landings of “anchoveta” (Engraulis ringens) are used nearly exclusively for FMFO production, despite a proactive national food policy aimed at favoring the direct human consumption of this inexpensive species. It may be surprising that in a country where malnutrition and caloric deficit constitute major issues, a low-priced and highly nutritious fish such as anchovy does not have stronger domestic demand as a food fish. Here, we review and assess eight potential politico-socio-economic processes that can explain this situation. The main explanation are dietary habits, the preference for broiler and the higher profit from anchovy sold as feed fish compared to its use as a food fish due to historically high FMFO prices, boosted by an increasing demand for aquaculture in a context of finite forage and trash fish resources. In addition, the recent introduction of an individual quota system has shifted bargaining power from processors to fishers, thereby increasing competition for the raw material. This competition results in an increase in anchovy prices offered by the feed fish industry due to its onshore processing overcapacity, which is detrimental to the food fish industry. In the end, although the dominant use of anchovy for fish feed is largely explained by integrating these market mechanisms and other minor ones, this use raises other issues, such as rent redistribution through public policies, employment, equitability and utility (low social costs), and resource management (threats to ecosystems or global change). Different policy scenarios are proposed in relation to these issues.

Keywords

Fisheries management Politico-socio-economic processes Sustainable development Food security Seafood Feed fish 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is a contribution to the International Join Laboratory—Dynamics of the Humboldt Current system (LMI—DISCOH) coordinated by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and the Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE), and gathering several other institutions. The authors are grateful to Sylvestre Voisin (ARCANSYS), Catherine Domalain (University of Montpellier-I) and Carlota Estrella (formerly at IMARPE) for their earlier contributions, to Dr Sigbjorn Tveteras for his valuable input in some sections of the paper and to Melva Pazos (ITP) for her recent contribution.

Supplementary material

11160_2013_9336_MOESM1_ESM.doc (625 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 625 kb)
11160_2013_9336_MOESM2_ESM.doc (33 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 33 kb)
11160_2013_9336_MOESM3_ESM.doc (42 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 43 kb)

References

  1. Alexandratos N (1999) World food and agriculture: outlook for the medium and longer term. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5908–5914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antúnez de Mayolo S (1997) Procesamiento y conservación de alimentos en el antiguo Perú. Tecnol aliment 3(5):24–29Google Scholar
  3. AO F (2003) The ecosystem approach to fisheries. FAO Tech Guidel Resp Fish 4(2):112Google Scholar
  4. Aranda M (2009) Developments on fisheries management in Peru: the new individual vessel quota system for the anchoveta fishery. Fish Res 96:308–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asche F, Tveterås S (2004) On the relationship between aquaculture and reduction fisheries. Am J Agr Econ 55(2):245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asche F, Oglend A, Tveterås S (2013) Regime shifts in the fish meal/soyabean meal price ratio. J Agr Econ 64(1):97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertrand S, Diaz E, Ñiquen M (2004) Interactions between fish and fisher’s spatial distribution and behaviour: an empirical study of the anchovy (Engraulis ringens) fishery of Peru. ICES J Mar Sci 61:1127–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradford GE (1999) Contributions of animal agriculture to meeting global human food demand. Livestock Prod Sci 59:95–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown LR (1997) Facing the prospect of food scarcity. In: Brown LR, Flavin C, French H (eds) State of the World. WW Norton Ltd, New York, pp 23–41Google Scholar
  10. Brown LR (2001) Eco-economy: building an economy for the earth. WW Norton Ltd, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Cury P et al (2011) Global seabird response to forage fish depletion—One-third for the birds. Science 334:1703–1706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daly HE, Farley J (2011) Ecological economics: principles and applications, 2nd edn. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. FAO (2011a) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1820e/i1820e.pdf. Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  14. FAO (2011b) Panorama of Food and Nutrition Security in Latin America and the Caribbean 2011. 20 p http://www.rlc.fao.org/fileadmin/content/publicaciones/pfnslac2011_en.pdf. Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  15. FAO (2011c) Investigación de Mercado sobre hábitos y costumbres en el consumo de productos pesqueros en la Provincia de castrovirreyna - Huancavelica; FAO Project GCP/PER/044/SPA (June 2011)Google Scholar
  16. FAO (2012) Promoción del consumo de pescado en apoyo al programa de seguridad alimentaria en poblaciones de bajos ingresos en la república del Perú. FAO TCP/PER/2084Google Scholar
  17. Farfan OH (2005) Understanding and escaping commodity-dependency: a global value chain perspective. The World Bank Group, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Fréon P, Bouchon M, Mullon C, García C, Ñiquen C (2008) Interdecadal variability of anchoveta abundance and overcapacity of the fishery in Peru. Progr Oceanogr 79:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fréon P, Werner F, Chavez F (2009) Conjectures on future climate effects on marine ecosystems dominated by small pelagic fish. In: Checkley D, Roy C, Alheit J (eds) Predicted effects of climate change on SPACC systems. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 312–343Google Scholar
  20. Fréon P, Bouchon M, Domalain G, Estrella C, Iriarte F, Lazard J, Legendre M, Quispe I, Mendo T, Moreau Y, Nuñez J, Sueiro JC, Tam J, Tyedmers P, Voisin S (2010) Impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains: from wild fish in the water to protein on the plate. GLOBEC Int Newsletter 16(1):27–31Google Scholar
  21. Garcia SM, Rosenberg AA (2010) Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives. Phil Trans R Soc B 365:2869–2880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gereffi G (1994) The organization of buyer-driven global commodity chains: how US retailers shape overseas production networks. In: Gereffi G, Korzeniewicz M (eds) Commodity chains and global capitalism. Greenwood Press, Westport, pp 95–122Google Scholar
  23. Gillet N (2008) Global study of shrimp fisheries. FAO Fish Tech Pap 475:331Google Scholar
  24. Gutiérrez D, Sifeddine A, Field D, Ortlieb L, Vargas G, Chávez F, Velazco F, Ferreira V, Tapia P, Salvatteci R, Boucher H, Morales M, Valdés J, Reyss J-L, Campusano A, Boussafir M, Mandeng-Yogo M, García M, Baumgartner T (2009) Rapid reorganization in ocean biogeochemistry off Peru towards the end of the Little Ice Age. Biogeosciences 6:835–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hasan MR, Halwart M (eds) (2009) Fish as feed inputs for aquaculture: practices, sustainability and implications. FAO fisheries aquaculture technical paper, vol 518, p 407Google Scholar
  26. IFFO (2012) http://www.iffo.net/. Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  27. INEI (2013a) Condición de vida en el Perú. Bol Inst Nac Estad Inform 3:69Google Scholar
  28. INEI (2013b) Encuesta nacional de hogares. http://www.inei.gob.pe/estadisticas/indice-tematico/sociales/. Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  29. INEI (2013c) Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar 2012. http://proyectos.inei.gob.pe/endes/2012/. Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  30. INEI-PNUD (2013) Evolución de los indicadores de los objetivos de desarollo del Milenio al 2011. http://www.unfpa.org.pe/InfoEstadistica/2013/EvolucionIndicadores/index.html. Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  31. Iriarte Ahón F (2011) Propuesta pesquera para ayudar a la seguridad alimentaria. Pesca 123:70–72Google Scholar
  32. Jackson JBC, Kirb MX, Berher WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandsson J, Estes JA, Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kent G (1997) Fisheries, food security, and the poor. Food Policy 22(5):393–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kristofersson D, Anderson JL (2006) Is there a relationship between fisheries and farming? Interdependence of fisheries, animal production and aquaculture. Mar Policy 30(6):721–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leitch I, Godden W (1941) The efficiency of farm animals in the conversion of feeding stuffs to food for man. Imperial Bur An Nutr, Rowett Inst, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, Scotland Tech Comm 14:64Google Scholar
  36. Lopez Ríos J (2010) El mercado de productos pesqueros en la cuidad de Iquitos. INFOPESCA Serie, El mercado de pescado en las grandes ciudades latinoamericanas ISSN, pp 1688–7085Google Scholar
  37. Maximixe (2013) Informes de Estructura y Tendencias de Mercado 2013 http://www.maximixe.com/ie/mercados.php. Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  38. Meier GM, Stiglitz JE (eds) (2001) Frontiers of development economics: the future in perspective. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017–1024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Naylor RL, Hardy RW, Bureau DP, Chiu A, Elliott M, Farrell AP, Forster I, Gatlin DM, Goldburg RJ, Hua K, Nichols PD (2009) Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(36):15103–15110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Paredes CE (2010) Reformando el Sector de la Anchoveta Peruana Progreso Reciente y Desafíos Futuros. Instituto del Perú, LimaGoogle Scholar
  42. Paredes CE (2012) Eficiencia y equidad en la pesca peruana: la reforma y los derechos de pesca. Report to the Consorcio de Investigación Económica y Social (CIES): 111Google Scholar
  43. Paredes CE, Gutierrez M-E (2008) La industria anchovetera peruana: costos y beneficios. World Bank Rep, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  44. Peterson CH, Lubchenco J (1997) On the value of marine ecosystems to society. In: Daily GC (ed) Nature’s Services. Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, New York, pp 177–194Google Scholar
  45. Ponte S (2002) The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, markets and consumption in the global coffee chain. World Dev 30(7):1099–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. PROMPERU (2011) Desenvolvimiento del comercio exterior pesquero: informe anual 2010. PROMPERU, LimaGoogle Scholar
  47. Rana KJ, Siriwardena S, Hasan MR (2009) Impact of rising feed prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture production. FAO fisheries aquaculture technical paper 541: 63Google Scholar
  48. Reardon T, Timmer CP, Barrett CB, Berdegué J (2003) The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Am J Agr Econ 85:1140–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Richardson AJ, Bakun A, Hays GC, Gibbons MJ (2009) The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future. Trends Ecol Evol 24:312–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sen A (1981) Ingredients of famine analysis: availability and entitlements”. Quart J Econ 96(3):433–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smil V (2002) Worldwide transformation of diets, burdens of meat production and opportunities for novel food proteins. Enzym Microb Tech 30:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smith MD, Roheim CA, Crowder LB, Halpern BS, Turnipseed M, Anderson JL, Asche F, Bourillon L, Guttormsen AG, Khan A, Liguori LA, McNevin A, O’Connor MI, Squires D, Tyedmers P, Brownstein C, Carden K, Klinger DH, Sagarin R, Selkoe KA (2010) Sustainability and global seafood. Science 327:784–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tacon AG, Metian M (2009) Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish. Ambio 38(6):294–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tacon AGJ, Hasan MR, Metian M (2011) Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed fish and crustaceans: trends and prospects. FAO fisheries aquaculture technical paper 564: 87Google Scholar
  55. Tveteras S, Tveteras R (2010) The global competition for wild fish resources between livestock and Aquaculture. J Agric Econ 61(2):381–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tveteras S, Asche F, Bellemare M, Smith M, Guttormsen AG, Lem A, Lien K, Vannuccini S (2012) Fish is food—The FAO’s Fish Price Index. PLoS ONE 7(5):e36731. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036731 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. UN-DESA (2009) World population to exceed 9 billion by 2050. Press release 11 Mar, 2009 http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/pressrelease.pdf Accessed 15 Oct 2013
  58. Valdés J, Ortlieb L, Gutiérrez D, Marinovic L, Vargas G, Sifeddine A (2008) 250 years of sardine and anchovy scale deposition record in Mejillones Bay, Northern Chile. Progr Oceanogr 79:198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Welch A, Hoenig R, Stieglitz J, Benetti D, Tacon A, Sims N, O’Hanlon B (2010) From Fishing to the sustainable farming of carnivorous marine finfish. Rev Fish Sci 18(3):235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wijkström UN (2009) The use of wield fish as aquaculture feed and its effects on income and food for the poor and the undernourished. In: Hasan MR, Halwart M (eds) Fish as feed inputs for aquaculture: practices, sustainability and implications. fisheries aquaculture technical paper 518: 371-407Google Scholar
  61. Wilkinson J (2006) Fish: a global value chain driven onto the rocks. Sociologia Ruralis 46(2):139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Fréon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juan Carlos Sueiro
    • 2
  • Federico Iriarte
    • 3
  • Oscar F. Miro Evar
    • 4
  • Yuri Landa
    • 5
  • Jean-François Mittaine
    • 6
  • Marilu Bouchon
    • 7
  1. 1.UMR 212 EMECRHMT, IRDSèteFrance
  2. 2.Centro para la Sostenibilidad AmbientalUniversidad Peruana Cayetano HerediaLimaPeru
  3. 3.I&ALimaPeru
  4. 4.Universidad de TumbesTumbesPeru
  5. 5.Universidad de LimaLimaPeru
  6. 6.Fishmeal Experts OfficeVille-d’AvrayFrance
  7. 7.IMARPECallaoPeru

Personalised recommendations