Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 297–310 | Cite as

Arctica islandica: the longest lived non colonial animal known to science

  • I. D. RidgwayEmail author
  • C. A. Richardson


The ocean quahog, Arctica islandica is not just the longest living bivalve, it is also the longest lived, non-colonial animal known to science. With the maximum life span potential ever increasing and currently standing in excess of 400 years the clam has recently gained interest as a potential model organism for ageing research. This review details what is known about the biology of A. islandica, it discusses observed age-associated changes and reviews previous ageing research undertaken on the species and other long-lived bivalves which may be applicable to future ageing research and discusses future directions for ageing research with A. islandica. Historically much of the research on bivalves has been targeted at their utilization as a food source, environmental sentinels and more recently the use of their shells as archives of environmental change. The result of this has been an abundance of knowledge on bivalve life strategies, and a limited amount of information on the physiological changes in the cells and tissues of bivalves during the ageing process. However, research into the mechanisms of senescence of long-lived bivalves from a biogerontological perspective has advanced only recently. The research undertaken thus far has documented age-related differences in anti-oxidant defences and accumulation of oxidative products but despite the recent attention into ageing of A. islandica it is still to be ascertained if the species experiences senescence. Future directions for ageing research using A. islandica are discussed.


Bivalves Model organism Negligible senescence Arctica islandica 



This work was supported by a Research into Ageing™ Discipline Hoppers Award [grant number 319].


  1. Abele D (2002) Toxic oxygen: the radical life-giver. Nature 420:27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abele D, Puntarulo S (2004) Formation of reactive species and induction of antioxidant defense systems in polar and temperate marine invertebrates and fish. Comp Biochem Physiol 138A(4):405–415Google Scholar
  3. Abele D, Strahl J, Brey T, Philipp EER (2008) Imperceptible senescence: ageing in the ocean quahog Arctica islandica. Free Rad Res 42(5):474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anisimova AA (2007) Genome sizes of some Bivalvia species of the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan. Comparative Cytogenetics 1:63–69Google Scholar
  5. Ansell AD, Lander KF (1967) Studies on the hard-shell clam, Venus mercenaria, in British waters. III. Further observations on the seasonal biochemical cycle and on spawning. J Appl Ecol 4:425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Austad SN (2001) An experimental paradigm for the study of slowly-ageing organisms. Exp Gerontol 36:599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Austad SN (2005) Diverse ageing rates in metazoans: targets for functional genomics. Mech Age Dev 126:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker GT, Sprott RL (1988) Biomarkers of ageing. Exp Gerontol 23:223–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barber BJ (2004) Neoplastic diseases of commercially important marine bivalves. Aquat Living Resour 17:449–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barber BJ, MacCallum GS, Robinson SMC, McGladdery SE (2002) Occurrence and lack of transmissibility of gonadal neoplasia in softshell clams, Mya arenaria, in Maine (USA) and Atlantic Canada. Aquat Living Resour 15:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barja G (2002) Rate of generation of oxidative stress-related damage and animal longevity. Free Radic Biol Med 33:1167–1172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauer G (1992) Variation in life span and size of the freshwater pearl mussel. J Anim Ecol 61:425–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergman MJN, Fonds M, Hup M, Lewis W, Van der Puyl A, Sanl A, den Uyl D (1990) Direct effect of beam trawl fishing on benthic fauna in the North Sea—a pilot study. Netherlands Inst Sea Res Rep 8:33–57Google Scholar
  14. Bert TM, Hesselman DM, Arnold WS, Moore WS, Cruz-Lopez H, Marelli DC (1993) High frequency of gonadal neoplasia in a hard clam (Mercenaria spp.) hybrid zone. Mar Biol 117:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bluhm BA, Brey T (2001) Age determination in the Antartic shrimp Notocrangon antarcticus (Crustacea: Decapoda), using the autofluorescent pigment lipofuscin. Mar Biol 138:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boore JL, Medina M, Rosenberg LA (2004) Complete sequences of the highly re-arranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod Graptacme eborea and the bivalve Mytilus edulis. Mol Biol Evol 21(8):1492–1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Breton S, Burger G, Stewart DT, Blier PU (2006) Comparative analysis of gender-associated complete mitochondrial genomes in marine mussels (Mytilus spp.). Genetics 172(2):1107–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brey T, Arntz WE, Pauly D, Rumohr H (1990) Arctica (Cyprina) islandica in Kiel Bay (western Baltic): growth, production and ecological significance. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 136:217–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brousseau DJ (1987) Seasonal aspects of sarcomatous neoplasia in Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) from Long Island Sound. J Invertebr Pathol 50:269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown RS, O’Toole CJ (1978) Histochemical analyses of pigment accumulations in Mercenaria mercenaria L. and Mya arenaria L. Proc Natl Shellfish Ass Md 68:75–76Google Scholar
  21. Browne RA, Russel-Hunter WD (1978) Reproductive effort in molluscs. Oecologia 37:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brunk UT, Terman A (2002) The mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of ageing: accumulation of damaged mitochondria as a result of imperfect autophagocytosis. Eur J Biochem 269:1996–2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buffenstein R (2005) The Naked Mole-Rat: a new long-living model for human ageing research. J Gerontol 60A(11):1369–1377Google Scholar
  24. Byrne PA, O’Halloran J (2001) The role of bivalve molluscs as tools in estuarine sediment toxicity testing: a review. Hydrobiologia 465(1–3):209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chow DK, Glenn CF, Johnston JL (2006) Sarcopenia in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx correlates with muscle contraction rate over lifespan. Exp Gerontol 41:252–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Comfort A (1964) Ageing: the biology of senescence. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Cornet M (2006) Primary mantle tissue culture from the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis: investigations on the growth promoting activity of the serum used for medium supplementation. J Biotechnol 123:78–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. de Magalhães JP (2006) Species selection in comparative studies of ageing and antiageing research. In: Conn PM (ed) Handbook of models for human ageing. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, pp 9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de Magalhães JP, Cabral JA, Magalhães D (2005) The influence of genes on the ageing process of mice: a statistical assessment of the genetics of ageing. Genetics 169:265–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DFO (2007) Assessment of the Ocean Quahog (Arctica islandica) stocks on Sable Bank and St. Mary’s Bay, and the Arctic surf clam (Mactromeris polynyma) Stock on Banquereau. DFO Can Sci Advis Sec Sci Advis Rep 2007/034Google Scholar
  31. Doonan R, McElwee JJ, Matthijssens F, Walker GA, Houthoofd K, Back P, Matscheski A, Vanfleteren JR, Gems D (2008) Against the oxidative damage theory of ageing: superoxide dismutases protect against oxidative stress but have little or no effect on life span in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes Dev 22:3236–3241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dorrens J, Rennie MJ (2003) Effects of ageing and human whole body and muscle protein turnover. Scand J Med Sci Sports 13:26–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fajkus J, Simickova M, Malaska J (2002) Tiptoeing to chromosome tips: facts, promises and perils of today’s human telomere biology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 357:545–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Finch CE (1990) Longevity, senescence and the genome. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  35. Fisher AL (2004) Of worms and women: Sarcopenia and its role in disability and mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc 52:1185–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Forster GR (1981) A note on the growth of Arctica islandica. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 61:817–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galinou-Mitsoudi S, Sinis AI (1994) Reproductive cycle and fecundity of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (bivalvia: mytilidae). J Moll Stud 60:371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garigan D, Hsu AL, Fraser AG, Kamath RS, Ahringer J, Kenyon C (2002) Genetic analysis of tissue ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans: a role for heat-shock factor and bacterial proliferation. Genetics 161:1101–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gershon H, Gershon D (2002) Review: Caenorhabditis elegans—a paradigm for ageing research: advantages and limitations. Mech Ageing Dev 123:261–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldberg ED (1975) The mussel watch programme—a first step in global marine monitoring. Mar Poll Bull 6:111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gosling E (2003) Bivalve Molluscs: biology, ecology and culture. Wiley, USAGoogle Scholar
  42. Gray DA, Woulfe J (2005) Lipofuscin and aging: a matter of toxic waste. Sci Aging Knowl Environ 2005(5):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hammer C, Braum E (1988) Mini-review: quantification of age pigments (lipofuscin). Comp Biochem 90B:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harman D (1956) Ageing: a theory based on free radical and radiation biology. J Gerontol 11:298–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Haussmann MF, Vleck CM (2002) Telomere length provides a new technique for ageing animals. Oecologia 130:325–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Herndon LA, Schmeissner PJ, Dudaronek JM, Brown PA, Listner KM, Sakano Y, Paupard MC, Hall DH, Driscoll M (2002) Stochastic and genetic factors influence tissue-specific decline in ageing Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 419:808–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hill KT, Womersley C (1991) Critical aspects of fluorescent age-pigment methodologies: modification for accurate analysis and age assessments in aquatic organisms. Mar Biol 109:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holmes DJ, Flückiger R, Austad RN (2001) Comparative biology of birds: an update. Exp Gerontol 36:883–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Holmes SP, Witbaard R, Van de Meer J (2003) Phenotypic and genotypic population differentiation in the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica (L.): results from RAPD analysis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 254:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huang T, Carlson E, Gillespie A, Shi Y, Epstein C (2000) Ubiquitous overexpression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase does not extend life span in mice. J Gerontol 55:B5–B9Google Scholar
  51. Hughes KA, Reynolds RM (2005) Evolutionary and mechanistic theories of ageing. Ann Rev Entomol 50:421–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ivanina AV, Sokolova IM, Sukhotin AA (2008) Oxidative stress and expression of chaperones in ageing mollusks. Comp Biochem Physiol 150B(1):53–61Google Scholar
  53. Jolly RD, Palmer DN, Dalefield RR (2002) The analytical approach to the nature of lipofuscin (age pigment). Arch Gerontol Geriatr 34:205–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones DS (1983) Sclerochronology: reading the record of the molluscan shell. Am Sci 71:384–391Google Scholar
  55. Kapahi P, Boulton ME, Kirkwood TBL (1999) Positive correlation between mammalian lifespan and cellular resistance to stress. Free Radical Biol Med 26:495–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kennish MJ, Lutz RA (1995) Assessment of the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1767), in the New Jersey fishery. J Shellfish Res 14:45–52Google Scholar
  57. Kilada RW, Campana SE, Roddick D (2007) Validated age, growth, and mortality estimates of the ocean quahog (Arctica islandica) in the western Atlantic. ICES J Mar Sci 64:31–38Google Scholar
  58. Kowald A, Lehrach H, Klipp E (2006) Alternative pathways as mechanism for the negative effects associated with overexpression of superoxide dismutase. J Theor Biol 238:828–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Krishnakumar PK, Asokan PK, Pillai VK (1990) Physiological and cellular responses to copper and mercury in the green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus). Aquat Toxicol 18:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lomovasky BJ, Morriconi E, Brey T, Calvo J (2002) Individual age and connective tissue lipofuscin in the hard clam Eurhomalea exalbida. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 276:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Loosanoff VL (1953) Reproductive cycle in Cyprina islandica. Biol Bull 104:146–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lutz RA, Mann R, Goodsell JG, Castagna M (1982) Larval and early post-larval development of Arctica islandica. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 62:45–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mann R (1982) The seasonal cycle of gonadal development in Arctica islandica from the southern New England shelf. Fish Bull US 80:315–326Google Scholar
  64. Mann R, Wolf C (1983) Swimming behaviour of larvae of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica in response to pressure and temperature. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 13:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mathew S, Damodaran R (1997) Lipofuscin as physiological indicator of heavy metal stress in Sunetta scripta (yellow clam) and Perna viridis (green mussel). Indian J Mar Sci 26(1):64–67Google Scholar
  66. Medvedev ZA (1990) An attempt at a rational classification of theories of ageing. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 65:375–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Miller RA (2001) Genetics of increased longevity and retarded ageing in mice. In: Masoro EJ, Austad SN (eds) Handbook of the biology of ageing, 5th ed. Academic Press, New York, pp 369–395Google Scholar
  68. Mockett RJ, Sohal RS, Orr WC (1999) Overexpression of glutathione reductase extends survival in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster under hyperoxia but not normoxia. FASEB J 13:1733–1742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mockett RJ, Bayne AC, Kwong LK, Orr WC, Sohal RS (2003) Ectopic expression of catalase in Drosophila mitochondria increases stress resistance but not longevity. Free Radic Biol Med 34:207–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Muller FL, Lustgarten MS, Jang Y, Richardson A, Van Remmen H (2007) Trends in oxidative ageing theories. Free Rad Biol Med 43:477–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Murawski SA, Serchuk FM (1989) Environmental effects of offshore dredge fisheries for bivalves. ICES CM 1989/k: 27, 12 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Murawski SA, Ropes JW, Serchuk FM (1982) Growth of the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, in the Middle Atlantic Bight. Fish Bull US 80:21–34Google Scholar
  73. Murawski SA, Azarovitz TR, Radosh DJ (1989) Long term biological effects of hypoxic water conditions off New Jersey, USA 1976–1989. ICES/CM 1989 E:11, 22 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. NEFSC (1995) 19th northeast regional stock assessment workshop (19th SAW): stock assessment review committee (SARC) consensus summary of assessments. Northeast Fish. Sci. Cent. Ref. Doc. 95-08. 221 ppGoogle Scholar
  75. Nicol D (1951) Recent species of the veneroid pelecypod Arctica. J Wash Acad Sci 41:102–106Google Scholar
  76. Oeschger R (1990) Long-term anaerobiosis in sublittoral marine invertebrates from the western Baltic Sea: Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida), Astarte borealis and Arctica islandica (Bivalvia). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 59:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oeschger R, Storey KB (1993) Impact of anoxia and hydrogen sulphide on the metabolism of Arctica islandica L. (Bivalvia). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 170:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Omar BA, Gad NM, Jordan MC, Striplin SP, Russell WJ, Downey JM, McCord JM (1990) Cardioprotection by Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase is lost at high doses in the reoxygenated heart. Free Radic Biol Med 9:465–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Peters EC, Yevich PP, Harshbarger JC, Zaroogian GE (1994) Comparative histology of gonadal neoplasms in marine bivalve molluscs. Dis Aquat Org 20:59–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peterson CH (1986) Quantitaitive allometry of gamete production by Mercenaria mercenaria into old age. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 29:93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Philipp E, Brey T, Pörtner HO, Abele D (2005) Chronological and physiological ageing in a polar and a temperate mud clam. Mech Ageing Dev 126:589–609Google Scholar
  82. Philipp E, Heilmayer O, Brey T, Abele D, Pörtner HO (2006) Physiological ageing in a polar and a temperate swimming scallop. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 307:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Plohl M, Prats E, Martınez-Lage A, Gonzalez-Tizon A, Mendez J, Cornudella L (2002) Telomeric localization of the vertebrate-type hexamer repeat, (TTAGGG)n, in the Wedgeshell Clam Donax trunculus and other marine invertebrate genomes. J Biol Chem 277(22):19839–19846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Poder M, Auffret M (1986) Sarcomatous lesion in the cockle Cerastoderma edule I. Morphology and population survey in Brittany, France. Aquaculture 58:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Powell E, Mann R (2005) Evidence of recent recruitment in the ocean quahog Arctica islandica in the Mid-Atlantic bight. J Shellfish Res 24(2):517–530Google Scholar
  86. Rees EIS, Nicholaidou A, Laskaridou P (1977) The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water associations. In: Keegan BF, Ceidigh PO, Boaden PJS (eds) Biology of benthic organisms. Pergamon, New York, pp 465–474Google Scholar
  87. Reid RGB, Fankboner PV, Brand DG (1984) Studies of the physiology of the giant clam Tridacna gigas Linne: 2. Kidney function. Comp Biochem Physiol 78A(1):103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Richardson CA (2001) Molluscs as archives of environmental change. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 39:103–164Google Scholar
  89. Rinkevich B (1999) Marine invertebrate cell cultures: new millennium trends. Mar Biotechnol 7:429–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ropes JW (1985) Modern methods used to age oceanic bivalves. Nautilus 99:53–57Google Scholar
  91. Ropes JW (1988) Ocean quahog Arctica islandica: p. 129–132. In: Penttila J, Dery LM (eds) Age determination methods for Northwest Atlantic Species. NOAA technical report NMFS 72, 136 ppGoogle Scholar
  92. Ropes JW, Murawski SA (1983) Maximum shell length and longevity in ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica Linné. ICES C.M. 1983/K: 32. 8 pGoogle Scholar
  93. Roubenoff R, Hughes VA (2000) REVIEW ARTICLE: Sarcopenia: current concepts. J Gerontol 55A(12):M716–M724Google Scholar
  94. Rumohr H, Krost P (1991) Experimental-evidence of damage to benthos by bottom trawling with special reference to Arctica Islandica. Meer Rep Mar Res 33:340–345Google Scholar
  95. Sakai M, Okumura S, Yamamori K (2005) Telomere analysis of pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. J Shellfish Res 24(4):1149–1151Google Scholar
  96. Sarasquete MC, Gonzales de Canales ML, Gimeno S (1992) Comparative histopathological alterations in the digestive gland of marine bivalves exposed to Cu and Cd. Eur J Histochem 36(2):223–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Schafer W (1972) Ecology and Palaeoecology of marine environments. University of Chicago Press, Chicoago 568 ppGoogle Scholar
  98. Schöne BR, Fiebig J, Pfeiffer M, Gleh R, Hickson J, Johnson ALA, Dreyer W, Oschmann W (2005) Climate records from a bivalved Methuselah (Arctica islandica, Mollusca; Iceland). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 228:130–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scourse J, Richardson C, Forsythe G, Harris I, Heinemeier J, Fraser N, Briffa K, Jones P (2006) First cross-matched floating chronology from the marine fossil record: data from growth lines of the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica Islandica. Holocene 16:967–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sheehy MRJ (1996) Quantitative comparison of in situ lipofuscin concentration with soluble autofluorescence intensity in the crustacean brain. Exp Gerontol 31:421–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sheehy MRJ (2002) A flow-cytometric method for neurolipofuscin quantification and comparison with existing histological and biochemical approaches. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 34:233–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sheehy MRJ, Roberts BE (1991) An alternative explanation for anomalies in ‘‘soluble lipofuscin’’ fluorescence data from insects, crustaceans, and other aquatic species. Exp Gerontol 26:495–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sheehy MRJ, Bannister RCA, Wickins JF, Shelton PMJ (1999) New perspectives on the growth and longevity of the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:1904–1915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sohal RS (1981) In: Sohal RS (ed) Age pigments. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 394Google Scholar
  105. Sohal RS, Brunk UT (1989) Lipofuscin as an indicator of oxidative stress and ageing. Adv Exp Med Biol 266:17–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sohal RS, Weindruch R (1996) Oxidative stress caloric restriction, ageing. Science 273:59–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Speakman JR (2005) Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan. J Exp Biol 208:1717–1730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Strahl J, Philipp E, Brey T, Broeg K, Abele D (2007) Physiological ageing in the Icelandic population of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica. Aquat Biol 1:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Strehler BL (1986) Genetic instability as the primary cause of human ageing. Exp Gerontol 21:283–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sukhotin AA, Abele D, Pörtner HO (2002) Growth, metabolism and lipid peroxidation in Mytilus edulis L.: age and size effects. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 226:223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Taylor AC (1976) Burrowing behavior and anaerobiosis in the bivalve Arctica islandica (L.). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 56:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thompson I, Jones DS, Deribelbis D (1980a) Annual internal growth banding and life history of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Mar Biol 57: 25–34Google Scholar
  113. Thompson I, Jones DS, Ropes JW (1980b) Advanced age for sexual maturity in the ocean quahog Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Mar Biol 57:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Thórarinsdóttir GG (2000) Annual gametogenic cycle in ocean quahog, Arctica islandica from north-western Iceland. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 80:661–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Thórarinsdóttir GG, Einarsson ST (1996) Distribution, abundance, population structure and meat yield of the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, in Icelandic waters. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 76:1107–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vaupel JW, Baudischa A, Döllinga M, Roach DA, Gampe J (2004) The case for negative senescence. Theor Pop Biol 65(4):339–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Viarengo A, Canesi L, Pertica M, Poli G, Moore MN, Orunesu M (1990) Heavy metal effects on lipid peroxidation in the tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis L. Comp Biochem Physiol 97C(1):37–42Google Scholar
  118. Vleck CM, Haussmann MF, Vleck D (2003) The natural history of telomeres: tools for ageing animals and exploring the ageing process. Exp Gerontol 38:791–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wanamaker AD Jr, Heinemeier J, Scourse JD, Richardson CA, Butler PG, Eiríksson J, Knudsen KL (2008) Very long-lived molluscs confirm 17th century AD tephra-based radiocarbon reservoir ages for north Icelandic shelf waters. Radiocarbon 50(3):1–14Google Scholar
  120. Weigelt M (1991) Short-and long-term changes in the benthic community of the deeper parts of Kiel Bay (Western Baltic) due to oxygen depletion and eutrophication. Meerestorsch 33:197–224Google Scholar
  121. Weinert BT, Timiras PS (2003) Invited review: theories of ageing. J Appl Physiol 95:1706–1716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wilson DS, Tracy CR, Tracy CR (2003) Estimating age of turtles from growth rings: a critical evaluation of the technique. Herpetologica 59(2):178–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Winter JE (1969) Über den Einfluß der Nahrungskonzentration und anderer Faktoren auf Filtrierleistung und Nahrungsausnutzung der Muscheln Arctica islandica und Modiolus modiolus. Mar Biol 4:87–135 (In German; English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Witbaard R, Jenness MI, Van der Borg K, Ganssen G (1994) Verification of annual growth increments in Arctica islandica L. from the North Sea by means of oxygen and carbon isotopes. Neth J Sea Res 33:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Witbaard R, Duineveld GCA, De Wilde PAWJ (1997) A long-term growth record derived from A. islandica (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Fladen ground (northern North Sea). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 77:801–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Witbaard R, Duineveld GCA, de Wilde PAWJ (1999) Geographical differences in growth rates of Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the North Sea and adjacent waters. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 907–915Google Scholar
  127. Zatsepin VI, Filatova ZA (1961) The bivalve mollusc Cyprina islandica (L.), its geographical distribution and role in communities of benthic fauna. Trans Inst Ocean Acad Sci USSR 46:201–216Google Scholar
  128. Ziuganov V, Miguel ES, Neves RJ, Longa A, Fernandez C, Amaro R, Beletsky V, Popkovitch E, Kaliuzhin C, Johnson T (2000) Life span variation of the freshwater pearl shell: a model species for testing longevity mechanisms in animals. Ambio J Hum Environ 29:102–105Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural SciencesBangor UniversityMenai BridgeUK

Personalised recommendations