Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 225–246 | Cite as

A review of the use of copepods in marine fish larviculture

  • O. O. Ajiboye
  • A. F. Yakubu
  • T. E. Adams
  • E. D. Olaji
  • N. A. Nwogu
Reviews

Abstract

In spite of the growing interest and success obtained using cultured-copepods, their use in marine aquaculture remains sporadic. Besides, mass culture of several marine copepods has been well established by several authors. However, the upscale of copepod cultures to commercial levels is still a challenge. The practice of using wild copepods from natural ponds which thus increases the risk of parasitic infections of most species has limited their application in aquaculture. The present paper thus emphasizes on recent research efforts focused on the use of chemical treatments and freeze-thawing methods to eradicate procercoids from copepods. Research efforts focused on copepod culture systems which subsequently improved and refined their culture in marine fish larviculture are also well discussed. Advances in the use of copepod eggs as potential source of nauplii for marine fish larvae with special emphasis on the viability, storage conditions and biochemical compositions of the copepod eggs are underscored. Additionally, recent advances in the biochemical compositions (protein, amino acids, pigments, and vitamins) of copepods, which has received relatively little attention compared to researches on the lipid and fatty acid compositions are well emphasized. Specific recommended areas for further research are also proffered.

Keywords

Larviculture Culture systems Nutritional value Copepod eggs 

References

  1. Alarcón FJ, Moyano FJ, Díaz M, Fernández-Díaz C, Yúfera M (1999) Optimization of the protein fraction of microcapsules used in feeding of marine fish larvae using in vitro digestibility techniques. Aquac Nutr 5:107–113Google Scholar
  2. Aragao C, Conceição LEC, Fyhn HS, Dinis MT (2004) Estimated amino acid requirements during early ontogeny in fish with different lifestyles: Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquaculture 242:589–605Google Scholar
  3. Bell JG, Støttrup JG, Shields RJ (1997) Utilization of copepod diets for larviculture of halibut, cod and turbot, and a review of published halibut research and cultivation data. Concerted Action Report (AIR3-CT94-2094), Doc. 10, 63 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell JG, McEvoy LA, Estevez A, Shields RJ, Sargent JR (2003) Optimizing lipid nutrition in first feeding flatfish larvae. Aquaculture 227:211–220Google Scholar
  5. Benetti DD, Feeley MW, Stevens O, Zimmerman S, Alarcon J, Minemoto Y, Baker A (2001) Mesocosm systems management for semi-intensive larval husbandry of marine finfish. World Aquaculture 2001, Book of Abstracts, p 55Google Scholar
  6. Boxshall GA, Defaye D (1993) Pathogens of wild and farmed fish: sea lice. Ellis Horwood, 363 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Bristow GA (1990) Dødelighet hos kveitelarver og yngel i startforingsfasen. Norsk Fiskeoppdrett 15:40–43Google Scholar
  8. Cahu C, Zambonino Infante JZ (2001) Substitution of live food by formulated diets in marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 200:161–180Google Scholar
  9. Cahu C, Zambonino Infante JZ, Quazuguel P, Le Gall MM (1999) Protein hydrolysate vs. fish meal in compound diets for 10-day old sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae. Aquaculture 171:109–119Google Scholar
  10. Cahu C, Zambonino Infante JZ, Takeuchi T (2003) Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae. Aquaculture 227:245–258Google Scholar
  11. Camus T, Zeng C (2009) The effects of stocking density on egg production and hatching success, cannibalism rate, sex ratio and population growth of the tropical calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis. Aquaculture 287:145–151Google Scholar
  12. Camus T, Zeng C, McKinnon AD (2009) Egg production, egg hatching success and population increase of the tropical paracalanid copepod, Bestiolina similis (Calanoida: Paracalanidae) fed different microalgal diets. Aquaculture 297:169–175Google Scholar
  13. Carvajal J, Gonzalez L, George-Nascimento M (1998) Native sea lice copepoda: Caligidae infestation of Salmonids reared in netpen systems in Southern Chile. Aquaculture 166:241–246Google Scholar
  14. Caudill CC, Bucklin A (2004) Molecular phylogeography and evolutionary history of the estuarine copepod, Acartia tonsa, on the Northwest Atlantic coast. Hydrobiologia 511:91–102Google Scholar
  15. Chandler GT (1986) High-density culture of meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods within a muddy sediment substrate. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:53–59Google Scholar
  16. Chinabut S (1996) Sea lice. AAHRI Newslett Article 5:2Google Scholar
  17. Conceição LEC, Van der Meeren T, Verreth JAJ, Evjen MS, Houlihan DF, Fyhn HJ (1997) Amino acid metabolism and protein turnover in larval turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) fed natural zooplankton or Artemia. Mar Biol 129:255–265Google Scholar
  18. Conceição LEC, Yúfera M, Makridis P, Morais S, Dinis MT (2009) Live feeds for early stages of fish rearing. Aquac Res 2009:1–28Google Scholar
  19. Coutteau P, Geurden I, Camara MR, Bergot P, Sorgeloos P (1997) Review on the dietary effects of phospholipids in fish and crustacean larviculture. Aquaculture 155:149–164Google Scholar
  20. Dhert P, Sorgeloos P, Devresse B (1993) Contribution towards a specific DHA enrichment in the live food Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia sp. In: Reinertsen H, Dahle LH, Jørgensen L, Tvinnerheim K (eds) Proceedings from the international conference on fish farming technology, Trondheim, Norway. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 109–115Google Scholar
  21. Dogiel VA, Petrushevski GK, Polyanski YI (1961) Parasitology of fishes. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 384 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Doi M, Sinhagraiwan T (1993) Biology and culture of the red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Research Project of the Fishery Resource Development in the Kingdom of Thailand. Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Centre (EMDEC), Thailand, 51 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Drillet G, Iversen MH, Sørensen TF, Ramløv H, Lund T, Hansen BW (2006a) Effect of cold storage upon eggs of a calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa (Dana) and their offspring. Aquaculture 254:714–729Google Scholar
  24. Drillet G, Jørgensen NOG, Sørensen TF, Ramløv H, Hansen BW (2006b) Biochemical and technical observations supporting the use of copepods as live feed organisms in marine larviculture. Aquac Res 37:756–772Google Scholar
  25. Drillet G, Lindley LC, Michels A, Wilcox J, Marcus NH (2007) Improving cold storage of subitaneous eggs of the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana from the Gulf of Mexico (USA-Florida). Aquac Res 38:457–466Google Scholar
  26. Drillet G, Goetze E, Jepsen PM, Højgaard JK, Hansen BW (2008) Strain-specific vital rates in four Acartia tonsa cultures, I: strain origin, genetic differentiation and egg survivorship. Aquaculture 280:109–116Google Scholar
  27. Duncan AB, Mitchell SE, Little TJ (2006) Parasite-mediated selection and the role of sex and diapause in Daphnia. J Evol Biol 19:1183–1189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Engell-Sørensen K, Støttrup JG, Holmstrup M (2004) Rearing of flounder (Platichthys flesus) juveniles in semi-extensive systems. Aquaculture 230:475–491Google Scholar
  29. Estevez A, Kanazawa A (1996) Fatty acid compositon of neural tissues of normal pigmented juveniles of Japanese flounder using rotifer and Artemia enriched in n-3 HUFA. Fish Sci 62:88–93Google Scholar
  30. Evjemo JO, Olsen Y (1997) Lipid and fatty acid content in cultivated live feed organisms compared to marine copepods. Hydrobiologia 358:159–162Google Scholar
  31. Evjemo JO, Coutteau P, Olsen Y, Sorgeloos P (1997) The stability of docosahexaenoic acid in two Artemia species following enrichment and subsequent starvation. Aquaculture 155:135–137Google Scholar
  32. Evjemo JO, Reitan KI, Olsen Y (2003) Copepods as live food organisms in the larval rearing of halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) with special emphasis on the nutritional value. Aquaculture 227:191–210Google Scholar
  33. Fernández-Díaz C, Yúfera M (1997) Detecting growth in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., larvae fed microcapsules. Aquaculture 153:93–102Google Scholar
  34. Fleeger JW (2005) The potential to mass-culture harpacticoid copepods for use as food for larval fish. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Iowa, pp 11–24Google Scholar
  35. Fraser AJ, Sargent JR (1989) Formation and transfer of fatty acids in an enclosed marine food chain comprising phytoplankton, zooplankton and herring (Clupea harengus L.) larvae. Mar Chem 27:1–18Google Scholar
  36. Fraser AJ, Sargent JR, Gamgle JC (1989) Lipid class and fatty acid composition of Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus), Pseudocalanus sp. and Temora longicornis Muller from a nutrient enriched seawater enclosure. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 130:81–92Google Scholar
  37. Frimpong EA, Lochmann SE (2005) Mortality of fish larvae exposed to varying concentrations of cyclopoid copepods. North Am J Aquac 67:66–71Google Scholar
  38. Fukusho K (1980) Mass production of a copepod, Tigriopus japonicus in combination culture with a rotifer Brachionus plicatilis fed ω-yeast as a food source. Bull Jpn Soc Fish Sci 46:625–629Google Scholar
  39. Fyhn HJ, Finn RN, Helland S, Rønnestad I, Lømsland ER (1993) Nutritional value of phytoplankton and zooplankton as live food for marine fish larvae. In: Reinertsen H, Dahle LA, Jørgensen K, Tvinnereim K (eds) Fish farming technology. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 121–126Google Scholar
  40. Fyhn HJ, Rønnestad I, Berg L (1995) Variation in protein and free amino acid content of marine copepods during the spring bloom. Spec Publ Eur Aquac Soc 24:321–324Google Scholar
  41. García-Ortega A, Huisman EA (2001) Evaluation of protein quality in microbound starter diets made with decapsulated cysts of Artemia and fishmeal for fish larvae. J World Aquac Soc 32(3):317–329Google Scholar
  42. Gatten RR, Sargent JR, Gamble JC (1983) Diet-induced changes in fatty acid composition of herring larvae reared in enclosed ecosystem. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 63:575–584Google Scholar
  43. Grice GD, Marcus NH (1981) Dormant eggs of marine copepods. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 19:125–140Google Scholar
  44. Hadas E, Koven W, Sklan D, Tandler A (2003) The effect of dietary phosphatidylcholine on the assimilation and distribution of ingested free oleic acid (18:1n-9) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae. Aquaculture 217:577–588Google Scholar
  45. Hagiwara A, Gallardo WG, Assavaaree M, Kotani T, de Araujo AB (2001) Live food production in Japan: recent progress and future aspects. Aquaculture 200:111–127Google Scholar
  46. Hamre K, Harboe T (2008) Artemia enriched with high n-3 HUFA may give a large improvement in performance of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) larvae. Aquaculture 277:239–243Google Scholar
  47. Hamre K, Naess T, Espe M, Holm JC, Lie Ø (2001) A formulated diet for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, L.) larvae. Aquac Nutr 7:123–132Google Scholar
  48. Helland S, Triantaphyllidis GV, Fyhn HJ, Evjen MS, Lavens P, Sorgeloos P (2000) Modulation of the free amino acid pool and protein content in populations of the brine shrimp Artemia spp. Mar Biol 137:1005–1016Google Scholar
  49. Helland S, Nejstgaard JC, Fyhn HJ, Egge JK, Båmstedt U (2003a) Effects of starvation, season, and diet on the free amino acid and protein content of Calanus finmarchicus fermales. Mar Biol 143:297–306Google Scholar
  50. Helland S, Nejstgaard JC, Humlen R, Fyhn HJ, Båmstedt U (2003b) Effects of season and maternal food on Calanus finmarchicus reproduction, with emphasis on free amino acids. Mar Biol 142:1141–1151Google Scholar
  51. Helland S, Terjesen BF, Berg L (2003c) Free amino acid and protein content in the planktonic copepod Temora longicornis compared to Artemia franciscana. Aquaculture 215:213–228Google Scholar
  52. Hernandez Molejon OG, Alvarez-Lajonchere L (2003) Culture experiments with Oithona oculata Farran, 1913 (Copepoda:Cyclopoida), and its advantages as food for marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 219:471–483Google Scholar
  53. Ho JS (2000) The major problem of cage aquaculture in Asia relating to sea lice. In: Liao I, Lin C (eds) Cage aquaculture in Asia, Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on cage aquaculture in Asia. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila and World Aquaculture Society, Southeast Asian Chapter, Bangkok, pp 13–19Google Scholar
  54. Hoffmann RW, Kennedy CR, Wieder J (1986a) Effects of Eubothrium salvelini Schrank, 1790 on arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in an Alpine Lake. J Fish Dis 9:153–157Google Scholar
  55. Hoffmann RW, Meder J, Klein M, Osterkornj K, Negele RD (1986b) Studies on lesions caused by plerocercoids of Triaenophorus nodulosus in some fish of an alpine lake, the Königssee. J Fish Biol 28:701–712Google Scholar
  56. Holmefjord I, Bolla S, Reitan KI (1989) Start feeding on Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) on enriched rotifers and Artemia compared with collected plankton. In: Blaxter, JHS, Gamble JC, Westernhagen H (eds) Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Ciem., p 479Google Scholar
  57. Ikeda T (1973) On the criteria to select copepod species for mass culture. Bull Plankton Soc Jpn 20:41–48Google Scholar
  58. Izquierdo MS, Watanabe T, Takeuchi T, Arakawa T, Kitajima C (1989) Requirement of larval red seabream Pagrus major for essential fatty acids. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55:859–867Google Scholar
  59. Izquierdo MS, Tandler A, Salhi M, Kolkovski S (2001) Influence of dietary polar lipids quantity and quality on ingestion and assimilation of labeled fatty acids by larval gilthead seabream. Aquac Nutr 7:153–160Google Scholar
  60. Johnson PTJ, Stanton DE, Preu ER, Forshay KJ, Carpenter SR (2006) Dining on disease: ow interactions between infection and environment affect predation risk. Ecology 87:1973–1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kahan D, Uhlig G, Schwenzer D, Horowitz L (1982) A simple method for cultivating harpacticoid copepods and offering them to fish larvae. Aquaculture 26:303–310Google Scholar
  62. Kanazawa A (1993) Nutritional mechanisms involved in the occurrence of abnormal pigmentation in hatchery-reared flatfish. J World Aquac Soc 24:162–166Google Scholar
  63. Kanazawa A (1997) Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and phospholipids on stress tolerance of fish. Aquaculture 155:129–134Google Scholar
  64. Kanazawa A, Teshima S, Endo M (1979) Relationship between essential fatty acid requirements of aquatic animals and the capacity for bioconversion of linolenic acid to highly unsaturated fatty acids. Comp Biochem Physiol 63:295–298Google Scholar
  65. Katajisto T (2003) Development of Acartia bifilosa (Copepoda: Calanoida) eggs in the northern Baltic Sea with special reference to dormancy. J Plankton Res 25(4):357–364Google Scholar
  66. Kleppel GS, Hazzard SE (2002) The significance of zooplankton nutrition in the aquatic sciences. Outcomes of an international workshop on zooplankton nutrition. University of South Carolina, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  67. Klungsøyr J, Tilseth S, Wilhelmsen S, Falk-Peterson S, Sargent JR (1989) Fatty acid compositon as an indicator of food intake in cod larvae Gadus morhua from Lofoten, Northern Norway. Mar Biol 102:183–188Google Scholar
  68. Kolkovski S (2001) Digestive enzymes in fish larvae and juveniles—implications and applications to formulated diets. Aquaculture 200:181–201Google Scholar
  69. Koven WM, Tandler A, Kissil GWm, Sklan D, Friezlander O, Harel M (1990) The effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids on smooth, survival and swimbladder development in Sparus aurata larvae. Aquaculture 91:131–141Google Scholar
  70. Kraul S (2006) Live food for marine fish larvae. En Editores: Cruz Suárez LE, Marie DR, Salazar MT, Nieto López MG, Villarreal Cavazos DA, Puello Cruzy AC, García Ortega A. Avances en Nutrición Acuícola VIII. VIII Simposium Internacional de Nutrición Acuícola. 15–17 Noviembre. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, pp 55–61Google Scholar
  71. Lahnsteiner F, Kletzl M, Weismann T (2009) The risk of parasite transfer to juvenile fishes by live copepod food with the example Triaenophorus crassus and Triaenophorus nodulosus. Aquaculture 295:120–125Google Scholar
  72. Lee KW, Park HG (2005) Effects of temperature and salinity on productivity and growth of five copepod species. J Kor Fish Soc 38:12–19Google Scholar
  73. Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (2005) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Oxford, 269 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee KW, Park HG, Lee SM, Kang HK (2006) Effects of diets on the growth of the brackish water cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana Smirnov. Aquaculture 256:346–353Google Scholar
  75. Léger P, Sorgeloos P (1991) Otimized feeding regimes in shrimp hatcheries. In: Fast AW, Lester LJ (eds) Culture of marine shrimp: principles and practices. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  76. Léger P, Fremont L, Marion D, Nassour I, Desfrages MF (1981) Essential fatty acids in trout serum lipoproteins, vitellogenin and egg lipids. Lipids 16:593–600Google Scholar
  77. Léger P, Bengtson DA, Simpson KL, Sorgeloos P (1986) The use and nutritional value of Artemia as a food source. Mar Biol Ann Rev 24:521–623Google Scholar
  78. Léger P, Bengtson DA, Sorgeloos P, Simpson KL, Beck AD (1987) The nutritional value of Artemia: a review. In: Sorgeloos P, Bengtson DA, Decleir W, Jaspers E (eds) Artemia research and its applications, vol 3. Universa Press, Wetteren, pp 357–372, 556Google Scholar
  79. Lester RJG, Hayward CJ (2006) Phylum Arthropoda. In: Woo PTK (ed) Fishes diseases and disorders vol 1: protozoan and metazoan infections, 2nd edn. CAB international, London, pp 466–565Google Scholar
  80. Liao IC, Su HM, Chang EY (2001) Techniques in finfish larviculture in Taiwan. Aquaculture 200:1–31Google Scholar
  81. Maeland A, Rønnestad I, Fyhn HJ, Berg L, Waagbø R (2000) Water-soluble vitamins in natural plankton (copepods) during two consecutive spring blooms compared to vitamins in Artemia franciscana nauplii and metanauplii. Mar Biol 136:765–772Google Scholar
  82. Marcogliese DJ (1995) The role of zooplankton in the transmission of helminth parasites to fish. Rev Fish Biol Fish 5:336–371Google Scholar
  83. Marcus NH (1979) On the population biology and nature of diapause of Labidocera aestiva (Copepoda: Calanoida). Biol Bull Mar Bio Lab Woods Hole 157:297–305Google Scholar
  84. Marcus NH (1980) Photoperiodic control of diapause in the marine calanoid copepod, Labidocera aestiva. Biol Bull 159:311–318Google Scholar
  85. Marcus NH (1982) Photoperiodic and temperature regulation of diapause in Labidocera astiva (Copepoda: Calanoida). Biol Bull 162:45–52Google Scholar
  86. Marcus NH (1987) Differences in the duration of egg diapause of Labidocera aestiva (Copepoda: Calanoida) from the Woods Hole, Massachussetts region. Biol Bull 173:169–177Google Scholar
  87. Marcus NH (1989) Abundance in sediments and hatching requirements of eggs of Centropages hamatus (Copepoda: Calanoida) from the Alligator Harbor region. Florida Biol Bull 176:142–146Google Scholar
  88. Marcus NH (2005) Calanoid copepods, resting eggs, and aquaculture. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Iowa, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  89. Marcus NH, Murray M (2001) Copepod diapause eggs: a potential source of nauplii for aquaculture. Aquaculture 201:107–115Google Scholar
  90. Mauchline J (1998) Advances in marine biology—the biology of calanoid copepods—introduction. Adv Mar Biol 33:710 ppGoogle Scholar
  91. McEvoy LA, Naess T, Bell JG, Lie Ø (1998) Lipid and fatty acid composition of normal and malpigmented Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) fed enriched Artemia: a comparison with fry fed wild copepods. Aquaculture 163:237–250Google Scholar
  92. Mckinnon AD, Duggan S, Nichols PD, Rimmer MA, Semmens G, Robino B (2003) The potential of tropical paracalanid copepods as live feeds in aquaculture. Aquaculture 223:89–106Google Scholar
  93. Merchie G, Lavens P, Sorgeloos P (1997) Optimization of dietary vitamin C in fish and crustacean larvae: a review. Aquaculture 155:165–181Google Scholar
  94. Milione N, Zeng C (2008) The effects of temperature and salinity on population growth and egg hatching success of the tropical calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis. Aquaculture 275:116–123Google Scholar
  95. Milstein A, Valdenberg A, Harpaz S (2006) Fish larvae–zooplankton relationships in microcosm simulations of earthen nursery ponds. I. Freshwater system. Aquaculture International 14:231–246Google Scholar
  96. Miralto A, Ianora A, Poulet SA, Romano G, Laabir M (1996) Is fecundity modified by crowding in the copepod Centropages typicus. J Plankton Res 18:1033–1040Google Scholar
  97. Morehead DT, Battaglene SC, Metillo EB, Brandsen MP, Dunstan GA (2005) Calanoid copepods, resting eggs, and aquaculture. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 195–207Google Scholar
  98. Naess T, Lie Ø (1998) A sensitive period during first feeding for the determination of pigmentation pattern in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L., juveniles: the role of diet. Aqua Res 29:925–934Google Scholar
  99. Naess T, Germain-Henry M, Naas KE (1995) First feeding of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) using different combination of Artemia and wild zooplankton. Aquaculture 130:235–250Google Scholar
  100. Nakamura K, Iida H, Nakano H (1986) Riboflavin in the skin of albinic flatfish Liopsetta obscura. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish Nissuishi 52(12):2207Google Scholar
  101. Nanton DA, Castell JD (1997) Mass culture of the harpacticoid copepod, Tisbe sp. ICES CM Marine Fish Culture Committee, 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  102. Nanton DA, Castell JD (1998) The effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of the harpacticoid copepod, Tisbe sp., for use as a live food for marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 163:251–261Google Scholar
  103. Nanton DA, Castell JD (1999) The effects of temperature and dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of harpacticoid copepods, for use as live food for marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 175:167–181Google Scholar
  104. Nellen W, Quantz G, Witt U, Kuhlmann D, Koske PH (1981) Marine fish rearing on the base of an artificial food chain. Eur Maric Soc Spec Publ 6:133–147Google Scholar
  105. Norsker N-H, Støttrup JG (1994) The importance of dietary HUFA’S for fecundity and HUFA content in the harpacticoid, Tisbe holothuriae Humes. Aquaculture 125:155–166Google Scholar
  106. Ogle JT (1979) Adaptation of a brown water culture technique to the mass culture of the copepod Acartia tonsa. Gulf Res Rep 6:291–292Google Scholar
  107. Ogle JT, Lemus JT, Nicholson LC, Barnes DN, Lotz JM (2005) Characterization of an extensive zooplankton culture system coupled with intensive larval rearing of red snapper Lutjanus campechanus. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 225–244Google Scholar
  108. Ohno A, Okamura Y (1988) Propagation of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tsuensis, in outdoor tanks. Aquaculture 70:39–51Google Scholar
  109. Ohno A, Takahashi T, Taki Y (1990) Dynamics of exploited populations of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tsuensis. Aquaculture 84:27–39Google Scholar
  110. Ohs CL, Rhyne AL, Stenn E (2009) Viability of subitaneous eggs of the copepod, Acartia tonsa (Dana) following exposure to various cryoprotectants and hypersaline water. Aquaculture 287:114–119Google Scholar
  111. Öktener A, Trilles JP (2009) Four parasitic copepods in marine fish (Teleostei and Chondrichthyes) from Turkey. Acta Adria Tica 50(2):121–128Google Scholar
  112. Olsen RE, Henderson RJ, Pedersen T (1991) The influence of dietary lipid classes on the fatty acid composition of small cod Gadus morhua L. juveniles reared in an enclosure in Northern Norway. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 148:59–76Google Scholar
  113. Olsen Y, Reitan KI, Vadstein O (1993) Dependence of temperature on loss rates of rotifers lipids and ω3 fatty acids in starved Brachionus plicatilis cultures. Hydrobiologia 255(256):13–20Google Scholar
  114. Payne MF, Rippingale RJ (2000) Rearing West Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, juveniles on copepod nauplii and enriched Artemia. Aquaculture 188:353–361Google Scholar
  115. Payne MF, Rippingale RJ (2001a) Effects of salinity, cold storage and enrichment on the calanoid copepod Gladioferens imparipes. Aquaculture 201:251–262Google Scholar
  116. Payne MF, Rippingale RJ (2001b) Intensive cultivation of the calanoid copepod Gladioferens imparipes. Aquaculture 201:329–342Google Scholar
  117. Payne MF, Rippingale RJ, Cleary JJ (2001) Cultured copepods as food for West Australian dhufish (Glaucosoma hebraicum) and pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) larvae. Aquaculture 194:137–150Google Scholar
  118. Purivirojkul W, Areechon N (2008) A survey of parasitic copepods in marine fishes from the Gulf of Thailand, Chon Buri Province. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 42:40–48Google Scholar
  119. Rainuzzo JR, Reitan KI, Jørgensen L (1992) Comparative study on the fatty acid and lipid composition of four marine fish larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol 103B:21–26Google Scholar
  120. Rainuzzo JR, Reitan KI, Olsen Y (1994) Effect of short and long term lipid enrichment on total lipids, lipid class and fatty acid composition in rotifers. Aquac Int 2:19–32Google Scholar
  121. Reitan KI, Rainuzzo JR, Olsen Y (1994) Influence of lipid composition of live feed on growth, survival and pigmentation of turbot larvae. Aquac Int 2:33–48Google Scholar
  122. Reitan KI, Rainuzzo JR, Øie G, Olsen Y (1997) A review of the nutritional effects of algae in marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 155:207–221Google Scholar
  123. Robert F, Gabrion C (1991) Experimental approaches to the specificity in first intermediate hosts of bothriocephalids (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) from marine fish. Acta Oecol 12:617–632Google Scholar
  124. Rønnestad I, Helland S, Lie Ø (1998) Feeding Artemia to larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) results in lower larval vitamin A content compared with feeding copepods. Aquaculture 165:159–164Google Scholar
  125. Rønnestad I, Thorsen A, Finn RN (1999) Fish larval nutrition: a review of recent advances in the roles of amino acids. Aquaculture 177:201–216Google Scholar
  126. Sargent JR, Henderson RJ (1986) Lipids. In: Corner EDS, O’Hara SCM (eds) The biological chemistry of marine copepods. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 59–108Google Scholar
  127. Sargent JR, McEvoy LA, Estevez A, Bell JG, Bell MV, Henderson RJ, Tocher DR (1999) Lipid nutrition of marine fish during early development: current status and future directions. Aquaculture 179:217–229Google Scholar
  128. Schipp G (2006). The use of Calanoid copepods in semi-intensive, tropical marine fish larviculture. En: Editores: Cruz Suárez LE, Marie DR, Salazar MT, Nieto López MG, Villarreal Cavazos DA, Ortega AG. Avances en Nutrición Acuicola VIII. VIII Simposium Internacional de Nutrición Acuicola. 15–17 November. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México, pp 84–94Google Scholar
  129. Schipp G, Bosmans JMP, Marshall AJ (1999) A method for hatchery culture of tropical calanoid copepods, Acartia spp. Aquaculture 174:81–88Google Scholar
  130. Scott AP, Middelton C (1979) Unicellular algae as a food for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae—the importance of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aquaculture 18:227–240Google Scholar
  131. Seikai T (1985) Reduction in occurrence frequency of albinism in juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus hatchery-reared on wild zooplankton. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 51:1261–1267Google Scholar
  132. Shansudin L, Yusof M, Azis A, Shukri Y (1997) The potential of certain indigenous copepod species as live food for commercial fish larval rearing. Aquaculture 151:351–356Google Scholar
  133. Shields RJ, Laidley CW (2003) Intensively cultured paracalanid copepods: high quality diet for small tropical marine fish larvae? Glob Aquac Advocate. December 2003, p 80Google Scholar
  134. Shields RJ, Bell JG, Luizi FS, Gara B, Bromage NR, Sargent JR (1999) Natural copepods are superior to enriched Artemia nauplii as feed for larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids. J Nutr 129(6):1186–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Shields RJ, Kotani T, Molnar A, Marion K, Kobashigawa J, Tang L (2005) Intensive cultivation of a subtropical paracalanid copepod, Parvocalanus sp., as prey for small marine fish larvae. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Iowa, pp 209–223Google Scholar
  136. Shin K, Jang M, Jang P, Ju S, Lee T, Chang M (2003) Influence of food quality on egg production and viability of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia omorii. Oceanography 57:265–277Google Scholar
  137. Sievers G, Lobos C, Inostroza R, Erns S (1996) The effect of the isopod parasite Ceratothoa gaudichaudii on the body weight of farmed Salmo sala r in Southern Chile. Aquaculture 143:1–6Google Scholar
  138. Sipaùba-Tavares LH, Bachion MA, Braga FMD (2001) Effects of food quality on growth and biochemical composition of a calanoid copepod, Argyrodiaptomus furcatus, and its importance as a natural food source for larvae of two tropical fishes. Hydrobiologia 453–454:393–401Google Scholar
  139. Sørensen TF, Drillet G, Engell-Sørensen K, Hansen BW, Ramløv H (2007) Production and biochemical composition of eggs from neritic calanoid copepods reared in large outdoor tanks (Limfjord, Denmark). Aquaculture 263:84–96Google Scholar
  140. Støttrup JG (2000) The elusive copepods. Their production and suitability in marine aquaculture. Aquac Res 31:703–711Google Scholar
  141. Støttrup JG (2003) Production and nutritional value of copepods. In: Støttrup JG, McEvoy LA (eds) Live feeds in marine aquaculture. Blackwell, Oxford, 318 ppGoogle Scholar
  142. Støttrup JG, Jensen J (1990) Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 141:87–105Google Scholar
  143. Støttrup JG, Norsker NH (1997) Production and use of copepods in marine fish larviculture. Aquaculture 155:231–247Google Scholar
  144. Støttrup JG, Richardson K, Kirkegaard E, Pihl NJ (1986) The cultivation of Acartia tonsa Dana for use as a live food source for marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 52:87–96Google Scholar
  145. Støttrup JG, Bell JG, Sargent JR (1999) The fate of lipids during development and cold-storage of eggs in the laboratory-reared calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa Dana, and in response to different algal diets. Aquaculture 176:257–269Google Scholar
  146. Su H-M, Cheng S-H, Chen T-I, Su M-S (2005) Culture of copepods and applications to marine finfish larval rearing in Taiwan. In: Lee C-S, O’ Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 11–24Google Scholar
  147. Sun B, Fleeger JW (1995) Sustained mass culture of Amphiascoides atopus a marine Harpacticoid copepod in a recirculating system. Aquaculture 136:313–321Google Scholar
  148. Toledo JD, Golez MS, Doi M, Ohno A (1999) Use of copepod nauplii during early feeding stage of grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish Sci 65:390–397Google Scholar
  149. Toledo JD, Golez MS, Ohno A (2005) Studies on the use of copepods in the semi-intensive seed production of grouper Epinephelus Coiodes. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 11–24Google Scholar
  150. Tonheim SK, Nordgreen A, Høgøy I, Hamre K, Rønnestad I (2007) In vitro determinations of water-soluble and water-insoluble protein fractions of some common fish larval feeds and feed ingredients. Aquaculture 262:426–435Google Scholar
  151. Uye S (1985) Resting egg production as a life history strategy of marine planktonic copepods. Bull Mar Sci 37:440–449Google Scholar
  152. Van der Meeren T (1991) Selective feeding and prediction of food consumption in turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus L.) reared on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and natural zooplankton. Aquaculture 93:35–55Google Scholar
  153. Van der Meeren T (2003) Analysis of biochemical components in copepods for evaluation of feed quality for juvenile production of marine fish. Prosjektrapportnr 5 2003. Havforskningsinstituttet, 39 ppGoogle Scholar
  154. Van der Meeren T, Naas KE (1997) Development of rearing techniques using large enclosed ecosystems in the mass production of marine fish fry. Rev Fish Sci 5:367–390Google Scholar
  155. Van der Meeren T, Klungsøyr J, Wilhelmsen S, Kvenseth PG (1993) Fatty acid composition of unfed cod larvae Gadus morhua L. and cod larvae feeding on natural plankton in larger enclosures. J World Aqua Soc 24:167–185Google Scholar
  156. Van der Meeren T, Olsen RE, Hamre K, Fyhn HJ (2008) Biochemical composition of copepods for evaluation of feed quality in production of juvenile marine fish. Aquaculture 274:375–397Google Scholar
  157. Venizelos A, Benetti DD (1999) Pignentation abnormalities in flatfish. Aquaculture 176:181–188Google Scholar
  158. Watanabe T (1982) Lipid nutrition in fish. Comp Biochem Physiol 73B(1):3–15Google Scholar
  159. Watanabe T (1988) Nutrition and growth. In: Shepard CJ, Bromage NR (eds) Intensive fish farming. BSP Prof. Books. Billing and Sons, Worcester, pp 154–197Google Scholar
  160. Watanabe T (1993) Importance of docosahexaenoic acid in marine larval fish. Aquac Soc 24:152–161Google Scholar
  161. Watanabe T, Kitajima C, Fujita S (1983) Nutritional values of live feed organisms used in Japan for mass propagation of fish: a review. Aquaculture 34:115–143Google Scholar
  162. Witt U, Quantz G, Kuhlmann D, Kattner G (1984) Survival and growth of turbot larvae Scophthalmus maximus L. reared on different food organisms with special regard to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aquac Eng 3:177–190Google Scholar
  163. Wright PA, Fyhn HJ (2001) Ontogeny of nitrogen metabolism and excretion. In: Wright PA, Anderson PM (eds) Nitrogen excretion. Fish physiology series, vol 20. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 149–201Google Scholar
  164. Yone Y, Fuji M (1975) Studies on the nutrition of red seabream: XI. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplement in a corn oil diet on growth rate and feed efficiency. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 41:73–77Google Scholar
  165. Zambonine Infante JL, Cahu CL, Péres A (1997) Partial substitution of di and tripeptides for native proteins in sea bass diet improves Dicentrarchus labrax larval development. J Nutr 127:608–614Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. O. Ajiboye
    • 1
  • A. F. Yakubu
    • 1
  • T. E. Adams
    • 1
  • E. D. Olaji
    • 1
  • N. A. Nwogu
    • 1
  1. 1.Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine ResearchSapeleNigeria

Personalised recommendations