Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 123–136 | Cite as

Cannibalism in cephalopods



Cannibalism refers to the action of consuming a member of the same species and is common in many taxa. This paper reviews the available literature on cannibalism in cephalopods. All species of the class Cephalopoda are predators and cannibalism is common in most species whose diet has been studied. Cannibalism in cephalopods is density-dependent due to their aggressive predatory and in case of the octopuses territorial nature. It also depends upon local and temporal food availability and of the reproductive season. Cannibalistic behaviour is positively related to the size of both cannibal and victim. It can affect population dynamics of cephalopods in periods of low food availability and/or high population abundance. Cephalopods are generally restricted in their ability to store energy. It is thus assumed that cannibalism is part of a population energy storage strategy enabling cephalopod populations to react to favourable and adverse environmental conditions by increasing and reducing their number. Finally, we propose five orientation points for future research on cannibalism in cephalopods.


Cannibalism Cephalopods Density-dependence Food shortage Population cycles 


  1. Amaratunga T (1983) The role of cephalopods in the marine ecosystem. In: Caddy JF (ed) Advances in assessment of world cephalopods resources. FAO Fish Tech Pap 231:379–415Google Scholar
  2. Ambrose R (1984) Food preferences, prey availability, and the diet of Octopus bimaculatus Verril. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 77:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson TJ (1999) Morphology and biology of Octopus maorum Hutton 1880 in northern New Zealand. Bull Mar Sci 65:657–676Google Scholar
  4. Anderson CIH, Rodhouse PG (2001) Life cycles, oceanography and variability: ommastrephid squid in variable oceanographic environments. Fish Res 54:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson RC, Wood JB, Byrne RA (2002) Octopus senescence: the beginning of the end. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 5:275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andriguetto JM (1989) Abundância, distribuçao, habitos alimentares e ciclo reprouctivo de Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 (Cephalopoda, Myopsida) na plataforma costeira e talude superior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tese Universidade Federal do ParanáGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnold JM, Carlson BA (1986) Living nautilus embryos: preliminary observations. Science 232:73–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aronson RB (1986) Life history and den ecology of Octopus briareus Robson in a marine lake. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 95:37–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakun A, Csirke J (1998) Environmental processes and recruitment variability. In: Rodhouse PG, Dawe EG, O’Dor RK (eds) Squid recruitment dynamics: the genus Illex as a model, the commercial Illex species and influences on variability. FAO Fish Tech Pap 376:105–124Google Scholar
  10. Bazzino G, Quiñones R (2001) Alimentación del calamar Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) en la zona común de pesca Argentina–Uruguaya. Gayana 65:173–180Google Scholar
  11. Boal JG (2006) Social recognition: a top down view of cephalopod behaviour. Vie Milieu 56:69–79Google Scholar
  12. Bobisud LE (1976) Cannibalism as an evolutionary strategy. Math Biol 38:359–368Google Scholar
  13. Bolstad KS, O’Shea S (2004) Gut contents of a giant squid Architeuthis dux (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from New Zealand waters. New Zeal J Zool 31:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyle P, Rodhouse P (2005) Cephalopods, ecology and fisheries. Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Caddy JF (1983) The cephalopods: factors relevant to their population dynamics and to the assessment and management of stocks. In: Caddy JF (ed) Advanced in assessment of world Cephalopods resources. FAO Fish Tech Pap 231:416–449Google Scholar
  16. Calow P (1998) The encyclopedia of ecology and environmental management. Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Castilla JC, Camus PA (1992) The Humboldt-El Niño scenario: coastal benthic resources and anthropogenic influences, with particular reference to the 1982/83 ENSO. S Afr J Mar Sci 12:111–119Google Scholar
  18. Castro BG, Guerra A (1990) The diet of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sepia elegans Blainville, 1827 (Cephalopoda, Sepioidea) from the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain). Sci Mar 54:375–388Google Scholar
  19. Chong J, Cortés N, Galleguillos R, Oyarzún C (2001) Estudio biológico pesquero del recurso pulpo entre la X y XI regiones Proyecto FIP 99-20. Available via Accessed 11 June 2008
  20. Chong J, Oyarzún C, Galleguillos R, Tarifeño E, Sepúlveda R, Ibáñez C (2005) Parámetros biológico-pesqueros de la jibia Dosidicus gigas (Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) frente a la costa de Chile central (29°S–40°S) durante 1993–1994. Gayana 69:319–328Google Scholar
  21. Claessen D, de Roos AM, Persson L (2000) Dwarfs and giants: cannibalism and competition in size-structured populations. Am Nat 155:219–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Claessen D, Van Oss C, de Roos AM, Persson L (2002) The impact of size-dependent predation on population dynamics and individual life history. Ecol 83:1660–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Claessen D, de Roos AM, Persson L (2004) Population dynamic theory of size-dependent cannibalism. Proc Roy Soc B Biol Sci 271:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coelho M, Domingues P, Balguerias E, Fernández M, Andrade JP (1997) A comparative study of the diet of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1799) (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the south coast of Portugal and the Saharan Bank (Central-East Atlantic. Fish Res 29:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cortez T, Castro BG, Guerra A (1995) Feeding dynamics of Octopus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in northern Chile waters. Mar Biol 123:497–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crowley PH, Hopper KR (1994) How behave around cannibals: a density-dependent dynamic game. Am Nat 143:117–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cubillos LA, Arcos D, Sepúlveda A (2003) La pesquería Chilena de merluza común: ¿es suficiente el uso de modelos cuantitativos de evaluación para asesorar científicamente al manejo de la pesquería. In: Yañez E (ed) Actividad pesquera y de acuicultura en Chile. Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, pp 209–220Google Scholar
  28. Dawe EG (1988) Length-weight relationships of the short-finned squid in Newfoundland and the effect of the diet on condition and growth. Trans Am Fish Soc 117:591–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dawe EG, Brodziak JKT (1998) Trophic relationships, ecosystem variability, and recruitment. In: Rodhouse PG, Dawe EG, O’Dor RK (eds) Squid recruitment dynamics: The genus Illex as a model, the commercial Illex species and influences on variability. FAO Fish Tech Pap 376:125–156Google Scholar
  30. Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Defeo O, Castilla JC (1998) Harvesting and economic patterns in the artisanal Octopus mimus (Cephalopoda) fishery in a northern Chile cove. Fish Res 38:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dickson J, Morley SA, Mulvey T (2004) New data on Martialia hyadesi feeding in the Scotia Sea during winter; with emphasis on seasonal and annual variability. J Mar Biol Ass UK 84:785–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ehrhardt NM (1991) Potential impact of the seasonal migratory jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) stock on a Gulf of California sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea). Bull Mar Sci 49:325–332Google Scholar
  34. Elgar MA (1992) Sexual cannibalism in spiders and other invertebrates. In: Elgar MA, Crespi BJ (eds) Cannibalism: ecology and evolution among diverse taxa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 13–37Google Scholar
  35. Elgar M, Crespi B (1992) Ecology and evolution of cannibalism. In: Elgar M, Crespi B (eds) Cannibalism: ecology and evolution among diverse taxa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  36. Ennis GP, Collins PW (1979) Food and feeding of the short finned squid, Illex illecebrosus, during its seasonal occurrence in the Newfoundland area. ICNAF Sel Pap 5:25–29Google Scholar
  37. Fernández M (1999) Cannibalism in Dungeness crab Cancer magister: effects of predator–prey size ratio, density and habitat type. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 182:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fortier L, Villeneuve A (1996) Cannibalism and predation on fish larvae by larvae of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus: trophodynamics and potential impact on recruitment. Fish Bull 94:268–281Google Scholar
  39. Fox LR (1975) Cannibalism in natural populations. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 6:87–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. González AF, Rodhouse PG (1998) Fishery biology of the seven star flying squid Martialia hyadesi at south Georgia during winter. Pol Biol 19:231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grubert M, Wadley V, White R (1999) Diet and feeding strategy of Octopus maorum in southeast Tasmania. Bull Mar Sci 65:441–451Google Scholar
  42. Guerra A (1978) Sobre la alimentación y el comportamiento alimentario de Octopus vulgaris. Invest Pesq 42:351–364Google Scholar
  43. Hallett TB, Coulson T, Pilkington JG, Clutton-Brock TH, Pemberton JM, Grenfell BT (2004) Why large-scale climate indices seem to predict ecological processes better than local weather. Nature 430:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour. J Theor Biol 7:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hanlon RT, Forsythe JW (2008) Sexual cannibalism by Octopus cyanea on a Pacific coral reef. Mar Freshw Behav Phy 41:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanlon RT, Messenger JB (1996) Cephalopod behaviour. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  47. Hochberg FG (1997) Octopus californicus. In: Lang M, Hochberg FG (eds) Proceedings of the workshop on the fishery and market potential octopus in California. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, pp 23–28Google Scholar
  48. Hunter JR, Kimbrell CA (1980) Early life history of Pacific mackerel, Scomber japonicus. Fish Bull 78:89–101Google Scholar
  49. Ibáñez CM, Chong J (2008) Feeding ecology of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould 1852) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae). J Mar Biol Ass UK 88:793–798Google Scholar
  50. Ibáñez CM, Cubillos LA (2007) Seasonal variation in the length structure and reproductive condition of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (d’Orbigny, 1835) off central-south Chile. Sci Mar 71:123–128Google Scholar
  51. Ibáñez CM, Pardo-Gandarillas MC, Chong J (2005) Relaciones somatométricas y reproductivas del calamar Loligo gahi Orbigny 1835 en bahía Concepción, Chile. Invest Mar 33:211–215Google Scholar
  52. Ibáñez CM, Arancibia H, Cubillos LA (2008) Biases in determining the diet of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D’Orbigny 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off southern-central Chile (34S-40S). Helgoland Mar Res 62:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ivanovic ML, Brunetti NE (2004) Diet of red squid (Ommastrephes bartrami) in the southwest Atlantic. Rev Invest Desarr Pesq 16:67–75Google Scholar
  54. Johns PM, Maxwell MR (1997) Sexual cannibalism: who benefits? Trends Ecol Evol 12:127–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jurado-Molina J, Gatica C, Cubillos LA (2006) Incorporating cannibalism into an age-structured model for the Chilean hake. Fish Res 82:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Karpov KA, Caillet GM (1978) Feeding dynamics of Loligo opalescens. Fish Bull 162:45–65Google Scholar
  57. Keyl F, Argüelles J, Mariátegui L, Tafur R, Wolff M, Yamashiro C (2008) A hypothesis on range expansion and spatio-temporal shifts in size-at-maturity of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. CalCOFI Rep 49:119–128Google Scholar
  58. Koronkiewicz A (1980) Size, maturity, growth and food of squid Illex argentinus (Castellanos, 1969). ICES CM 18:1–18Google Scholar
  59. Koronkiewicz A (1986) Growth life cycle of squid Illex argentinus from Patagonian and Falkland shelf and Polish fishery of squid for this region, 1978–1985. ICES CM 27:1–16Google Scholar
  60. Laevastu T, Favorite F (1988) Fishing and stock fluctuations. Fishing Books Ltd, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  61. Lima M (1995) Regulación poblacional, denso-dependencia y métodos para su detección en series de tiempo. Rev Chil Hist Nat 68:251–269Google Scholar
  62. Lipinski MR, Linkowski TB (1988) Food of the squid Ommastrephes bartrami (Lesuer, 1821) from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. S Afr J Mar Sci 6:43–46Google Scholar
  63. Lordan C, Burnell GM, Cross TF (1998) The diet and ecological importance of Illex coindetii and Todaropsis eblanae (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in Irish waters. S Afr J Mar Sci 20:153–163Google Scholar
  64. Markaida UA (2001) Biología del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) en el golfo de California, México. Ph. D. Thesis. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  65. Markaida UA (2006) Food and feeding of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the Gulf of California and adjacent waters after the 1997–1998 El Niño event. Fish Res 79:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Markaida U, Gilly WF, Salinas-Zavala CA, Rosas-Luis R, Booth JAT (2008) Food and feeding of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the Gulf of California during 2005–2007. CalCOFI Rep 49:90–103Google Scholar
  67. Markaida UA, Sosa-Nishizaki O (2003) Food and feeding habits of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. J Mar Biol Ass UK 83:1–16Google Scholar
  68. Maurer RO, Bowman RE (1985) Food consumption of squid (Illex illecebrosus and Loligo pealei) off the Northeastern United States. NAFO Sci Coun Stud 9:117–124Google Scholar
  69. Maynard-Smith J (1982) Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Millward DJ, Garlick PJ, Nnanyelugo DO, Waterlow JC (1976) The relative importance of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in the regulation of muscle mass. Biochem J 156:185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Moksnes P-O (2004) Self-regulating mechanisms in cannibalistic populations of juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas. Ecol 85:1343–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moltschaniwskyj NA, Semmens JM (2000) Limited use of stored energy reserves for reproduction by the tropical loliginid squid Photololigo sp. J Zool (Lond) 251:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mouat B, Collins MA, Pompert J (2001) Patterns in the diet of Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Falkland Island jigging fishery. Fish Res 52:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mqoqi M, Lipinski MR, Salvanes GV (2007) The ecology of Sepia australis (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae) along the south coast of South Africa. Ices J Mar Sci 64:945–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nigmatullin ChM, Nesis KN, Arkhipkin AI (2001) A review of the biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fish Res 54:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nishimura K, Isoda Y (2004) Evolution of cannibalism: referring to costs of cannibalism. J Theor Biol 226:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. O’Dor RK (1998) Squid life-history strategies. In: Rodhouse PG, Dawe EG, O’Dor RK (eds) Squid recruitment dynamics: The genus Illex as a model, the commercial Illex species and influences on variability. FAO Fish Tech Pap 376: 233–254Google Scholar
  78. O’Dor RK, Dawe EG (1998) Illex illecebrosus. In: Rodhouse PG, Dawe EG, O’Dor RK (eds) Squid recruitment dynamics: the genus Illex as a model, the commercial Illex species and influences on variability. FAO Fish Tech Pap 376: 77–104Google Scholar
  79. O’Dor RK, Wells MJ (1987) Energy and nutrient flow. In: Boyle PR (ed) Cephalopod life cycles: comparative reviews, vol 2. Academic Press, London, pp 109–133Google Scholar
  80. Oosthuizen A, Smale MJ (2003) Population biology of Octopus vulgaris on the temperate south-eastern coast of South Africa. J Mar Biol Ass UK 83:535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pájaro M, Curelovich J, Macchi GJ (2007) Egg cannibalism in the northern population of the Argentine anchovy, Engraulis anchoita (Clupeidae). Fish Res 83:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pecl GT, Jackson GD (2008) The potential impacts of climate change on inshore squid: biology, ecology and fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fish 18:373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Phillips KL, Jackson GD, Nichols PD (2001) Predation on myctophids by the squid Moroteuthis ingens around Macquarie and Heard Islands: stomach contents and fatty acid analyses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 215:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Phillips KL, Nichols PD, Jackson GD (2002) Lipid and fatty acid composition of the mantle and digestive gland of four Southern Ocean squid species: implications for food-web studies. Antarct Sci 14:212–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Phillips KL, Nichols PD, Jackson GD (2003) Dietary variation of the squid Moroteuthis ingens at four sites in the Southern Ocean: stomach contents, lipid and fatty acid profiles. J Mar Biol Ass UK 83:523–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pinczon du Sel G, Blanc A, Daguzan J (2000) The diet of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) during its life cycle in the Northern Bay of Biscay (France). Aq Sci 61:167–178Google Scholar
  87. Pinczon du Sel G, Daguzan J (1997) A note on sex ratio, length and diet of a population of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) sampled by three fishing methods. Fish Res 32:191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Polis GA (1981) The evolution and dynamics of intra-specific predation. Ann Rev Syst Evol 12:225–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Quetglas A, Alemany F, Carbonell A, Merella P, Sánchez P (1999) Diet of the European flying squid Todarodes sagittattus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 79:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rasero M, González AF, Castro BG, Guerra A (1996) Predatory relationships of two sympatric squid, Todaropsis eblanae and Illex coindetii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in Galician waters. J Mar Biol Ass UK 76:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ré ME (1998) Pulpos Octopódidos (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae). In: Boschi E (ed) El mar Argentino y sus Recursos Pesqueros. Tomo 2. Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero, Argentina, pp 87–91Google Scholar
  92. Ré ME, Gómez-Simes E (1992) Hábitos alimentarios del pulpo (Octopus tehuelchus). I. Análisis cuali-cuantitativos de la dieta en el intermareal de Puerto Lobos, Golfo San Matías (Argentina). Frente Marítimo 11:119–128Google Scholar
  93. Reed J, Stenseth NC (1984) Evolution of cannibalism in an age-structured population. Bull Math Biol 46:371–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ricker WE (1954) Stock and recruitment. J Fish Res Board Can 11:559–623Google Scholar
  95. Rocha F, Castro BG, Gil MS, Guerra A (1994) The diets of Loligo vulgaris and L. forbesi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Northwestern Spanish Atlantic waters. Sarsia 79:119–126Google Scholar
  96. Rocha F, Guerra Á, Gonzalez ÁF (2001) A review of reproductive strategies in cephalopods. Biol Rev 76:291–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rodhouse PG, Nigmatullin ChM (1996) Role as consumers In: Clarke MR (ed) The role of cephalopods in the world’s oceans. Phil Trans Roy Soc London 351: 1003–1022Google Scholar
  98. Rodhouse PG, Jones MG, White MRR (1992) Trophic relations of the cephalopod Martialia hyadesi (Teuthoidea: Ommastrephidae) at the Antartic Polar Front, Scotia Sea. Mar Biol 114:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Roper C, Sweeney J, Nauen C (1984) Cephalopods of the world, an annotated and ilustrated cataloge of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fish Synop 3(125):1–127Google Scholar
  100. Rudolf VHW, Antonovics J (2007) Disease transmission by cannibalism: rare event or common occurrence? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 274:1205–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Santos RA, Haimovici M (1997) Food and feeding of the short-finned squid Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off southern Brazil. Fish Res 33:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Santos RA, Haimovici M (1998) Trophic relationships of the long-finned squid Loligo sanpaulensis on the southern Brazilian shelf. S Afr J Mar Sci 20:81–91Google Scholar
  103. Santos RA, Haimovici M (2000) The argentine short-finned squid Illex argentinus in the food web of southern Brazil. Sarsia 85:49–60Google Scholar
  104. Sauer WHH, Lipinski MR (1991) Food of squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) on their spawning grounds off the Eastern Cape, South Africa. S Afr J Mar Sci 10:193–201Google Scholar
  105. Semmens JM (1998) An examination of the role of the digestive gland of two loliginid squids, with respect to lipid: storage or excretion? Proc R Soc Biol Sci Ser B 265:1685–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Semmens JM (2002) Changes in the digestive gland of the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson 1830) associated with feeding. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 274:19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Smith CD (2003) Diet of Octopus vulgaris in False Bay, South Africa. Mar Biol 143:1127–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Smith C, Reay P (1991) Cannibalism in teleost fish. Rev Fish Biol Fish 1:41–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Steer MA, Pecl GT, Moltschaniwskyj NA (2003) Are bigger calamary Sepioteuthis australis hatchlings more likely to survive? A study based on statolith dimensions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 261:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Summers WC (1983) Physiological and trophic ecology of cephalopods. In: Russell-Hunter WD (ed) The Mollusca, vol 6. Ecology. Academic Press, London, pp 261–279Google Scholar
  111. Sweeney MJ, Roper CF (1998) Classification, type localities, and type repositories of Recent Cephalopoda. Smith Cont Zool 586:561–595Google Scholar
  112. Tafur R, Keyl F, Argüelles J (submitted) Reproductive biology of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) as related to size and environmental variability in the northern Humboldt Current System. Mar Ecol Prog SerGoogle Scholar
  113. Thomas LK, Manica A (2003) Filial cannibalism in an assassin bug. Anim Behav 66:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Uzars D, Plikshs M (2000) Cod (Gadus morhua L.) cannibalism in the Central Baltic: interannual variability and influence of recruit abundance and distribution. ICES J Mar Sci 57:324–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. van den Bosch F, Gabriel W (1997) Cannibalism in a age-structured predator–prey system. Bull Math Biol 59:551–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. van den Bosch F, De Roos AM, Gabriel W (1988) Cannibalism as a life boat mechanism. J Math Biol 26:619–623Google Scholar
  117. Wespestad VG, Fritz LW, Ingraham WJ, Megrey BA (2000) On the relationships between cannibalism, climate variability, physical transport, and recruitment success of Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). ICES J Mar Sci 57:272–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wieser W (1994) Cost of growth in cells and organisms: general rules and comparative aspects. Biol Rev 68:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wilhelm O (1951) Algunas observaciones acerca de las mortandades de jibias (Dosidicus gigas D’ Orb.), en el litoral de Concepción. Rev Biol Mar 4:196–201Google Scholar
  120. Wood JB, Kenchington E, O’Dor RK (1998) Reproduction and embryonic development time of Bathypolypus articus, a deep-sea octopod (Cephalopoda: Octopoda). Malacologia 39:11–19Google Scholar
  121. Wootton RJ (1990) Ecology of teleost fishes. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  122. Zuyev G, Nigmatullin ChM, Chesalin M, Nesis K (2002) Main results of long-term worldwide studies on tropical nektonic oceanic squid genus Sthenoteuthis: an overview of the soviet investigations. Bull Mar Sci 71:1019–1060Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de ChileÑuñoa, SantiagoChile
  2. 2.Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT)BremenGermany

Personalised recommendations