Sexual determination and differentiation in teleost fish
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The present work reviews the latest information on the cellular, molecular and physiological aspects of sexual determination and differentiation in teleost fish. The group exhibits a large variety of mechanisms of sexual determination. These may be genetic, or depend on environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, and social factors, all of which can influence the proportion of the sexes. Additionally, sex steroids play an important role in the regulation of sexual differentiation. The patterns of gonadal sexual differentiation are diverse, and species may be hermaphroditic or gonochoristic, some of the latter displaying juvenile hermaphroditism. In recent years, several genes involved in the sexual determination and differentiation pathways in vertebrates, particularly in mammals, have also been characterized in teleosts. Conserved as well as diversified functions have been proposed.