Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 329–347 | Cite as

Biological patterns and ecological indicators for Mediterranean fish and crustaceans below 1,000 m: a review



The Mediterranean Sea is a relatively deep, closed sea with high rates of fisheries exploitation. In recent years fishing activity has tended to shift towards deeper depths. At the same time, the Mediterranean displays some rather special hydrographic and biogeographic conditions. The present paper reviews the present state of knowledge of the fisheries, biology, and ecology of the deep-sea fish and crustacean species in the Mediterranean dwelling below 1,000 m with potential economic interest, placing special emphasis on the western basin, for which more data are available, as a basis for future studies of the ecology, biodiversity, and effects of climate change and exploitation in this zone. This review reveals that mediterranean deep-sea fishes and crustaceans employ highly conservative ecological strategies, and hence the low fecundity and low metabolic rates in a stable environment like the deep-sea make these populations highly vulnerable. Moreover, ripe females of the main species mentioned here concentrate in the deepest portions of their distribution ranges. Deep-sea fish and crustaceans have high trophic levels and low to medium omnivory index values. The ecological indices discussed here, in combination with the limited knowledge of deep-sea ecosystems, clearly call for an approach based on the Precautionary Principle.


Biological patterns Mediterranean Deep-sea Biodiversity Fishes Crustaceans Ecological indicators Trophic level Precautionary Principle 



The authors would like to thank the Captains and crews of R/V “García del Cid” (CSIC) for their technical support, and Mr. J. Rucabado and Dr. D. Lloris as the pioneers in using the otter bottom trawl as a sampling scientific method in the Mediterranean deep-sea. M. Coll has been founded by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Ministerio de Ciencias e Innovación from Spain.


  1. Abelló P, Cartes JE (1992) Population characteristics of the deep-sea lobsters Polycheles typhlops and Stereomastis sculpta (Decapoda: Polychelidae) in a bathyal mud community of the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biol (Berl) 114:109–117Google Scholar
  2. Abelló P, Carbonell A, Torres P (2002) Biogeography of epibenthic crustaceans on the shelf and upper slope off theIberian Peninsula Mediterranean coasts: implications for the establishment of natural management areas. Sci Mar 66:183–198Google Scholar
  3. Albertelli G, Arnaud P, Della Croce N, Drago N, Eleftheriou A (1992) The deep Mediterranean macrofauna caught by traps and its trophic significance. C R Acad Sci Paris t 315(Serie III):139–144Google Scholar
  4. Allué R (1983) Coelorhynchus occa (Goode and Bean, 1806) (Osteichthyes, Macrouridae), primera cita en el Mediterráneo español. Bull Soc Catal Ictiol Herpetol 5:2–5Google Scholar
  5. Allué C, Rucabado JA, Lloris D, Allué R (1984) Contribucion al conocimiento de la ictiofauna abisal del Mediterráneo español. Bull Soc Catal Ictiol Herpetol 10:8–13Google Scholar
  6. Bas C (2002) El mar Mediterráneo: recursos vivos y explotación. Ariel Ciencia. Barcelona, p 518Google Scholar
  7. Bas C, Macpherson E, Sardà F (1985) Fishes and fishermen. The exploitable trophic levels. In: Margalef R (ed) Western Mediterranean. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 296–316Google Scholar
  8. Bas C, Maynou F, Sardà F, Lleonart J (2003) Variacions demogràfiques a les poblacions d’espècies demersals explotades: els darrers quaranta anys a Blanes i Barcelona. Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Sec Ciènc Biol, pp 135–202Google Scholar
  9. Bascompte J, Melian CJ, Sala E (2005) Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(15):5443–5447. doi:10.1073/pnas.0501562102 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauchot ML (1963) Description d’un nouveau Bathypterois mediterranéen. Vie Milieu 13(4):613–647Google Scholar
  11. Bergstad OA, Bjelland O, Gordon JDM (1999) Fish communities on the slope of the eastern Norwegian Sea. Sarsia 84:67–78Google Scholar
  12. Bishop JDD, Shalla SH (1994) Discrete seasonal reproduction in an abyssal peracarid crustacean. Deep-Sea Res 41(11–12):1789–1800. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)90073-6 Google Scholar
  13. Blake JA (1993) Life history analysis of 5 dominant infaunal polychaete species from the continental slope off north Carolina. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 73:123141Google Scholar
  14. Bouchet P, Taviani M (1992) The Mediterranean deep-sea fauna: pseudopopulations of Atlantic species? Deep-Sea Res 39:169–184. doi:10.1016/0198-0149(92)90103-Z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Campos-Creasy LS, Tyler PA, Gage JD, John WG (1994) Evidence for coupling the vertical flux of phytodetritus to the diet and season life history of the deep-sea echinoid Echinus affinis. Deep Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap 41:369–388. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)90009-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carrassón M (1994) Relaciones tróficas en las comunidades ícticas bentónicas (de 1000 a 1200 m) del Mar Catalán. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 356 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Carrassón M, Matallanas J (2001) Feeding ecology of the Mediterranean spiderfish Bathypterois mediterraneus (Pisces: Chlorophtalmidae) on the western Mediterranean slope. Fish Bull (Wash DC) 99:266–274Google Scholar
  18. Carrassón M, Matallanas J (2002) Diets of deep-sea macrourid fish in the western Mediterranean slope. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 234:215–228. doi:10.3354/meps234215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carrassón M, Matallanas J, Casadevall M (1997) Feeding strategies of deep-water morids on the western Mediterranean slope. Deep-Sea Res 44:1685–1699. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00044-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carrassón M, Matallanas J (1990) Preliminary data about the feeding habits of some deep-sea Mediterranean fishes. J Fish Biol 36:461–463. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05625.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carrassón M, Matallanas J (1998) Feeding habits of Alepocephalus rostratus (Pisces: Alepocephalidae) in the western Mediterranean Sea. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 78:1295–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carrassón M, Stefanescu C, Cartes JE (1992) Diets and bathymetric distributions of two bathyal sharks of the Catalan deep sea (western Mediterranean). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 82:21–30. doi:10.3354/meps082021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cartes JE (1993) Diets of deep-water pandalid shrimps on the Western Mediterranean slope. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 96:49–61. doi:10.3354/meps096049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cartes JE (1994) Influence of depth and seasonality in the diet of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antennatus along the slope (between 400 and 2300 m). Mar Biol (Berl) 120:639–648. doi:10.1007/BF00350085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cartes JE (1998) Feeding strategies and partition of food resources in deep-water decapod crustaceans in relation to depth (between 400 and 2300 m). J Mar Biol Assoc U K 78:509–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cartes JE, Abelló P (1992) Comparative feeding habits of polychelid lobsters in western Mediterranean deep-sea communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 84:139–150. doi:10.3354/meps084139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cartes JE, Carrassón M (2004) The influence of the trophic variables in the depth-range distribution and zonation rates of deep-sea magafauna: the case of western Mediterranean assemblages. Deep-Sea Res 51(2):263–279. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2003.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cartes JE, Maynou F (1998) Food consumption by bathyal decapod crustacean assemblages in the western Mediterranean: predatory impact of megafauna and the food consumption-food supply balance in a deep-water food web. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 171:233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cartes JE, Sardà F (1989) Feeding ecology of the deep-water aristeid crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 54:229–238. doi:10.3354/meps054229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cartes JE, Sardà F (1992) Abundance and diversity of decapod crustaceans in the deep-Catalan Sea (Western Mediterranean). J Nat Hist 26:1305–1323. doi:10.1080/00222939200770741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cartes JE, Sardà F (1993) Zonation of deep-sea decapod fauna in the Catalan Sea (Western Mediterranean). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 94:27–34. doi:10.3354/meps094027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cartes JE, Maynou F, Morales-Nin B, Massutí E, Moranta J (2001) Trophic structure of a bathyal benthopelagic boundary layer community south of the Balearic Islands (southwestern Mediterranean). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 215:23–35. doi:10.3354/meps215023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cartes JE, Maynou F, Moranta J, Massutí E, Lloris D, Morales-Nin B (2004) Patterns of bathymetric distribution among deep-sea fauna at local spatial scale: comparison of mainland versus insular areas. Prog Oceanogr 60:29–45. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2004.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Childress JJ (1995) Are the physiological and biochemical adaptations of metabolism in deep-sea animals? Trends Ecol Evol 10:30–36. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88957-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Childress JJ, Nygaard MH (1973) The chemical composition of midwater fishes as a function of the deep of occurrence off southern California. Deep Sea Res Oceanogr 20(12):1093–1109. doi:10.1016/0011-7471(73)90023-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Christensen V, Walters C, Pauly D (2005) Ecopath with Ecosim: a user’s guide. Fisheries Centre of University of British Columbia, Vancouver, p 154Google Scholar
  37. Christiansen B (1989) Acanthephyra sp. (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea captured by baited traps. Senckenbergiana marit 20:187–193Google Scholar
  38. Coll M, Palomera I, Tudela S, Sardà F (2006) Trophic flows, ecosystem structure and fishing impacts in the South Catalan Sea, Northwestern Mediterranean. J Mar Syst 59:63–96. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coll M, Santojanni A, Arneri E, Palomera I, Tudela S (2007) An ecosystem model of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea: analysis of ecosystem structure and fishing impacts. J Mar Syst 67:119–154. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Company JB, Sardà F (1997) Reproductive patterns and population characteristics in five deep-water pandalid shrimps in the Western Mediterranean along a depth gradient (150–1100 m). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 148:49–58. doi:10.3354/meps148049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Company JB, Sardà F (1998) Metabolic rates and energy content of deep-sea benthic decapod crustaceans in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res 45(11):1861–1881. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00034-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Company JB, Sardà F (2000) Growth parameters of deep-water decapod crustaceans in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: a comparative approach. Mar Biol (Berl) 136:79–90. doi:10.1007/s002270050011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Company JB, Cartes JE, Sardà F (2001) Biological patterns and near-bottom population characteristics of two pasiphaeid decapod crustacean species, Pasiphaea sivado and P. multidentata, in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biol (Berl) 139:61–73. doi:10.1007/s002270100538 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Company JB, Sardà F, Puig P, Cartes JE, Palanques A (2003) Duration and timing of the reproductive periods of the decapod crustaceans dwelling across the continental margin of the NW Mediterranean Sea: is there a general pattern? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 261:201–216. doi:10.3354/meps261201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Company JB, Maiorano P, Tselepides A, Politu C-Y, Plaity W, Rotllant G, Sardà F (2004) Deep-sea decapod crustaceans in the western and central Mediterranean Sea: a preliminary aspects of species distribution, biomass and population structure. Sci Mar 68(suppl 3):73–86. doi:10.3989/scimar.2004.68s373 Google Scholar
  46. Company JB, Puig P, Sardà F, Palanques A, Latasa M, Scharek R (2008) Climate influence on deep sea populations. PloS ONE.
  47. D’Onghia G, Basanisi M, Tursi A (2000) Population structure, age and growth of macrourid fish from the upper slope of the Eastern-Central Mediterranean. J Fish Biol 56(5):1217–1238. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2000.tb02135.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. D’Onghia G, Lloris D, Sion L, Capezzuto F, Labropoulou M (2004a) Observations on the distribution, population structure and biology of Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 in three areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Sci Mar 68(3):163–170Google Scholar
  49. D’Onghia G, Lloris D, Politou CY, Sion L, Dokos J (2004b) New records of deep-water teleost fishes in the Balearic Sea and Ionian Sae (Mediterranean Sea). Sci Mar 68(3):171–183Google Scholar
  50. D’Onghia G, Politou CY, Bozzano A, Lloris D, Rotllant G, Sion L, Mastrototaro F (2004c) Deep-water fish assemblages in three areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Sci Mar 68(3):87–99Google Scholar
  51. Danovaro R, Dinet A, Duineveld G, Tselepides A (1999) Benthic response to particulate fluxes in different trophic environments: a comparison between the Gulf of Lions-Catalan Sea (western-Mediterranean) and the Cretan Sea (eastern Mediterranean). Prog Oceanogr 44(1–3):287–312. doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00030-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Estrada M (1996) Primary production in the northwestern Mediterranean. Sci Mar 60(2):55–64Google Scholar
  53. Farrugio H, Oliver P, Biagi F (1993) An overview of the history, knowledge, recent and future research trends in the Mediterranean fisheries. Sci Mar 57(2–3):105–119Google Scholar
  54. Fredj G (1974) Stokage et exploitation des donées an écologie marine. C: considerations biogéographyques sur les peuplement bentique de la Mediterranée. Mem Inst Oceanogr Monaco 7:1–88Google Scholar
  55. Fredj G, Laubier L (1986) The deep mediterranean benthos. In: Moraitou-Apostolopoulou M, Kiortsis V (eds) Mediterranean marine ecosystems, NATO Conference Series, vol 8, Plenum Press, New York, pp 109–145Google Scholar
  56. Gage JD, Tyler PA (1991) Deep-sea biology: a natural history of organisms at the feep-sea floor. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 504Google Scholar
  57. Galil BS (2004) The limit of the sea: the bathyal fauna of the Levantine Sea. Sci Mar 68(3):63–72. doi:10.3989/scimar.2004.68s363 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Galil BS, Goren M (1994) The deep sea Levantine fauna—new records and rare occurrences. Senckenb Marit 25:41–52Google Scholar
  59. Galil BS, Zibrowius H (1998) First benthos samples from Eratosthenes seamount, Eastern Mediterranean. Senckenb Marit 28(4/6):11–121Google Scholar
  60. Giangrande A, Geraci S, Belmonte G (1994) Life-cycle and life-history diversity in marine invertebrates and the implications in community dynamics. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 32:305–333Google Scholar
  61. Gilat E, Gelman A (1984) On the sharks and fishes observed using underwater photography during a deep-water cruise in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish Res 2:257–271. doi:10.1016/0165-7836(84)90029-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Golani D (1987) On deep water sharks caught off the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Israel J Zool 43:197–203Google Scholar
  63. Goren M, Galil BS (1997) New records of deep-sea fishes from the Levant Basin and a note on the deep-sea fishes of the Mediterranean. Isr J Zool 43:197–203Google Scholar
  64. Haedrich RL, Merrett NR (1988) Summary atlas of deep-living demersal fishes in the North Atlantic Basin. J Nat Hist 22:1325–1362. doi:10.1080/00222938800770811 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Haedrich RL, Rowe GT, Polloni PT (1980) The megabenthic fauna in the deep sea South of New England USA. Mar Biol (Berl) 57:165–179. doi:10.1007/BF00390735 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harrison K (1988) Seasonal reproduction in deep-sea Crustacea (lsopoda-Asellota). J Nat Hist 22:175–197. doi:10.1080/00222938800770131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Herring P (ed) (2002) The biology of the deep ocean. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 314Google Scholar
  68. Hopkins TS (1985) Physics of the sea. In: Margalef R (ed) Key environments: Western Mediterranean. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 100–125Google Scholar
  69. Jones EG, Tselepides A, Bagley PM, Collins MA, Priede IG (2003) Bathymetric distribution of some benthic and benthopelagic species attracted to baited cameras and traps in the deep eastern Mediterranean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 251:75–86. doi:10.3354/meps251075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Klausewitz W (1989) Deep-sea, deep water fish of the eastern Mediterranean, collected during the METEOR-Expedition 1987. Senckenb Marit 20(5/6):251–263Google Scholar
  71. Koslow JA, Bell J, Virtue P, Smith DC (1995) Fecundity and its variability in orange roughy: effects of population density, condition, egg size and senescence. J Fish Biol 47:1063–1080. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1995.tb06030.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Koslow JA, Boehlert GW, Gordon JDM, Haedrich RL, Lorance P, Parin N (2000) Continental slope and deep-sea fisheries: implications for a fragile ecosystem. ICES J Mar Eci 57:548–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Libralato S, Coll M, Tudela S, Palomera I, Pranovi F (2008) A new index to quantify ecosystem impacts of fisheries as the removal of secondary production. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 355:107–129. doi:10.3354/meps07224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lindeman RL (1942) The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399–418. doi:10.2307/1930126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lleonart J (ed) (1993) Northwestern mediterranen fisheries. Sci Mar 57:(2–3):271 ppGoogle Scholar
  76. Lleonart J, Maynou F (2003) Fish stock assessments in the Mediterranean: state of the art. Sci Mar 67(2):37–49Google Scholar
  77. Lloret J, Lleonart J (2002) Recruitment dynamics of eight fishery species in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Sci Mar 66(1):77–82. doi:10.3989/scimar.2002.66n177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Massutí E, Morales-Nin B, Stefanescu C (1995) Distribution and biology of five grenadier fish (Pisces: Macrouridae) from the upper and middle slope of the northwestern Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res 42(3):307–330. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(95)00003-O CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Massutí E, Morales-Nin B, LLoris D (1996) Bathymetric distribution and recruitment patterns of Phycis blennoides (Pisces: Gadidae) from the slope of the northwestern Mediterranean. Sci Mar 60:481–488Google Scholar
  80. Massutí M, Gordon JDM, Moranta J, Swan SC, Stefanescu C, Merrett NR (2004) Mediterranean and Atlantic deep-sea fish aseemblages: differences in biomass composition and size-related structure. Sci Mar 68(suppl 3):101–115Google Scholar
  81. Maynou F, Cartes JE (2000) Community structure of bathyal decapod crustaceans off south-west Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): seasonality and regional patterns in zonation. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 80:789–798. doi:10.1017/S0025315400002769 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McCann K, Hasting A, Huxel GR (1998) Weak trophic interactions and the balance of nature. Nature 395:794–798. doi:10.1038/27427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Merrett R, Haedrich JR (1997) Deep-sea demersal fish and fisheries. Chapmann & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller AR, Tchernia P, Charnock P (1970) Mediterranean Sea Atlas. Woods hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts 190Google Scholar
  85. Morales-Nin B (1990) A first attempt at determining growth patterns of some Mediterranean deep-sea fishes. Sci Mar 54(3):241–248Google Scholar
  86. Morales-Nin B, Massutí E, Stefanescu C (1996a) Bathymetric distribution and growth patterns of Bathypterois mediterraneus from the north-western Mediterranean Sea. J Fish Biol 49:276–288. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb06081.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morales-Nin B, Massutí E, Stefanescu C (1996b) Distribution and biology of Alepocephalus rostratus from the Mediterranean Sea. J Fish Biol 48:1097–1112Google Scholar
  88. Morales-Nin B, Maynou F, Sardà F, Cartes JE, Moranta J, Massutí E, Company JB, Rotllant G, Bozzano A, Stefanescu C (2004) Size influence in zonation patterns in fishes and crustaceans from deep-water communities of the western Mediterranean. NAFO J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 31:413–430Google Scholar
  89. Moranta J, Stefanescu C, Massutí E, Morales-Nin B, LLoris D (1998) Fish community structure and depth-related frends on the continental slope of the Balearic Islands (Algerian basin, western Mediterranean). Mar Ecol Progr Ser 171:247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Moranta J (2007) Deep western Mediterranean demersal fish communities. PhD Thesis, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain, p 202Google Scholar
  91. Moranta J, Palmer M, Massutí E, Stefanescu C, morales-Nin B (2004) Body fish size tendencies within and among species in the deep-sea of the western Mediterranean. Sci Mar 68(suppl 3):141–152. doi:10.3989/scimar.2004.68s3141 Google Scholar
  92. Morato T, Watson R, Pitcher TJ, Pauly D (2006) Fishing down the deep. Fish Fish 7:24–34. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2006.00205.x Google Scholar
  93. Odum WE, Heald EJ (1975) The detritus-based food web for an estuarine mangrove community. In: Cronin LE (ed) Estuarine research, vol 1. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  94. Papaconstantinou C, Farrugio H (2000) Fisheries in the Mediterranean. Med Mar Sci 1(1):5–18Google Scholar
  95. Pauly D, Soriano-Bartz M, Palomares ML (1993) Improved construction, parametrization and interpretation of steady-state ecosystem models. In: Christensen V, Pauly D (eds) Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems, ICLARM conference proceedings no. 26,pp 1–13Google Scholar
  96. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres FJ (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279:860–863. doi:10.1126/science.279.5352.860 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pinnegar JK (2002) Planktivorous fishes: links between the Mediterranean littoral and pelagic. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, p 213Google Scholar
  98. Politou CY, Kapiris K, Maiorano P, Capezzuto F, Dokos J (2004) Deep-Sea mediterranean biology: the case of Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso 1827) (Crustacea: Deacpoda: Aristeidae). Sci Mar 68(suppl 3):129–139Google Scholar
  99. Polunin NVC, Morales-Nin B, Herod W, Cartes JE, Pinnegar JK, Moranta J (2001) Feeding relationships in mediterranean bathyal assemblages elucidated by stable nitrogen and carbon isotope data. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 220:13–23. doi:10.3354/meps220013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Psarra S, Tselepides A, Ignatiades L (2000) Primary productivity in the oligotrophic Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean): seasonal and interannual variability. Prog Oceanogr 46:187–204. doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(00)00018-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Puig P, Company JB, Sardà F, Palanques A (2001) Responses of deep-water shrimp populations to the presence of intermediate nepheloid layers on continental margins. Deep-Sea Res 48:2195–2207. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00016-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ramírez Llodra E, Tyler PA, Copley JTP (2000) Reproductive biology of 3 caridean shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, Chorocaris chacei and Mirocaris fortunata (Caridea: Decapoda), from hydrothermal vents. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 80:473–484. doi:10.1017/S0025315400002174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ramírez Llodra E, Ballesteros M, Company JB, Dantart L, Sardà S (2008) Spatio-temporal variations of biomass and abundance in bathyal non-crustacean megafauna in the Catalan Sea (North-western Mediterranean). Mar Biol (Berl) 153:297–309. doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0805-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rannu M, Gaborit-Rezzouk M (1976) Contribution à l’étude des Bathypteroide (Pisces, Iniomi) de l'Atlantique et da la Mediterranée (1957–1961). Rév Trav Inst Pêch Marit 27(1):161–171Google Scholar
  105. Roberts CM (2002) Deep-impact: the rising toll of fishing in the deep-sea. Trends Ecol Evol 17(5):242–245. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02492-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rotllant G, Moranta J, Massuti E, Sardà F, Morales-Nin B (2002) Reproductive biology of three gadiforms species through the Mediterranear deep-sea range (147–1850 m). Sci Mar 66(2):157–166. doi:10.3989/scimar.2002.66n2157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rucabado J, Lloris D, Stefanescu C (1991) OTSB14: Un arte de arrastre bentónico para la peca profunda (por debajo de los mil metros). Inf Tech Sci Mar CSIC 165:1–27Google Scholar
  108. Sardà F, Cartes JE (1993) Relationship between size and depth in decapod crustaceans populations on the deep slope in the Western Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res 40(11/12):2389–2400Google Scholar
  109. Sardà F, Cartes JE (1997) Morphological features and ecological aspects of early juvenile specimens of the aristeid shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816). Mar Freshw Res 48:73–77. doi:10.1071/MF95043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sardà F, Cartes JE, Norbis W (1994) Spatio-temporal structure of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antennatus Risso, 1816 (Decapoda: Aristeidae) population in the Western Mediterranean. Fish Bull NOAA 92(3):599–607Google Scholar
  111. Sardà F, Bas C, Roldan M, Pla C, Lleonart J (1998a) Enzymatic and morphometric analyses of the population structure of Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) in its Mediterranean distribution area. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 221(2):131–146. doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(97)00119-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sardà F, Cartes JE, Company JB, Albiol T (1998b) A modified commercial trawl used to sample the deep-sea megabenthos. Fish Sci 64:492–493Google Scholar
  113. Sardà F, Company JB, Castellón A (2003a) Intraspecific aggregation structure of a shoal of a western Mediterranean (Catalan coast) deep-sea shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816), during the reproductive period. J Shellfish Res 22(2):569–579Google Scholar
  114. Sardà F, Company JB, Maynou F (2003b) Deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus Risso 1816 in the Catalan sea, a review and perspectives. NAFO J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 31:127–136Google Scholar
  115. Sardà F, D’Onghia G, Politou CY, Company JB, Maiorano P, Kapiris K (2004a) Maximum dee-sea distribution and ecological aspects of Aristeus antennatus (Risso 1816) in the Balearic and Ionian Mediterranean sea. Sci Mar 68(3):7–38. doi:10.3989/scimar.2004.68n3435 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sardà F, Calafat A, Flexas M, Tselepides A, Canals M, Espino M, Tursi A (2004b) An introduction to Mediterranean deep-sea biology. Sci Mar 68(suppl 3):7–38Google Scholar
  117. Sion L, Bozzano A, D’Onghia G, Capezzuto F, Panza M (2004) Chondrichthyes species in deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Sci Mar 68(suppl 3):153–162. doi:10.3989/scimar.2004.68s3153 Google Scholar
  118. Stefanescu C, Cartes JE (1992) Benthopelagic habits of adult specimens of Lampanyctus crocodilus (Risso, 1810) (Osteichthyes, Myctophidae) in the western Mediterranean deep slope. Sci Mar 56:69–74Google Scholar
  119. Stefanescu C, Lloris D, Rucabado J (1992a) Deep-living demersal fishes in the Catalan Sea (western Mediterranean) below a depth of 1000 m. J Nat Hist 26:197–213. doi:10.1080/00222939200770081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stefanescu C, Rucabado J, Lloris D (1992b) Depth-size trends in western Mediterranean demersal deep-sea fishes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 81:205–213. doi:10.3354/meps081205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stefanescu C, Lloris D, Rucabado J (1993) Deep-sea fish assemblages in the Catalan Sea (western Mediterranean) below a depth of 1000 m. Deep-Sea Res 40(4):695–707. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(93)90066-C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stefanescu C, Morales-Nin B, Massutí E (1994) Fish assemblages on the slope in the Catalan Sea (western Mediterranean): influence of a submarine canyon. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 74:499–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stergiou KI, Karpouzi V (2002) Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish. Rev Fish Biol Fish 11:217–254. doi:10.1023/A:1020556722822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sulak KJ (1982) A comparative taxonomic and ecological analysis of temperate and tropical demersal deep-sea fish faunas in the Western North Atlantic. PhD Thesis, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
  125. Sumida PYG, Tyler PA, Lampitt RS, Gage JD (2000) Reproduction, dispersal and settlement of the bathyal ophiuroid Ophiocten gracilis in the NE Atlantic Ocean. Mar Biol (Berl) 137:623–630. doi:10.1007/s002270000376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tselepides A, Zervakis V, Polychronaki T, Danovaro R, Chronis G (2000) Distribution of nutrients and particulate organic matter in relation to the prevailing hydrographic features of the Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean). Prog Oceanogr 46:113–142. doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(00)00015-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tyler PA (1988) Seasonality in the deep sea. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 26:227–258Google Scholar
  128. Tyler PA, Campos-Creasy LS, Giles LA (1994) Environmental control of quai-continuous and seasonal reproduction in deep-sea benthic invertebrates. In: Young CM, Eckelbarger KJ (eds) Reproduction, larval biology, and recruitment of the deep-sea benthos. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 158–178Google Scholar
  129. WWF/IUCN: Cartes JE, Maynou F, Sardà F, Company JB, Lloris D, Tudela S (2004) The Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems: an overview of their diversity, structure, functioning and anthropogenic impacts. In: The Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems: an overview of their diversity, structure, functioning and anthropogenic impacts with a proposal for their conservation. IUCN, Málaga and WWF Rome. Part I: pp 9–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Sardà
    • 1
  • J. B. Company
    • 1
  • G. Rotllant
    • 2
  • M. Coll
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2. Institut de Recerca i Tecnologies Agroalimentaries (IRTA)Sant Carles de la Ràpita, TarragonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of BiologyHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations