Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 313–344 | Cite as

Global introductions of salmon and trout in the genus Oncorhynchus: 1870–2007

  • Stephen S. CrawfordEmail author
  • Andrew M. Muir
Research Paper


The purpose of this review is to provide a global perspective on Oncorhynchus salmonine introductions and put-and-take fisheries based on modern stocking programs, with special emphasis on freshwater ecosystems. We survey the global introductions of nine selected salmonines of the genus Oncorhynchus: golden trout, cutthroat trout, pink salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, masu/cherry salmon, rainbow trout/steelhead, sockeye salmon/kokanee, and chinook salmon. The information is organized on a geographical basis by continent, and then by species and chronology. Two different objectives and associated definitions of ‘success’ for introductions are distinguished: (a) seed introduction: release of individuals with the purpose of creating a wild-reproducing, self-sustaining population; and (b) put-and-take introduction: release of individuals with the purpose of maintaining some level of wild population abundance, regardless of wild reproduction. We identify four major phenomena regarding global salmonine introductions: (1) general inadequacy of documentation regarding introductions; (2) a fundamental disconnect between management actions and ecological consequences of introductions; (3) the importance of global climate change on success of previous and future introductions; and (4) the significance of aquaculture as a key uncertainty in accidental introductions. We conclude this review with a recognition of the need to terminate ongoing stocking programs for introduced salmonines worldwide.


Salmoninae Exotics Introductions Stocking History 



This general review builds on a long series of previous historical and ecological/socio-economic reviews of introduced fishes in general, and introduced salmonines in particular (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon 1971; McDowall 1984; Welcomme 1988; Holcík 1991; McDowall 1994a, b; Lever 1996; Cowx 1999; Crawford 2001). Internet sources proved to be especially valuable in piecing together the diverse and often complex history of global salmonine introductions. We would like to especially recognize the primary and technical literature that was cited by Fishbase the Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) information resource (USGS 2004). Finally, we gratefully acknowledge the host of international colleagues, too numerous to thank individually, who responded to our requests for information on salmonine introductions in their region. One person who deserves special recognition is Dr. Juraj Holčík (Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia) who was kind enough to introduce us to many of his global contacts with special insight on this issue.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrative BiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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