Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 581–613 | Cite as

Potential impacts of global climate change on freshwater fisheries

  • Ashley D. Ficke
  • Christopher A. Myrick
  • Lara J. Hansen
Research Paper

Abstract

Despite uncertainty in all levels of analysis, recent and long-term changes in our climate point to the distinct possibility that greenhouse gas emissions have altered mean annual temperatures, precipitation and weather patterns. Modeling efforts that use doubled atmospheric CO2 scenarios predict a 1–7°C mean global temperature increase, regional changes in precipitation patterns and storm tracks, and the possibility of “surprises” or sudden irreversible regime shifts. The general effects of climate change on freshwater systems will likely be increased water temperatures, decreased dissolved oxygen levels, and the increased toxicity of pollutants. In lotic systems, altered hydrologic regimes and increased groundwater temperatures could affect the quality of fish habitat. In lentic systems, eutrophication may be exacerbated or offset, and stratification will likely become more pronounced and stronger. This could alter food webs and change habitat availability and quality. Fish physiology is inextricably linked to temperature, and fish have evolved to cope with specific hydrologic regimes and habitat niches. Therefore, their physiology and life histories will be affected by alterations induced by climate change. Fish communities may change as range shifts will likely occur on a species level, not a community level; this will add novel biotic pressures to aquatic communities. Genetic change is also possible and is the only biological option for fish that are unable to migrate or acclimate. Endemic species, species in fragmented habitats, or those in east–west oriented systems will be less able to follow changing thermal isolines over time. Artisanal, commercial, and recreational fisheries worldwide depend upon freshwater fishes. Impacted fisheries may make it difficult for developing countries to meet their food demand, and developed countries may experience economic losses. As it strengthens over time, global climate change will become a more powerful stressor for fish living in natural or artificial systems. Furthermore, human response to climate change (e.g., increased water diversion) will exacerbate its already-detrimental effects.

Model predictions indicate that global climate change will continue even if greenhouse gas emissions decrease or cease. Therefore, proactive management strategies such as removing other stressors from natural systems will be necessary to sustain our freshwater fisheries.

Keywords

Climate change Freshwater Fisheries Physiology Socioeconomic 

References

  1. Abell R (2002) Conservation biology for the biodiversity crisis: a freshwater follow-up. Conserv Biol 16:1435–1437Google Scholar
  2. Abell R, Allan JD (2002) Riparian shade and stream temperatures in an agricultural catchment, Michigan, USA. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie 28:232–237Google Scholar
  3. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) (2004) Impacts of a warming arctic: arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. Adrian R (1998) The timing of warming-an important regulator of change in lake plankton communities. In: George DG (ed) Management of lakes and reservoirs during global climate change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dodrecht, p 323Google Scholar
  5. Adrian R, Deneke R, Mischke U, Stellmacher R, Lederer P (1995) A long-term study of the Heilingensee (1975–1992). Evidence for effects of climatic change on the dynamics of eutrophied lake ecosystems. Archiv fur Hydrobiol 133:315–337Google Scholar
  6. Alcaraz G, Espina S (1995) Acute toxicity of nitrite in juvenile grass carp modified by weight and temperature. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 55:473–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Allan JD, Palmer M, Poff NL (2005) Climate change and freshwater ecosystems. In: Lovejoy TE, Hannah L (eds) Climate change and biodiversity. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 274–295Google Scholar
  8. Angermeier PL (1995) Ecological attributes of extinction-prone species: loss of freshwater fishes of Virginia. Conserv Biol 9:143–158Google Scholar
  9. Annear T, Chisholm I, Beecher H, Locke A, Aarrestad P, Burkhart P, Coomer N, Estes C, Hunt J, Jacobson R, Jobsis G, Kauffman J, Marshall J, Mayes K, Smith G, Wentworth R, Stalnaker C (2004) Instream flows for riverine resource stewardship. Instream Flow Council, Cheyenne, WYGoogle Scholar
  10. Avault JWJ (1996) Fundamentals of aquaculture: a step-by-step guide to commercial aquaculture. AVA Publishing Company Inc., Baton Rouge, LAGoogle Scholar
  11. Baede APM, Ahlonsou E, Ding Y, Schimel D (2001) The climate system: an overview. In: Houghton JT (ed) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 87–98Google Scholar
  12. Baltz DM, Moyle PB (1993) Invasion resistance to introduced species by a native assemblage of California stream fishes. Ecol Appl 3:246–255Google Scholar
  13. Baltz DM, Vondracek B, Brown LR, Moyle PB (1987) Influence of temperature on microhabitat choice by fishes in a California stream. Trans Am Fish Soc 116:12–20Google Scholar
  14. Banens RJ, Davis JR (1998) Comprehensive approaches to eutrophication management: the Australian example. Water Sci Technol 37:217–225Google Scholar
  15. Bayley PB (1981) Fish yield from the Amazon in Brazil: comparison with African river yields and management possibilities. Trans Am Fisher Soc 110:351–359Google Scholar
  16. Bays JS, Chrisman TL (1983) Zooplankton and trophic state relationships in Florida lakes. Can J Fisher and Aqua Sci 40:1813–1819Google Scholar
  17. Beamish RJ, Noakes DJ, McFarlane GA, Klyashtorin L, Ivanov VV, Kurashov V (1999) The regime concept and natural trends in the production of Pacific salmon. Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 56:516–526Google Scholar
  18. Becker CD, Genoway RG (1979) Evaluation of the critical thermal maximum for determining thermal tolerance of freshwater fish. Environ Biol Fishes 4:245–256Google Scholar
  19. Bednarek AT (2001) Undamming rivers: a review of the ecological impact of dam removal. Environ Manage 27:803–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Beeton AM (2002) Large freshwater lakes: present state, trends, and future. Environ Conserv 29:29–38Google Scholar
  21. Bertahas I, Dimltriou E, Laschou S, Zacharias I (2006) Climate change and agricultural pollution effects on the trophic status of a Mediterranean lake. Acta Hydroch Hydrob 4:349–359Google Scholar
  22. Binotti I, Biovenco S, Giardina B, Antonini E, Brunori M, Wyman J (1971) Studies on the functional properties of fish hemoglobins. II. The oxygen equilibrium of the isolated components of trout blood. Arch Biochem Biophys 142:274–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Blinn DW, Shannon JP, Benenati PL, Wilson KP (1998) Algal ecology in tailwater stream communities: the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. J Phycol 34:734–740Google Scholar
  24. Blumberg AF, Di Toro DM (1990) Effects of climate warming on dissolved oxygen concentrations in Lake Erie. Trans Am Fisher Soc 119:210–223Google Scholar
  25. Bolin B, Döös BR, Jager J, Warrick RA (1986) The greenhouse effect, climatic change, and ecosystems. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. Bootsma HA, Hecky RE (2003) A comparative introduction to the biology and limnology of the African Great Lakes. J Great Lakes Res 29(supplement 2):3–18Google Scholar
  27. Bounoua L, DeFries RS, Imhof ML, Steininger MK (2004) Land use and local climate: a case study near Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Meteorol Atmos Phys 86:73–85Google Scholar
  28. Boyd C, Tucker C (1998) Pond aquaculture water quality management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MAGoogle Scholar
  29. Braganza K, Karoly DJ, Arblaster JM (2004) Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophys Res Lett 33:L13217Google Scholar
  30. Brandt SB, Mason DM, McCormick MJ, Lofgren B, Hunter TS, Tyler JA (2002) Climate change: implications for fish growth performance in the Great Lakes. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 61–76Google Scholar
  31. Brett JR (1971) Energetic responses of salmon to temperature. A study of some thermal relations in the physiology and freshwater ecology of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Am Zool 11:99–113Google Scholar
  32. Brett JR, Groves TDD (1979) Physiological Energetics. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish physiology: bioenergetics and growth. Academic Press, New York, pp 279–352Google Scholar
  33. Brio PA (1998) Staying cool: behavioral thermoregulation during summer by young-of-year brook trout in a lake. Trans Am Fisher Soc 127:212–222Google Scholar
  34. Britton DK, McMahon RE (2004) Seasonal and artificially elevated temperatures influence bioenergetic allocation patterns in the common pond snail, Physella virgata. Physiol Biochem Zool 77:187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Brouder MJ (1999) Relationship between length of roundtail chub and infection intensity of Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. J Aqua Anim Health 11:302–304Google Scholar
  36. Brown JH, Kodric-Brown A (1977) Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 58:445–449Google Scholar
  37. Bucka H (1998) The mass invasion of several blue-green algae in two drinking-water supply reservoirs in southern Poland. In: George DG (ed) Management of lakes and reservoirs during global climate change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dodrecht, Netherlands, pp 145–151Google Scholar
  38. Cairns MA, Ebersole JL, Baker JL, Wigington PJ, Lavigne HR, Davis SM (2005) Influence of summer stream temperatures on black spot infestation of juvenile Coho salmon in the Oregon Coast Range. Trans Am Fisher Soc 134:1471–1479Google Scholar
  39. Caminade C, Terray L (2006) Influence of increased greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols concentration upon diurnal temperature range over Africa at the end of the 20th century. Geophys Res Lett 33:L15703Google Scholar
  40. Campagna CG, Cech JJ Jr. (1981) Gill ventilation and respiratory efficiency of Sacramento blackfish, Orthodon microlepidotus in hypoxic environments. J Fish Biol 19:581–591Google Scholar
  41. Carveth CJ, Widmer AM, Bonar SA (2006) Comparison of upper thermal tolerances of native and nonnative fish species in Arizona. Trans Am Fisher Soc 135:1433–1440Google Scholar
  42. Casselman JM (2002) Effects of temperature, global extremes, and climate change on year-class production of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes in the Great Lakes Basin. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 39–60Google Scholar
  43. Cech JJ Jr, Massengill M (1995) Tradeoffs between respiration and feeding in Sacramento blackfish, Orthodon microlepidotus. Environ Biol Fishes 44:157–163Google Scholar
  44. Chatterjee NA, Pal K, Manush SM, Das T, Mukherjee CS (2004) Thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption of Labeo rohita and Cyprinus carpio early fingerlings acclimated to three different temperatures. J Thermal Biol 29:265–270Google Scholar
  45. Chauhan DPS (1994) India I. In: Fishery cooperatives in Asia. Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  46. Cheek TE, Van Den Avyle MJ, Coutant CC (1985) Influences of water quality on distribution of striped bass in a Tennessee River impoundment. Trans Am Fisher Soc 114:67–76Google Scholar
  47. Chellappa S, Câmara MR, Chellappa NT (2004) Ecology of Cichla monoculus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) from a reservoir in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Hydrobiologia 504:267–273Google Scholar
  48. Chen RJ, Hunt KM, Ditton RB (2003) Estimating the economic impacts of a trophy largemouth bass fishery: issues and applications. N Am J Fisher Manage 23:835–844Google Scholar
  49. Chervinski J (1982) Environmental physiology of tilapias. In: Pullin RSV, Lowe-McConnell RH (eds) Biology and culture of tilapias. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Phillipines, pp 119–128Google Scholar
  50. Christie GC, Regier HA (1988) Measures of optimal thermal habitat and their relationship to yields for four commercial fish species. Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 45:301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cimmaruta R, Bondanelli P, Nascetti G (2005) Genetic structure and environmental heterogeneity in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius). Mol Ecol 14:2577–2591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Clarkson RW, Childs MR (2000) Temperature effects of hypolimnial-release dams on early life stages of Colorado River Basin big-river fishes. Copeia 2000:402–412Google Scholar
  53. Coleman MA, Fausch KD (In Press) Cold summer temperature regimes cause a recruitment bottleneck in age-0 Colorado River cutthroat trout reared in laboratory streams. Trans Am Fisher SocGoogle Scholar
  54. Cooper SD (1996) Rivers and streams. In: McClanahan RR, Young TP (eds) East African ecosystems and their conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 133–170Google Scholar
  55. Courtenay WJJ (1997) Nonindigenous fishes. In: Simberloff D, Schmits DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 109–122Google Scholar
  56. Coutant CC (1985) Striped bass, temperature, and dissolved oxygen: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk. Trans Am Fisher Soc 114:31–61Google Scholar
  57. Coutant CC (1990) Temperature-oxygen habitat for freshwater and coastal striped bass in a changing climate. Trans Am Fisher Soc 119:240–253Google Scholar
  58. Craig JF, Kipling C (1983) Reproduction effort versus the environment; case histories of Windermere perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and pike Esox lucius L. J Fish Biol 22:713–727Google Scholar
  59. Crawford RH (1974) Structure of an air-breathing organ and the swim bladder in the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis Bean. Can J Zool 52:1221–1225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Cross FB, Moss RE (1987) Historic changes in fish communities and aquatic habitats in plains streams of Kansas. In: Matthews WJ, Heins DC (eds) Community and evolutionary ecology of North American stream fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, pp 155–165Google Scholar
  61. De Jesus MJ, Kohler CC (2004) The commercial fishery of the Peruvian Amazon. Fisheries 29:10–16Google Scholar
  62. de Magalhães VF, Soares RM, Azevedo SMFO (2000) Microscystin contamination in fish from the Jacarepaguà Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil): ecological implication and human health risk. Toxicon 39:1077–1085Google Scholar
  63. de Souza RCR, Carvalho MC, Truzzi AC (1998) Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wolosz.) Seenaya and Subba Raju (Cyanophyceae) dominance and a contribution to the knowledge of Rio Pequeno Arm, Billings Reservoir, Brazil. Environ Toxicol Water Quality 13:73–81Google Scholar
  64. Decostere A, Haesebrouck F, Turnbull JF, Charleir G (1999) Influence of water quality and temperature on adhesion of high and low virulence Flavobacterium columnare strains to isolated gill arches. J Fish Dis 22:1–11Google Scholar
  65. Dill WA (1993) FAO Report Inland Fisheries of Europe. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 281Google Scholar
  66. Dobson DM (2001) From ice cores to tree rings. In: Spray SL, McGlothlin KL (eds) Global climate change. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Oxford, UK, pp 31–58Google Scholar
  67. Doudoroff P, Warren CE (1965) Environmental requirements of fishes and wildlife: dissolved oxygen requirements of fishes. Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, pp 40Google Scholar
  68. Dudgeon D (2003) The contribution of scientific information to the conservation and management of freshwater biodiversity in tropical Asia. Hydrobiologia 500:295–314Google Scholar
  69. Dzikowski R, Hulata G, Karplus I, Harpaz S (2001) Effect of temperature and dietary L-carnitine supplementation on reproductive performance of female guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Aquaculture 199:323–332Google Scholar
  70. Eaton JG, Scheller RM (1996) Effects of climate warming on fish thermal habitat in streams of the United States. Limnol Oceanogr 41:1109–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Elliot JM (1975a) The energetics of feeding, metabolism and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in relation to body weight, water temperature, and ration size. J Anim Ecol 45:923–946Google Scholar
  72. Elliot JM (1975b) The growth rate of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) fed on maximum rations. J Anim Ecol 44:805–821Google Scholar
  73. Elliot JM (1975c) The growth rate of brown trout (Salmo trutta) fed on reduced rations. J Anim Ecol 44:823–842Google Scholar
  74. Etim L, Loebo PE, King RP (1999) The dynamics of an exploited population of a siluroid catfish (Shilbe intermidius Reupell 1832) in the Cross River, Nigeria. Fisher Res 40:295–307Google Scholar
  75. Fausch KD, Bestgen KR (1997) Ecology of fishes indigenous to the central and southwestern Great Plains. In: Knopf FL, Sampson FB (eds) Ecology and conservation of great plains vertebrates. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 131–166Google Scholar
  76. Fausch KD, Nakano S (1998) Research on fish ecology in Japan: a brief history and selected review. In: Yuma M, Nakamura I, Fausch KD (eds) Fish biology in Japan: an anthology in Honor of Hiroya Kawanabe. Kluwer, Dodrecht, Netherlands, pp 75–96Google Scholar
  77. Flebbe PA (1993) Comment on Meisner (1990): effect of climatic warming on the southern margins of the native range of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 50:883–884Google Scholar
  78. Folland CK, Karl TR (2001) Observed climate variability and change. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA. (eds) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 101–181Google Scholar
  79. Font WF (2003) The global spread of parasites: what do Hawaiian streams tell us? Bioscience 53:1061–1067Google Scholar
  80. Franklin CE, Johnston IA, Crockford T, Kamunde C (1995) Scaling of oxygen consumption of Lake Magadi tilapia, a fish living at 37°C. J Fish Biol 46:829–834Google Scholar
  81. Fry FEJ (1971) The Effect of Environmental Factors on the Physiology of Fish. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology: environmental relations and behavior. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–98Google Scholar
  82. Gaedke U, Ollinger D, Kirner P, Bauerle E (1998) The influence of weather conditions on the seasonal plankton development in a large and deep lake (L. Constance) III: The impact of water column stability on spring algal development. In: George DG (ed) Management of lakes and reservoirs during global climate change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dodrecht, Netherlands, pp 71–84Google Scholar
  83. Gehrke PC, Gilligan DM, Barwick M (2002) Changes in fish communities of the Shoalhaven River 20 years after construction of Tallowa Dam, Australia. River Res Appl 18:265–286Google Scholar
  84. Genta JL, Perez-Iribarren G, Mechoso CR (1998) A recent trend in the streamflow of rivers in southeastern South America. J Clim 11:2858–2862Google Scholar
  85. George DG, Hewitt DP (1998) The influence of year-to-year changes in position of the Atlantic Gulf Stream on the biomass of zooplankton in Windermere North Basin, U. K. In: George DG (ed) Management of lakes and reservoirs during global climate change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dodrecht, Netherlands, pp 223–244Google Scholar
  86. George DG, Hewitt DP, Lund JWG, Smyly WJP (1990) The relative effects of enrichment and climate change on the long-term dynamics of Daphnia in Esthwaite Water, Cumbria. Freshwater Biol 23:55–70Google Scholar
  87. Gerdaux D (1998) Fluctuations in lake fisheries and global warming. In: George DG (ed) Management of lakes and reservoirs during global climate change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dodrecht, The Netherlands, pp 263–272Google Scholar
  88. Gilbert MA, Granath WOJ (2003) Whirling disease of salmonid fish: life cycle, biology, and disease. J Parasitol 89:658–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Goldman CE, Horne AJ (1983) Limnology. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Goudswaard PC, Witte F, Katunzi EF (2002) The tilapiine fish stock of Lake Victoria before and after the Nile perch upsurge. J Fish Biol 60:838–856Google Scholar
  91. Gulseth OA, Nilssen KJ (2000) The brief period of spring migration, short marine residence, and high return rate of a northern Svalbard population of Arctic charr. Trans Am Fisher Soc 129:782–796Google Scholar
  92. Häder D-P, Kumar HD, Smith RC, Worrest RC (1998) Effects on aquatic ecosystems. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 46:53–68Google Scholar
  93. Hallare AV, Schirling M, Luckerback T, Köhler H-R, Triebskorn R (2005) Combined effects of temperature and cadmium on developmental parameters and biomarker responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. J Thermal Biol 30:7–17Google Scholar
  94. Hansen LJ, Whitehead JA, Anderson SL (2002) Solar UV radiation enhances the toxicity of arsenic in Ceriodaphnia dubia. Ecotoxicology 11:279–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hanski I (1994) A practical model of metapopulation dynamics. J Anim Ecol 63:151–162Google Scholar
  96. Harding MM, Anderberg PI, Haymet ADJ (2003) ‘Antifreeze’ glycoproteins from polar fish. Eur J Biochem 270:1381–1392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Harig AH, Fausch KD, Young MK (2000) Factors influencing success of greenback cutthroat trout translocations. N Am J Fisher Manage 20:994–1004Google Scholar
  98. Harper D, Mavuti K (1996) Freshwater wetlands. In: McClanahan RR, Young TP (eds) East African ecosystems and their conservation. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Harvey BC (1987) Susceptibility of young-of-the-year fishes to downstream displacement by flooding. Trans Am Fisher Soc 116:851–855Google Scholar
  100. Hassan H, Hanaki K, Matsuo T (1998) A modeling approach to simulate impact of climate change in lake water quality: phytoplankton growth rate assessment. Water Sci Technol 37:177–185Google Scholar
  101. Hefer B, Pruginin Y (1981) Commercial fish farming: with special reference to fish culture in Israel. Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Hill DK, Magnuson JJ (1990) Potential effects of global climate warming on the growth and prey consumption of Great Lakes fish. Trans Am Fisher Soc 119:265–275Google Scholar
  103. Hiner M, Moffitt CM (2001) Variations in infections of Myxobolus cerebralis in field-exposed cutthroat and rainbow trout in Idaho. J Aqua Anim Health 13:124–132Google Scholar
  104. Hori H (2000) The mekong: environment and development. United Nations University, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Hossain D (1994) Bangladesh. In: Fishery cooperatives in Asia. Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  106. Houghton JT (2004) Global warming: the complete briefing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  107. Huey DW, Beitinger TL, Wooten MC (1984) Nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation and recovery in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) at three acclimation temperatures. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 32:674–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hulme M (1994) Global climate change and the Nile Basin. In: Howell P, Allan J (eds) The nile: sharing a scarce resource. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Hwang D, Lin T (2002) Effect of temperature on dietary vitamin C requirement and lipid in common carp. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B 131:1–7Google Scholar
  110. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  111. Irion G, Junk WJ (1997) The large Central Amazonian River floodplains near Manaus. In: Junk WJ (ed) The central Amazon floodplain: ecology of a pulsing system. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, pp 23–46Google Scholar
  112. Jackson DA, Mandrak NE (2002) Changing fish biodiversity: predicting the loss of cyprinid biodiversity due to global climate change. In: McGinn NA (ed) American fisheries society symposium 32: fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda MD, pp 89–98Google Scholar
  113. Jacobs JW (1992) International River Basin Development and Climatic Change: The Lower Mekong of Southeast Asia. PhD Dissertation, University of ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  114. Jankowski T, Livingstone DM, Bührer H, Forster R, Niederhauser P (2006) Consequences of the 2003 European heat wave for lake temperature profiles, thermal stability, and hypolimnetic oxygen depletion: Implications for a warmer world. Limnol Oceanogr 51:815–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Jeney G, Nemcsók J (1992) Acute effect of sublethal ammonia concentrations on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). II. Effect on ammonia on blood plasma transaminases (GOT, GTP), G1DH enzyme activity, and ATP value. Aquaculture 104:149–156Google Scholar
  116. Jenkins RE, Burkhead NM (1993) Freshwater fishes of virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MDGoogle Scholar
  117. Jiongxin X (2005) The water fluxes of the Yellow River to the sea in the past 50 years, in response to climate change and human activities. Environ Manage 35:620–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Johnston G (2002) Arctic charr aquaculture. Fishing News Books, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  119. Jones GJ, Poplawski W (1998) Understanding and management of cyanobacterial blooms in sub-tropical reservoirs of Queensland, Australia. Water Sci Technol 37:161–168Google Scholar
  120. Jørgensen EH, Arnesen AM (2002) Seasonal changes in osmotic and ionic regulation in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, from a high- and a sub-arctic anadromous population. Environ Biol Fishes 64:185–193Google Scholar
  121. Kalff J (2000) Limnology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  122. Kamler E (2005) Parent-egg-progeny relationships in teleost fishes: an energetics perspective. Rev Fish Biol Fisher 15:399–421Google Scholar
  123. Kangur A, Kangur P, Pihu E (2002) Long-term trends in the fish communities of Lakes Peipsi and Vortsjarv (Estonia). Aqua Ecosyst Health Manage 5:379–389Google Scholar
  124. Kankaala P, Ojala A, Tulonen T, Arvola L (2002) Changes in nutrient retention capacity of boreal aquatic ecosystems under climate warming: a simulation study. Hydrobiologia 469:67–76Google Scholar
  125. Karabin A, Ejsmont-Karabin J, Kornatowska R (1997) Eutrophication processes in a shallow, macrophyte-dominated lake—Factors influencing zooplankton structure and density in Lake Luknajno (Poland). Hydrobiologia 342/343:401–409Google Scholar
  126. Kashian DR, Prusha BA, Clements WH (2004) Influence of total organic carbon and UV-B radiation on zinc toxicity and bioaccumulation in aquatic communities. Environ Sci Technol 38:6371–6376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kaufman L, Chapman LJ, Chapman CA (1996) The Great Lakes. In: McClanahan TR, Young TP (eds) East African ecosystems and their conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 191–216Google Scholar
  128. Kennedy BM, Peterson DP, Fausch KD (2003) Different life histories of brook trout populations invading mid-elevation and high-elevation cutthroat trout streams in Colorado. West N Am Natur 63:215–223Google Scholar
  129. Kitchell JF, Stewart DJ, Weininger D (1977) Applications of a bioenergetics model to yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum). J Fisher Res Board Can 34:1922–1935Google Scholar
  130. Klapper H (1991) Control of eutrophication in Inland waters. Ellis Horwood Ltd., West Sussex, UKGoogle Scholar
  131. Kling GW, Hayhoe K, Johnson LB, Magnuson JJ, Polasky S, Robinson SK, Shuter BJ, Wander MM, Wuebbles DJ, Zak DR, Lindroth RL, Moser SC, Wilson ML (2003) Confronting climate change in the great lakes region: impacts on our communities and ecosystems. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Ecological Society of America, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  132. Köck G, Triendl M, Hofer R (1996) Seasonal patterns of metal accumulation in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an oligotrophic Alpine lake related to temperature. Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 53:780–786Google Scholar
  133. Kramer DL, Lindsey CC, Moodie GEE, Stevens ED (1978) The fishes and the aquatic environment of the central Amazon basin, with particular reference to respiratory patterns. Can J Zool 56:717–729Google Scholar
  134. Kramer DL, Manley D, Bourgeois R (1983) The effect of respiratory mode and oxygen concentration on the risk of aerial predation in fishes. Can J Zool 61:653–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kurki H, Mannini P, Vuorinen I, Aro E, Mölsä H, Lindqvist OV (1999) Macrozooplankton communities in Lake Tanganyika indicate food chain differences between the northern part and the main basins. Hydrobiologia 407:123–129Google Scholar
  136. Kutty MN, Sukumaran N (1975) Influence of upper and lower temperature extremes in the swimming performance of Tilapia mossambica. Trans Am Fisher Soc 104:755–761Google Scholar
  137. Labraga JC (1997) The climate change in South America due to a doubling in the CO2 concentration: intercomparison of general circulation model equilibrium experiments. Int J Climatol 17:377–398Google Scholar
  138. Laikre L, Palm S, Ryman N (2005) Genetic population structure of fishes: implications for coastal zone management. Ambio 34:111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lammens EHRR (1990) The relation of biotic and abiotic interactions to eutrophication in Tjeukemeer, The Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 191:29–37Google Scholar
  140. Langford TE (1983) Electricity generation and the ecology of natural waters. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, UKGoogle Scholar
  141. Liang Y, Melack JM, Wang J (1981) Primary production in Chinese ponds and lakes. Trans Am Fisher Soc 110:346–350Google Scholar
  142. Loaiciga HA, Valdes JB, Vogel R, Garvey J, Schwarz H (1996) Global warming and the hydrologic cycle. J Hydrol 174:83–127Google Scholar
  143. Lodge DM (2001) Lakes. In: Chapin FSI, Sala OE, Huber-Sannwald E (eds) Global biodiversity in a changing environment: scenarios for the 21st century. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 277–313Google Scholar
  144. Lofgren BM (2002) Global warming influences on water levels, ice, and chemical and biological cycles in lakes: some examples. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  145. Loomis JB, White DS (1996) Economic benefits of rare and endangered species: summary and meta-analysis. Ecol Econ 18:197–206Google Scholar
  146. Lu X (1992) Fishery management approaches in small reservoirs in China. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  147. Lyons J, Hickley P, Gledhill S (2002) An evaluation of recreational fishing in England and Wales. In: Pitcher TJ, Hollingworth C (eds) Recreational fisheries: ecological, economic, and social evaluation. Blackwell Science, Ltd., Oxford, pp 144–155Google Scholar
  148. MacLeod JC, Pessah E (1973) Temperature effects on mercury accumulation, toxicity, and metabolic rate in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Fisher Res Board Can 30:485–492Google Scholar
  149. Magnuson JJ (2002a) Future of adapting to climate change and variability. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 283–287Google Scholar
  150. Magnuson JJ (2002b) Signals from ice cover trends and variability. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  151. Magnuson JJ, Webster KE, Assel RA, Bowser CJ, Dillon PJ, Eaton JG, Evans HE, Fee EJ, Hall RI, Mortsch LR, Schindler DW, Quinn FH (1997) Potential effects of climate changes on aquatic systems: Laurentian Great Lakes and Precambrian Shield region. Hydrological Proce 11:825–871Google Scholar
  152. Mann ME, Bradley RS, Hughes MK (1998) Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature 392:779–787Google Scholar
  153. Marcogliese DJ (2001) Implications of climate change for parasitism of animals in the aquatic environment. Can J Zool 79:1331–1352Google Scholar
  154. Martin FJB (ed) (2001) Inland fishery enhancements in China: methods and effects of socio-economic and institutional factors. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  155. Matthews WJ, Marsh-Matthews E (2003) Effects of drought on fish across axes of space, time and ecological complexity. Freshwater Biol 48:1232–1253Google Scholar
  156. Matthews WJ, Zimmerman EG (1990) Potential effects of global warming on native fishes of the southern Great Plains and the Southwest. Fisheries 15:26–32Google Scholar
  157. Matthews WJ, Hill LG, Schellhaass SM (1985) Depth distribution of striped bass and other fish in Lake Texoma (Oklahoma-Texas) during summer stratification. Trans Am Fisher Soc 114:84–91Google Scholar
  158. Mauget SA (2003) Multidecadal regime shifts in US streamflow, precipitation, and temperatures at the end of the twentieth century. J Clim 16:3905–3916Google Scholar
  159. Mayfield RB, Cech JJ Jr. (2002) Temperature effects on green sturgeon bioenergetics. Trans Am Fisher Soci 133:961–970Google Scholar
  160. McCarty JP (2001) Ecological consequences of recent climate change. Conserv Biol 15:320–331Google Scholar
  161. McCauley R, Beitinger T (1992) Predicted effects of climate warming on the commercial culture of the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Geojournal 28:61–66Google Scholar
  162. McDowall RM (1992) Global climate change and fish and fisheries: what might happen in a temperate oceanic archipelago like New Zealand. Geojournal 28:29–37Google Scholar
  163. McFarlane GA, King JR, Beamish RJ (2000) Have there been recent changes in climate? Ask the fish. Prog Oceanogr 47:147–169Google Scholar
  164. McKenzie DJ, Serrini G, Piraccini G, Bronzi P, Bolis CL (1996) Effects of diet on responses to exhaustive exercise in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica) to three different temperatures. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 114:43–50Google Scholar
  165. McLarney W (1998) Freshwater aquaculture. Hartley and Marks Publishers, Point Roberts, WAGoogle Scholar
  166. Meffe GK, Weeks SC, Mulvey M, Kandl KL (1995) Genetic differences in thermal tolerance of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki; Poeciliidae) from ambient and thermal ponds. Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 52:2704–2711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Meisner JD (1990) Potential loss of thermal habitat for brook trout, due to climatic warming, in two southern Ontario streams. Trans Am Fisher Soc 119:282–291Google Scholar
  168. Meisner JD (1992) Assessing potential effects of global climate change on tropical freshwater fishes. Geojournal 28:21–27Google Scholar
  169. Meisner JD, Rosenfeld JS, Regier HA (1988) The role of groundwater in the impact of climate warming on stream salmonines. Fisheries 13:2–8Google Scholar
  170. Melack JM (1996) Saline and freshwater lakes of the Kenyan Rift Valley. In: McClanahan TR, Young TP (eds) East African ecosystems and their conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 171–190Google Scholar
  171. Melack JM, Dozier J, Goldman CR, Greenland D, Milner AM, Naiman RJ (1997) Effects of climate change on inland waters of the Pacific coastal mountains and western Great Basin of North America. Hydrol Process 11:971–992Google Scholar
  172. Meyer JL, Sale MJ, Mulholland PJ, Poff NL (1999) Impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystem functioning and health. J Am Water Res Assoc 35:1373–1386Google Scholar
  173. Milly PCD, Wetherald RT, Dunne KA, Delworth TL (2002) Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate. Nature 415:514–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Milstein A, Zoran M, Peretz Y, Joseph D (2000) Low temperature tolerance of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Environ Biol Fishes 58:455–460Google Scholar
  175. Mion JB, Stein RA, Marschall EA (1998) River discharge drives survival of larval walleye. Ecol Appl 8:88–103Google Scholar
  176. Modde T, Muth RT, Haines GB (2001) Floodplain wetland suitability, access, and potential use by juvenile razorback suckers in the middle Green River, Utah. Trans Am Fisher Soc 130:1095–1105Google Scholar
  177. Morgan IJ, L’Cruz LM, Dockray JJ, Linton TK, Wood CM (1999) The effects of elevated summer temperature and sublethal pollutants (ammonia, pH) on protein turnover in the gill and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on a limited food ration. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 123:43–53Google Scholar
  178. Morita K, Yamamoto S (2002) Effects of habitat fragmentation by damming on the persistence of stream-dwelling charr populations. Conserv Biol 16:1318–1323Google Scholar
  179. Moss JL (1985) Summer selection of thermal refuges by striped bass in Alabama reservoirs and tailwaters. Trans Am Fisher Soc 114:77–83Google Scholar
  180. Moyle PB, Cech JJ (2004) Fishes: an introduction to ichthyology, 5th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  181. Moyle PB, Smith JJ, Daniels RA, Taylor TL, Price DG (1982) Distribution and ecology of stream fishes of the Sacramento-San Joaquin drainage system. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  182. Mulholland PJ Best GR, Coutant CC, Hornberger GM, Meyer JL, Robinson PJ, Stenberg JR, Turner RE, Vera-Herrera F, Wetzel RG (1997) Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the South-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico. Hydrol Process 11:949–970Google Scholar
  183. Munzir A, Heidhues F (2002) Towards sustainable development of floating net cage culture for income security in rural Indonesia: a case study of common carp production at Lake Maninjau, Indonesia. In: Edwards P, Little DC, Demaine H (eds) Rural Aquaculture: Papers Presented at a Conference Held in November 1998 in Chiang Mai, Thailand. CAB International, New York, pp 143–153Google Scholar
  184. Murty AS (1986a) Toxicity of pesticides to Fish. I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  185. Murty AS (1986b) Toxicity of pesticides to Fish. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  186. Myrick CA, Cech JJ (2000) Temperature influences on California rainbow trout physiological performance. Fish Physiol Biochem 22:245–254Google Scholar
  187. Myrick CA, Cech JJ (2003) The physiological performance of golden trout at water temperatures of 10–19°C. California Fish Game 89:20–29Google Scholar
  188. NASC (2005) Catfish processing: 2005. National Agricultural Statistics Center, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  189. Nemcsók J, Orbán L, Aszalos B, Vig É (1987) Accumulation of pesticides in the organs of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., at 4 and 20 C. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:370–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Nevermann D, Wurtsbaugh WA (1994) The thermoregulatory function of diel vertical migration for a juvenile fish, Cottus extensus. Oecologia 98:247–256Google Scholar
  191. New MB (2003) An overview of the status of global aquaculture, excluding China. Am Fisher Soc Symp 38:59–101Google Scholar
  192. Nicholls KH (1998) El Nino, ice cover, and Great Lakes phosphorus: implications for climate warming. Limnol Oceanogr 43:715–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Nicieza AG, Metcalfe NB (1997) Growth compensation in juvenile Atlantic salmon: responses to depressed temperature and food availability. Ecology 78:2385–2400Google Scholar
  194. Nickum JG, Stickney RR (1993) Walleye. In: Stickney RR (ed) Culture of nonsalmonid freshwater fish. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 232–249Google Scholar
  195. Nielsen JL, Lisle TE, Ozaki V (1994) Thermally stratified pools and their use by steelhead in northern California streams. Trans Am Fisher Soc 123:613–626Google Scholar
  196. Nijssen B, O’Donnell GM, Hamlet AF, Lettenmaier DP (2001) Hydrologic sensitivity of global rivers to climate change. Clim Change 50:143–175Google Scholar
  197. Nishizawa I, Kurokawa T, Yabe M (2006) Policies and resident’s willingness to pay for restoring the ecosystem damaged by alien fish in Lake Biwa, Japan. Environ Sci Policy 9:448–456Google Scholar
  198. Nobre CA, Artaxo P, Assunção M, Silva Dias F, Victoria RL, Nobre AD, Krug T (2002) The Amazon Basin and land-cover change: a future in the balance? In: Steffen W, Jäger J, Carson DJ, Bradshaw C (eds) Challenges of a changing earth: proceedings of the global change open science conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 10–13 July 2001. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, p 216Google Scholar
  199. Nussey G, van Vuren JHJ, du Preez HH (1996) Acute toxicity of copper on juvenile Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae), at different temperatures. S Afr J Wildlife Res 26:47–55Google Scholar
  200. Ochumba PBO (1990) Massive fish kills within the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 208:93–99Google Scholar
  201. Ozer A, Erdem O (1999) The relationship between occurrence of ectoparasites, temperature and culture conditions: a comparison of farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) in the Sinop region of northern Turkey. J Nat History 33:483–491Google Scholar
  202. Palmer TN, Räisänen J (2002) Quantifying the risk of extreme seasonal precipitation events in a changing climate. Nature 415:512–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Parmesan C, Yohe G (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421:37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pekar F, Be NV, Long DN, Cong NV, Dung DT, Olah J (2002) Eco-technological analysis of fish farming households in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. In: Edwards P, Little DC, Demaine H (eds) Rural aquaculture: papers presented at a conference held in November 1998 in Chiang Mai, Thailand. CAB International, New York, pp 77–85Google Scholar
  205. Persson L, Diehl S, Johansson L, Andersson G, Hamrin SF (1991) Shifts in fish communities along the productivity gradient of temperate lakes—patterns and the importance of size-structured interactions. J Fish Biol 38:281–293Google Scholar
  206. Peter A (1998) Interruption of the river continuum by barriers and the consequences for migratory fish. In: Jungwirth M, Schmutz S, Weiss S (eds) Fish migration and fish bypasses. Fishing News Books, Oxford, pp 99–112Google Scholar
  207. Phillipart J-Cl, Ruwet J-Cl (1982) Ecology and distribution of tilapias. In: Pullins RSV, Lowe-McConnell RH (eds) Biology and culture of tilapias. International Center of Living Aquatic Resource Management, Bellagio, Italy, pp 15–60Google Scholar
  208. Poff NL, Allan JD (1995) Functional-organization of stream fish assemblages in relation to hydrological variability. Ecology 76:606–627Google Scholar
  209. Poff NL, Angermeier PL, Cooper SD, Lake PS, Fausch KD, Winemiller KO, Mertes LAK, Oswood MW, Reynolds J, Rahel FJ (2001) Fish diversity in streams and rivers. In: Chapin FSI, Sala OE, Huber-Sannwald E (eds) Global biodiversity in a changing environment: scenarios for the 21st century. Springer, New York, pp 351–368Google Scholar
  210. Porto L, McLaughlin R, Noakes D (1999) Low-head barrier dams restrict the movements of fishes in two lake Ontario streams. N Am J Fisher Manage 4:1028–1036Google Scholar
  211. Post JR, Sullivan M, Cox S, Lester NP, Walters CJ, Parkinson EA, Paul AJ, Jackson L. Shuter BJ (2002) Canada’s recreational fisheries: the invisible collapse? Fisheries 27:6–17Google Scholar
  212. Prein M, Oficial R, Bimbao MA, Lopez T (2002) Aquaculture for the diversification of small farms within forest buffer zone management: an example from the uplands of Quirino Province, Phillipines. In: Edwards P, Little DC, Demaine H (eds) Rural aquaculture: papers presented at a conference held in November 1998 in Chiang Mai, Thailand. CAB International, New York, pp 97–116Google Scholar
  213. Regier HA, Meisner JD (1990) Anticipated effects of climate change on freshwater fishes and their habitat. Fisheries 15:10–15Google Scholar
  214. Reist JD, Wrona FJ, Prowse TD, Power M, Dempson JB, Beamish RJ, King JR, Carmichael TJ, Sawatzky CD (2006) General effects of climate change on Arctic fishes and fish populations. Ambio 35:370–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Ribbink AJ (1987) African lakes and their fishes: conservation scenarios and suggestions. Environ Biol Fishes 19:3–26Google Scholar
  216. Roch M, Maly EJ (1979) Relationship of cadmium-induced hypocalcemia with mortality in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the influence of temperature on toxicity. J Fisher Res Board Can 36:1297–1303Google Scholar
  217. Rodo X, Comin FA (2003) Global climate: current research and uncertainties in the climate system. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  218. Roessig JM, Woodley CM, Cech JJ Jr., Hansen LJ (2004) Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fisher 14:251–275Google Scholar
  219. Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS (1987) Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 115:1606–1626Google Scholar
  220. Ross RM, Lellis WA, Bennett RM, Johnson CS (2001) Landscape determinants of nonindigenous fish invasions. Biol Invasions 3:347–361Google Scholar
  221. Rudd MA, Folmer H, van Kooten GC (2002) Economic evaluation of recreational fishery policies. In: Pitcher TJ, Hollingworth C (eds) Recreational fisheries: ecological, economic, and social evaluation. Blackwell Science, Ltd., Oxford, pp 34–52Google Scholar
  222. Sadler K (1979) Effects of temperature on the growth and survival of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. J Fish Biol 15:499–507Google Scholar
  223. Salati E, Marques J (1984) Climatology of the Amazon region. In: Sioli H (ed) The Amazon: limnology and landscape ecology of a mighty tropical river and its basin. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dodrecht, Netherlands, pp 85–126Google Scholar
  224. Schelle P, Collier U, Pittock J (2004) Rivers at Risk—Dams and the future of freshwater ecosystems. In: 7th International River Symposium, Brisbane, AUSGoogle Scholar
  225. Schertzer WM, Sawchuk AM (1990) Thermal structure of the lower Great Lakes in a warm year: implications for the occurrence of hypolimnion anoxia. Trans Am Fisher Soc 119:195–209Google Scholar
  226. Schisler GJ, Walker PG, Chittum LA, Bergersen EP (1999) Gill ectoparasites of juvenile rainbow trout and brown trout in the Upper Colorado River. J Aqua Anim Health 11:170–174Google Scholar
  227. Schmidt-Nielsen K (1990) Animal physiology: adaptation and environment, 4th edn. University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  228. Seegert GL, Brooks AS, Vande Castle JR, Gradall K (1979) The effects of monochloramine on selected riverine fishes. Trans Am Fisher Soc 108:88–96Google Scholar
  229. Shukla J, Paolino DA (1983) The Southern Oscillation and long-range forecasting of the summer monsoon rainfall over India. Mon Weather Rev 111:1830–1837Google Scholar
  230. Shuter BJ, Carline RF, McGinn NA (2002a) Overview of the symposium. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  231. Shuter BJ, Meisner JD (1992) Tools for assessing the impact of climate change on freshwater fish populations. Geojournal 28:7–20Google Scholar
  232. Shuter BJ, Minns CK, Lester N (2002b) Climate change, freshwater fish, and fisheries: case studies from Ontario and their use in assessing potential impacts. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 77–88Google Scholar
  233. Shuter BJ, Post JR (1990) Climate, population viability, and the zoogeography of temperate fishes. Trans Am Fisher Soc 119:314–336Google Scholar
  234. Siemien MJ, Stauffer JRJ (1989) Temperature preference and tolerance of the spotted tilapia and Rio Grande cichlid. Arch Hydrobiol 115:287–303Google Scholar
  235. Simpson HJ, Cane MA, Lin SK, Zebiak SE, Herczeg AL (1993) Forecasting annual discharge of River Murray, Australia, from a geophysical model of ENSO. J Clim 6:386–391Google Scholar
  236. Smith MAK (1991) Models of seasonal growth of the equatorial carp Labeo dussumieri in response to the river flood cycle. Environ Biol Fishes 31:157–170Google Scholar
  237. Smith MW, Chapman RW, Powers DA (1998) Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Atlantic Coast, Chesapeake Bay, and Delaware Bay populations of the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus indicates temporally unstable distributions over geologic time. Marine Biol Biotechnol 7:79–87Google Scholar
  238. Sogard SM, Spencer ML (2004) Energy allocation in juvenile sablefish: effects of temperature, ration and body size. J Fish Biol 64:726–738Google Scholar
  239. Somero GN, Hofmann GE (1997) Temperature thresholds for protein adaptation: when does temperature start to ‘hurt’? In: Wood CM, McDonald DG (eds) Global warming: implications for freshwater and marine fish. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  240. Specziár A (2002) An in situ estimate of food consumption of five cyprinid species in Lake Balaton. J Fish Biol 60:1237–1251Google Scholar
  241. Spray SL, McGlothlin KL (2002) Global climate change. Rowman and Littlefield, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  242. Stacey PB, Taper M (1992) Environmental variation and the persistence of small populations. Ecol Appl 2:18–29Google Scholar
  243. Stickney RR (1994) Principles of aquaculture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  244. Stickney RR (2000) Encyclopedia of aquaculture. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  245. Stockwell JD, Johnson BM (1999) Field evaluation of a bioenergetics-based foraging model for kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka). Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 56:140–151Google Scholar
  246. Stoeckl N, Greiner R, Mayocchi C (2006) The community impacts of different types of visitors: an empiricial investigation of tourism in North-west Queensland. Tourism Manage 27:97–112Google Scholar
  247. Straile D, Geller W (1998) The influence of weather conditions on the seasonal plankton development in a large and deep lake (L. Constance) IV: the response of crustacean zooplankton to variations in water temperature and algal growth in spring and early summer. In: George DG (ed) Management of lakes and reservoirs during global climate change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dodrecht, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  248. Taniguchi Y, Nakano S (2000) Condition-specific competition: implications for the altitudinal distribution of stream fishes. Ecology 81:2027–2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Taniguchi Y, Rahel FJ, Novinger DC, Gerow KG (1998) Temperature mediation of competitive interactions among three fish species that replace each other along longitudinal stream gradients. Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 55:1894–1901Google Scholar
  250. Tarkan AS (2006) Reproductive ecology of two cyprinid fishes in an oligotrophic lake near the southern limits of their distribution range. Ecol Freshwater Fish 15:131–138Google Scholar
  251. Taylor EW, Egginton G, Taylor SE, Butler PJ (1997) Factors which may limit swimming performance at different temperatures. In: Wood CM, McDonald DG (eds) Global warming: implications for freshwater and marine fish. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 105–134Google Scholar
  252. Thomas CD (2005) Recent evolutionary effects of climate change In: Lovejoy TE, Hannah L (eds) Climate change and biodiversity. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 75–90Google Scholar
  253. Thompson AB (1996) Early life history of Engraulicypris sardella (Cyprinidae) in Lake Malawi. J Plankton Res 18:1349–1368Google Scholar
  254. Thompson KG, Nehring RB, Bowden DC, Wygant T (1999) Field exposure of seven species or subspecies of salmonids to Myxobolus cerebralis in the Colorado River, Middle Park, Colorado. J Aqua Anim Health 11:312–329Google Scholar
  255. Timmermann A, Oberhuber J, Bacher A, Esch M, Latif M, Roeckner E (1999) Increased El Nino frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming. Nature 398:694–696Google Scholar
  256. Toivonen A (2002) A survey of the economic value of Nordic recreational fisheries. In: Pitcher TJ, Hollingworth C (eds) Recreational fisheries: ecological, economic, and social evaluation. Blackwell Science, Ltd., Oxford, pp 137–143Google Scholar
  257. Topping JC Jr, Bond JP (1988) The Potential Impact of Climate Change on Fisheries and Wildlife in North America. The Climate Institute, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, p 26Google Scholar
  258. Tucker CS (2000) Channel catfish culture. In: Stickney RR (ed) Encyclopedia of aquaculture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp 153–170Google Scholar
  259. United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, Committee for the Coordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin (Khmer Republic Laos, Thailand, and Republic of Vietnam) (1972) Fish and the mekong project. United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  260. USGS Alaska Science Center—Biological Science Office (USGS - ASC) (2002) Investigations on antifreeze genes and population structure in Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis). http://www.alaska.usgs.gov. Cited 2/22/07 Google Scholar
  261. Uthe JF, Bligh EG (1971) Preliminary survey of heavy metal contamination of Canadian freshwater fish. J Fisher Res Board Can 28:786–788Google Scholar
  262. Val AL, Almeida-Val VMF (1995) Fishes of the Amazon and their environment: physiological and biochemical aspect. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  263. Van Der Kraak G, Pankhurst NW (1997) Temperature effects on the reproductive performance of fish. In: Wood CM, McDonald DG (eds) Global warming: implications for freshwater and marine fish. University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 159–176Google Scholar
  264. van Zalinge NP (2002) Update on the status of the Cambodian inland capture fisheries sector with special reference to the Tonle Sap Great Lake. Mekong Fish Catch Culture: Mekong Fisher Network Newslett 8:1–9Google Scholar
  265. Verburg P, Hecky RE, Kling H (2003) Ecological consequences of a century of warming in Lake Tanganyika. Science 301:505–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Verschuren D, Johnson TC, Kling HJ, Edgington DN, Leavitt PR, Brown ET, Talbot MR, Hecky RE (2002) History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa. Proce Roy Soc London, Ser B: Biol Sci 269:289–294Google Scholar
  267. Viner D (2002) A qualitative assessment of the sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts assessment studies. In: Beniston M (ed) Climatic change: implications for the hydrologic cycle and for water management. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Dodrecht, Netherlands, pp 139–149Google Scholar
  268. Vörösmarty CJ, Green P, Salisbury J, Lammers RB (2000) Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth. Science 289:284–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Vuorinen I, Kurki H, Bosma E, Kalangali A, Molsa H, Lindqvist OV (1999) Vertical distribution and migration of pelagic Copepoda in Lake Tanganyika. Hydrobiologia 407:115–121Google Scholar
  270. Wakabayashi H (1991) Effect of environmental-conditions on the infectivity of flexibacter-columnaris to fish. J Fish Dis 14:279–290Google Scholar
  271. Walker RM, Johannsen PH (1977) Anaerobic metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Can J Fisher Aqua Sci 55:1304–1311Google Scholar
  272. Wallace J (1993) Environmental considerations. In: Heen K, Monahan R, Utter F (eds) Salmon aquaculture. Fishing News Books, Oxford, pp 127–143Google Scholar
  273. Wang J, Tsai C (2000) Effects of temperature on the deformity and sex differentiation of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. J Exp Zool Part A: Comp Exp Biol 286:534–537Google Scholar
  274. Warren CE, Davis GE (1967) Laboratory studies on the feeding, bioenergetics, and growth of fish. In: Gerkin SD (ed) The biological basis of freshwater fish production. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, pp 175–214Google Scholar
  275. Watson LR, Milani A, Hedrick RP (1998) Effects of water temperature on experimentally-induced infections of juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with the white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV). Aquaculture 166:213–228Google Scholar
  276. Webb MAH, Van Eenennaam JP, Feist GW, Linares-Casenave J, Fitzpatrick MS, Schreck CB, Doroshov SI (2001) Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Aquaculture 201:137–151Google Scholar
  277. Wedemeyer G (1996) Physiology of fish in intensive culture systems. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  278. Welcomme R (1979) Fisheries ecology of floodplain rivers. Longman, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  279. Westin DT, Olney CE, Rogers BA (1985) Effects of parental and dietary organochlorines on survival and body burdens of striped bass larvae. Trans Am Fisher Soc 114:125–136Google Scholar
  280. Whitledge GW, Rabeni CF, Annis G, Sowa SP (2006) Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams. Ecol Appl 16:1461–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Winston MR, Taylor CM, Pigg J (1991) Upstream extirpation of four minnow species due to damming of a prairie stream. Trans Am Fisher Soc 120:98–105Google Scholar
  282. Winter H, Van Densen W (2001) Assessing the opportunities for upstream migration of non-salmonid fishes in the weir-regulated River Vecht. Fisher Manage Ecol 8:513–532Google Scholar
  283. Wobeser G, Nielsen NO, Dunlop RH (1970) Mercury concentrations in tissues of fish from the Saskatchewan River. J Fisher Res Board Can 27:830–834Google Scholar
  284. Wohl EE (2001) Virtual rivers: lessons from the mountain rivers of the colorado front range. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  285. Wohlschlag DE, Cameron JJ, Cech JJ Jr. (1968) Seasonal changes in the respiratory metabolism of the pinfish, (Lagodon rhomboides). Contrib Marine Sci 13:89–104Google Scholar
  286. Wood RJ, Boesch DF, Kennedy VS (2002) Future consequences of climate change for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem and its fisheries. In: McGinn NA (ed) Fisheries in a changing climate. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 171–184Google Scholar
  287. Wrenn WB, Armitage BJ, Rodgers EB, Forsyth TD, Granreman KL (1979) Brown’s Ferry Biothermal Research Series II: Effects of Temperature on Bluegill and Walleye, and Periphyton, Macroinvertebrate, and Zooplankton Communities in Experimental Ecosystems. Environmental Protection Agency EPA-600/3-79-092Google Scholar
  288. Yamashita Y, Miura R, Takemoto Y, Tsuda S, Kawahara H, Obata H (2003) Type II antifreeze protein from a mid-latitude freshwater fish, Japanese smelt (Hypomesus nipponensis). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:461–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Ye BS, Yang DQ, Kane DL (2003) Changes in Lena River streamflow hydrology: human impacts versus natural variations. Water Resources Research 39:Article No. 1200Google Scholar
  290. Young WJ (2001) Rivers as ecological systems: the Murray-Darling basin. Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  291. Zaret TN, Paine RT (1973) Species introductions in a tropical lake. Science 182:444–455Google Scholar
  292. Zhang JY, Dong WJ, Wu LY, Wei JF, Chen PY, Lee DK (2005) Impact of land use changes on surface warming in China. Adv Atmos Sci 22:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashley D. Ficke
    • 1
  • Christopher A. Myrick
    • 1
  • Lara J. Hansen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Fish, Wildlife, & Conservation BiologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.WWF Climate Change ProgramWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations