Parent–egg–progeny Relationships in Teleost Fishes: An Energetics Perspective

  • Ewa Kamler


Age-related variations in chemical composition of egg matter were found in females in some studies, but they do not seem to be a universal phenomenon. In contrast, egg size can be well predicted from female age. The relationship has a parabolic shape, but the predicted size decrease of eggs from old females has not always been documented. Female size is an important contributor to egg size, both at intra- and inter-specific levels. Dependence of fecundity on body size has usually been described by a power function. A trade-off between egg number and size is considered in light of life history strategies. During a spawning season egg size may differ between successive batches, but lack of effects of egg batch sequence was reported in some studies. In yolk-feeding fish three discrete periods of elevated mortality are typically observed: shortly after egg activation, during hatching, and at final yolk resorption. The positive relationships between female size, egg size and offspring size/resistance to starvation and predation are a key pathway in parent–egg–progeny relationships. Both maternal and paternal effects contribute to the total survival of offspring, but they operate in different ways and at different times. In contrast to the importance of female size, no paternal size effects were revealed, but density and motility of spermatozoans were decisive. Typically, paternal effects diminish earlier in ontogeny. Major factors governing embryonic survival (fertilisation success and hatching success) differ from factors to which starvation mortality of yolk-feeding larvae is related. Embryonic survival is affected by female age via egg matter composition, by egg ripeness and paternal factors such as sperm density and motility. In contrast, starvation mortality of yolk-feeding larvae depends largely on female attributes (age, size and fecundity) via egg size, and, in some batch spawners, on egg batch sequence. Among teleost species egg size varies across a wide range (from 0.3 to 85–90 mm in diameter). Species that spawn large eggs are relatively rare. Caloric value of egg dry matter varies within a narrow range of 20–30 J mg−1. Ecosystem and evolutionary components, and reproductive style are factors that contribute to egg endowment and yolk quality. During the last decade considerable progress was made in the methodology and understanding of paternal effect on progeny performance in fishes. This paper reviews these of parent–egg–progeny relationships.


eggs embryos maternal effects paternal effects viability yolk-feeding larvae 


  1. Ahlstrom, E.H., Moser, G.H. 1980Characters useful in identification of pelagic marine fish eggsRep. Calif. Coop. Ocean. Fish. Invest. (CalCOFI)21121131Google Scholar
  2. Albaret, J.J. 1982Reproduction et fécondité des poisons d’eau douce de Côte d’ IvoireRevue Hydrobiol. Trop.15347371Google Scholar
  3. Anthony, J.S., Millot, J. 1972Première capture d’une femelle de Coelacanthe en état de maturité sexuelleC. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci. Paris D27419251926Google Scholar
  4. Bagenal, T.B. 1971The interrelation of the size of fish eggs, the date of spawning and the production cycleJ. Fish Biol.3207219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balon, E.K. 1977Early ontogeny of Labeotropheus Ahl. 1927 (Mbuna, Cichlidae, Lake Malawi), with a discussion on advanced protective styles in fish reproduction and developmentEnv. Biol. Fishes2147176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balon, E.K. 1990Epigenesis of an epigeneticist: the development of some alternative concepts on the early ontogeny and evolution of fishesGuelph Ichthyol. Rev.1142Google Scholar
  7. Balon, E.K. 1991Probable evolution of the coelacanth’s reproductive style: lecitrophy and orally feeding embryos in cichlid fishes and in Latimeria chalumnae Environ. Biol. Fishes32249265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bańbura, J., Koszaliński, H. 1991Fecundity of some species of fish in the Warta RiverActa Univ. Lodz., Folia Limnol.5123134Google Scholar
  9. Bartel, R. 1971Key factors affecting egg size in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson)Roczn. Nauk Roln.ser. H,93734 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  10. Bartel, R., Fałowska, B., Bieniarz, K., Epler, P. 2005Dependence of egg diameter on the size and age of cultivated female lake trout (Salmo trutta m. lacustris L.)Arch. Pol. Fish.13121126Google Scholar
  11. Bergot, P., Kestemont, P. 1995L’ alimentation artificielle des larves de carpeBillard, R. eds. Les carpes: biologie et élevageINRAParis164168Google Scholar
  12. Billard, R., Gatty, J.L., Hollebecq, M.G., Marcel, J., Saad, A. 1986Biology of gametes, eggs and embryosBillard, J.Marcel, R. eds. Aquaculture of CyprinidsINRAParis151164Google Scholar
  13. Billard, R., Cosson, J., Perchec, G., Linhart, O. 1995Biology of sperm and artificial reproduction in carpAquaculture12995112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blaxter, J.H.S. (1969) Development: eggs and larvae. In: Hoar, W.S. and Randall, D.J. (eds.), Fish Physiology, Vol. 3, Reproduction and Growth. Academic Press, New York, pp. 177–252Google Scholar
  15. Blaxter, J.H.S. (1988) Pattern and variety in development. In: Hoar, W.S. and Randall, D.J. (eds.), Fish Physiology, Vol. 11, Part A. Academic Press, London, pp. 1–58Google Scholar
  16. Bonisławska, M., Formicki, K., Winnicki, A. 2000Size of eggs and duration of embryogenesis in fishesActa Ichthyol. Piscatoria306171Google Scholar
  17. Bromage, N.R., Bruce, M., Basavaraja, N., Rana, K. 1994Egg quality determinants in finfish: the role of overripening with special reference to the timing of stripping in the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus J. World Aquacult. Soc.251321Google Scholar
  18. Brooks, S., Tyler, C.R., Sumpter, J.P. 1997Egg quality in fish: what makes a good egg?Rev. Fish Biol. Fish.7387416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Browman, H.I., St-Pierre, J.-F., Skiftesvik, A.B. and Racca, R.G. (2003) Behaviour of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae: an attempt to link maternal condition with larval quality. In: Browman, H.I. and Skiftesvik, A.B. (eds.), The Big Fish Bang. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Larval Fish Conference, Bergen, 22–26 July 2002. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, pp. 71–95Google Scholar
  20. Brown, R.W., Taylor, W.W. 1992Effects of egg composition and prey density on the larval growth and survival of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis Mitchill)J. Fish Biol.40381394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brzuska, E. 1997Artificial spawning of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.); the relationship of egg size to weight and age of femalesPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.44227233Google Scholar
  22. Buckley, L.J., Smigielski, A.S., Halavik, T.A., Caldarone, E.M., Burns, B.R., Laurence, G.C. 1991Winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus reproductive success. II. Effects of spawning time and female size on size, composition and viability of eggs and larvaeMar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.74125135Google Scholar
  23. Bunn, N.A., Fox, C.J., Webb, T. 2000A literature review of studies on fish egg mortality: implications for the estimations of spawning stock biomass by the annual egg production methodSci. Ser. Tech. Rep. CEFAS, Lowestoft11137Google Scholar
  24. Chambers, R.C. 1997Environmental influences on egg and propagule sizes in marine fishesChambers, R.C.Trippel, E.A. eds. Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish PopulationsChapman & HallLondon63102Google Scholar
  25. Chambers, R.C., Leggett, W. 1992Possible causes and consequences of variation in age and size at metamorphosis in flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes): an analysis at the individual, population and species levelsNeth. J. Sea Res.29724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chambers, R.C., Leggett, W. 1996Maternal influences on variation in egg sizes in temperate marine fishesAmer. Zool.36180196Google Scholar
  27. Chambers, R.C., Waiwood, K.G. 1996Maternal and seasonal differences in egg sizes and spawning characteristics of captive Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5319862003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chambers, R.C.Trippel, E.A. eds. 1997Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish PopulationsChapman & HallLondon596Google Scholar
  29. Chambers, R.C., Leggett, W.C., Brown, J.A. 1989Egg size, female effects, and the correlations between early life history traits of capelin, Mallotus villosus: an appraisal at the individual levelFish. Bull. US87515523Google Scholar
  30. Christiansen, J.S., Fevolden, S.E., Karamuschko, O.V., Karamuschko, L.I. 1998Maternal output in polar fish reproductionPrisco, G.Pisano, E.Clarke, A. eds. Fishes of Antarctica; A Biological OverviewSpringer-VerlagMilano4152Google Scholar
  31. Coburn, M.M. 1986Egg diameter variation in eastern North American minnows (Pisces: Cyprinidae): correlation with vertebral number, habitat and spawning behaviourOhio J. Sci.86110120Google Scholar
  32. Correia, A., Isidro, E., Antunes, C, Coimbra, J. 2002Age, growth, distribution and ecological aspects of Conger conger leptocephali collected in the Azores, based on otolith analysis of premetamorphic specimensMar. Biol.14111411151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cosson, J., Billard, R., Cibert, C., Dréanno, C., Linhart, O., Suquet, M. 1997Movements of fish sperm flagella studied by high speed videomicroscopy coupled to computer assisted image analysisPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.44103113Google Scholar
  34. Cosson, J., Billard, R., Cibert, C., Dréanno, C., Suquet, M. 1999Ionic factors regulating the motility of fish spermGagnon, C. eds. The Male Gamete: From Basic Science to Clinical ApplicationsCache River PressVienna, IL162186Google Scholar
  35. Coward, K., Bromage, N.R., Hibbit, O., Parrington, J. 2002Gamete physiology, fertilization and egg activation in teleost fishRev. Fish Biol. Fish.123358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Craig, J.F. 1982Population dynamics of Windermere perchRep. Freshwat. Biol. Assoc.504959Google Scholar
  37. Craig, J.F. 1985Aging in fishCan. J. Zool.6318Google Scholar
  38. Cummins, K.W., Wuycheck, J.C. 1971Caloric equivalents for investigations in ecological energeticsMitt. Int. Verein. Theor. Angew. Limnol.181158Google Scholar
  39. Cushing, D.H. 1975Marine Ecology and FisheriesAcademic PressLondon373Google Scholar
  40. Cushing, D.H. 1990Plankton production and year-class strength in fish populations: an update of the match/mismatch hypothesisAdv. Mar. Biol.26250293Google Scholar
  41. Dabrowski, K., Luczynski, M., Czeczuga, B., Falkowski, S. 1987Relationship between coregonid fish reproductive effort, carotenoid content in eggs and survival of embryosArch. Hydrobiol. Suppl.792948Google Scholar
  42. Diana, J.S., Mackay, W.C. 1979Timing and magnitude of energy deposition and loss in the body, liver and gonads of northern pike (Esox lucius)J. Fish. Res. Bd Can.36481487Google Scholar
  43. Dlaboga, D., Bartel, R., Bieniarz, K., Epler, P. 1998Relation between egg size and body size and age of females in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill)Arch. Pol. Fish.62735Google Scholar
  44. Docker, M.F., Medland, T.E., Beamish, F.W.H. 1986Energy requirements and survival in embryo mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi)Can. J. Zool.6411041109Google Scholar
  45. Dujmic, A. 1997Der vernachlässigte Edelfisch: die Äsche. Status, Verbreitung, Biologie, Ökologie und FangFacultas UniversitätsverlagWien111Google Scholar
  46. Einum, S. 2003Atlantic salmon growth in strongly limited environments: effects of egg size and paternal phenotype?Environ. Biol. Fishes67263268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Einum, S., Fleming, I.A. 2000Highly fecund mothers sacrifice offspring survival to maximize fitnessNature405565567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Einum, S., Hendry, A.P., Fleming, I.A. 2002Egg size evolution in aquatic environments: does oxygen availability constrain size?Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B26923252330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eldridge, M.B., Echeverria, T., Whipple, J.A. 1977Energetics of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) embryos and larvae exposed to low concentrations of benzene, a monoaromatic component of crude oilTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.106452461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Eldridge, M.B., Whipple, J.A., Bowers, M.J. 1982Bioenergetics and growth of striped bass, Morone saxatilis, embryos and larvaeFishery Bull.80461474Google Scholar
  51. Elgar, M.A. 1990Evolutionary compromise between a few large and many small eggs: comparative evidence in teleost fishOikos59283287Google Scholar
  52. Epler, P., Kamler, E., Bieniarz, P. 1981Investigations on artificial maturation of females of European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.); quality of eggsPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.28135146Google Scholar
  53. Faustov, V.S., Zotin, A.I. 1967Energetical characteristics of fish eggs belonging to different ecological groupsVop. Ikhtiol.78187 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  54. Fiksen, Ø. and Folkvord, A. (1999) Maternal effects and the benefit of yolk supply in cod larvae in different environments: a simulation model. ICES Annual Science Conference, September 29 – October 2, 1999, Stockholm, 1–6Google Scholar
  55. Finn, R.N., Fyhn, H.J., Evjen, M.S. 1991Respiration and nitrogen metabolism of Atlantic halibut eggs (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)Mar. Biol.1081119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Finn, R.N., Fyhn, H.J., Evjen, M.S. 1995aPhysiological energetics of developing embryos and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). I. Respiration and nitrogen metabolismMar. Biol.124355369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Finn, R.N., Henderson, J.R., Fyhn, H.J. 1995bPhysiological energetics of developiong embryos and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). II. Lipid metabolism and enthalpy balanceMar. Biol.124371379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Flore, L., Keckeis, H., Schiemer, F. 2001Feeding, energetic benefit and swimming capabilities of 0+ nase (Chondrostoma nasus L.) in flowing water: an integrative laboratory approachArch. Hydrobiol. Suppl.135409424Google Scholar
  59. Fuiman, L.A. 1994The interplay of ontogeny and scaling in the interactions of fish larvae and their predatorsJ. Fish Biol.455579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fuiman, L.A., Magurran, A. 1994Development of predator defences in fishesRev. Fish Biol. Fish.4145183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fuiman, L.A.Werner, R.G. eds. 2002Fishery Science: The Unique Contributions of Early Life StagesBlackwell ScienceOxford326Google Scholar
  62. Gage, M.J.G., Macfarlane, C.P., Yeates, S., Ward, R.G., Searle, J.B., Parker, G.A. 2004Spermatozoal traits and sperm competition in Atlantic salmon: relative sperm velocity is the primary determinant of fertilization successCurrent Biol.144447Google Scholar
  63. Glogowski, J., Babiak, I., Kucharczyk, D., Luczynski, M. 1997The effect of individual male variability on cryopreservation of bream (Abramis brama (L.)) spermPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.44281285Google Scholar
  64. Gnaiger, E., Bitterlich, G. 1984Proximate biochemical composition and caloric content calculated from elemental CHN analysis: a stoichiometric conceptOecologia (Berlin)62289298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Goldschmidt, T., Witte, F. 1990Reproductive strategies of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids (Pisces) from Lake Victoria before the Nile perch boomOikos58356368Google Scholar
  66. Gosh, R.I. 1985Metabolism of Fish Sexual Products and EmbryosNaukova DumkaKiev148 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  67. Halačka, K., Lusk, S. 1995Mortality in eggs of nase, Chondrostoma nasus, during incubationFolia Zool.44 5156Google Scholar
  68. Hamor, T., Garside, E.T. 1977Quantitative composition of the fertilized ovum and constituent parts in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar LCan. J. Zool.5516501655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hay, D.E. 1985Reproductive biology of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.42111126Google Scholar
  70. Heath, D.D., Heath, J.W., Bryden, C.A., Johnson, R.M., Fox, C.W. 2003Rapid evolution of egg size in captive salmonScience29917381740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hemmingsen, A.M. 1934A statistical analysis of the differences in body size in related speciesViddensk. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. Foren.98125160Google Scholar
  72. Hempel, G. 1965On the importance of larval survival for the population dunamics of marine food fishRep. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest.101323Google Scholar
  73. Hendry, A.P., Day, T. 2003Revisiting the positive correlation between female size and egg sizeEvol. Ecol. Res.5421429Google Scholar
  74. Hendry, A.P., Day, T., Cooper, A.B. 2001Optimal size and number of propagules: allowance for discrete stages and effects of maternal size on reproductive output and offspring fitnessAm. Nat.157387407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hirshfield, M.F. 1980An experimental analysis of reproductive effort and cost in the Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipesEcology61282292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hobby, A.C., Pankhurst, N.W. 1997Post-ovulatory egg viability in the snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae)Mar. Freshwat. Res.48385389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hochachka, P.W., Somero, G.N. 1973Strategies of biochemical adaptationsW.B. Saunders CompanyPhiladelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  78. Houde, E.D. 1994Differences between marine and freshwater fish larvae: implications for recruitmentICES J. Mar. Sci.519197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Houde, E.D. 1996Evaluating stage-specific survival during the early life of fishWatanabe, Y. eds. Survival Strategies in Early Life Stages of Marine ResourcesA.A. BalkemaRotterdam5166Google Scholar
  80. Houde, E.D. 1997Patterns and consequences of selective processes in teleost early life historiesChambers, R.C.Trippel, E.A. eds. Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish PopulationsChapman & HallLondon173196Google Scholar
  81. Houde, E.D., Schekter, R.C. 1980Feeding by marine fish larvae: developmental and functional responsesEnviron. Biol. Fishes5315334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hsiao, S.M., Greeley, M.S., Wallace, R.A. 1994Reproductive cycling in female Fundulus heteroclitusBiol. Bull.186271284Google Scholar
  83. Hulata, G., Moav, R., Wohlfarth, G. 1974The relationship of gonad and egg size to weight and age in the European and Chinese races of the common carp Cyprinus carpio LJ. Fish Biol.6745758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hunter, J.R. 1981Feeding ecology and predation in marine fish larvaeLasker, R. eds. Marine Fish larvae, Morphology, Ecology and Relation to FisheriesUniv. Washington PressSeattle3277Google Scholar
  85. Hutchings, J.A. 1997Life history responses to environmental variability in early lifeChambers, R.C.Trippel, E.A. eds. Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish PopulationsChapman & HallLondon139168Google Scholar
  86. Hutchinson, G.E., Mac Arthur, R.H. 1959A theoretical ecological model of size distribution among species of animalsAm. Nat.93117125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Huuskonen H., Penttinen O.-P. and Piironen J. (2003) Effects of temperature and parental background on the embryonic survival and metabolic rate of newly hatched Arctic charr. In: Browman H.I. and Skiftesvik A.B. (eds), The Big Fish Bang. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Larval Fish Conference, Bergen, 22–26 July 2002, Bergen, Institute of Marine Research, pp. 35–44Google Scholar
  88. Ivlev, V.S. 1961Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes. Translated from the Russian by Douglas ScottYale University PressNew Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  89. Jennings, T. 1969Progress report of Spirit Lake walleye studies; natural reproductionIowa Conserv. Comm. – Quarterly Biol. Rep.211014Google Scholar
  90. Jobling, M. 1995Environmental Biology of FishesChapman & HallLondon455Google Scholar
  91. Johnston, T.A. 1997Within-population variability in egg characteristics of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5410061014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jonsson, N., Jonsson, B. 1999Trade-off between egg mass and egg number in brown troutJ. Fish Biol.55767783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kamler, E. 1972Bioenergetical aspects of the influence of 2,4-D-Na on the early developmental stages of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). PolArch. Hydrobiol.19451474Google Scholar
  94. Kamler, E. 1976Variability of respiration and body composition during early developmental stages of carpPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.23431485Google Scholar
  95. Kamler, E. 1987Comparison of energy contents in spawn of sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) from Rega, Słupia, Wieprza and Vistula RiversPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.34245254Google Scholar
  96. Kamler, E. 1992Early Life History of Fish: An Energetics ApproachChapman & Hall, Fish and Fisheries Series 4London267Google Scholar
  97. Kamler, E., Malczewski, B. 1982Quality of carp eggs obtained by induced breedingPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.29599606Google Scholar
  98. Kamler, E., Kato, T. 1983Efficiency of yolk utilization by Salmo gairdneri in relation to incubation temperature and egg sizePol. Arch. Hydrobiol.30271306Google Scholar
  99. Kamler, E., Stachowiak, J. 1992Egg size and reproductive effort in tench (Tinca tinca (L.)) females from heated watersPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.39101107Google Scholar
  100. Kamler, E., Keckeis, H. 2000Reproduction and early life history of Chondrostoma nasus: implications for recruitment (a review)Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol.477385Google Scholar
  101. Kamler, E. and Wolnicki, J. (2006) Biological background of stocking material production of 11 European rheophilic cyprinids. A review. Arch. Hydrobiol. (in press)Google Scholar
  102. Kamler, E., Żuromska, H., Nissinen, T. 1982Bioenergetical evaluation of environmental and physiological factors determining egg quality and growth in Coregonus albula (L.)Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol.2971121Google Scholar
  103. Kamler, E., Szlamińska, M., Kuczyński, M., Hamáčková, J., Kouřil, J, Dąbrowski, R. 1994Temperature-induced changes of early development and yolk utilization in the African catfish Clarias gariepinusJ. Fish Biol.44311326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kamler, E., Szlamińska, M., Hamáčková, J., Kouřil, J., Vachta, R., Stibranyiová, I., Muñoz Asenjo, C. 1995Growth and metabolism during development of tench (Tinca tinca (L.)) embryos and larvae at 22 °CPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.4297108Google Scholar
  105. Kamler, E., Keckeis, H., Bauer-Nemeschkal, E. 1996Egg energy content partitioning in a rheophilic cyprinid, Chondrostoma nasus (L.)Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol.43273281Google Scholar
  106. Kamler, E., Keckeis, H., Bauer-Nemeschkal, E. 1998Temperature-induced changes of survival, development and yolk partitioning in Chondrostoma nasusJ. Fish Biol.52658682Google Scholar
  107. Kato, T., Kamler, E. 1983Criteria for evaluation of fish egg quality, as exemplified for Salmo gairdneri (Rich.)Bull. Natl. Res. Inst. Aquacult.46178Google Scholar
  108. Kawajiri, M. 1927On the preservation of the egg and sperm of Oncorhynchus masou (Walbaum)J. Imp. Fish. Inst., Tokyo231113Google Scholar
  109. Keckeis, H., Schiemer, F. 1992Food consumption and growth of larvae and juveniles of three cyprinid species at different food levelsEnviron. Biol. Fishes333345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Keckeis, H., Bauer-Nemeschkal, E., Kamler, E. 1996Effects of reduced oxygen level on the mortality and hatching rate of Chondrostoma nasus embryosJ. Fish Biol.49430440Google Scholar
  111. Keckeis, H., Bauer-Nemeschkal, E., Menshutkin, V.V., Nemeschkal, H.L., Kamler, E. 2000Effects of female attributes and egg properties on offspring viability in a rheophilic cyprinid, Chondrostoma nasus Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.57789796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kendall, A.W. Jr, Ahlstrom, E.H. and Moser, H.G. (1984) Early life history of fishes and their characters. In: Moser, H.G., Richards, W.J., Cohen, D.M., Fahay, M.P. Kendall, A.W. Jr and Richardson, S.L. (eds.), Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. Proceedings of the International Symposium Dedicated to the Memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, August 15–18, 1983, La Jolla, California, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication, pp. 11–22Google Scholar
  113. Kim, E.D. 1974Changes in the cholesterol and phospholopid content in carp mature sexual products in relation to year of collection and ageVladimirov, V.I. eds. Raznokachest vennost Rannego Ontogeneza u RybNaukova DumkaKiev114126 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  114. Kinnison, M.T., Unwin, M.J., Quinn, T.P. 1998Growth and salinity tolerance of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two introduced New Zealand populationsCan. J. Zool.7622192226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kjesbu, O.S. 1989The spawning activity of cod, Gadus morhua LJ. Fish Biol.34195206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kjesbu, O.S., Kryvi, H., Sunby, S., Solemdal, P. 1992Buoyancy variations in eggs of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) in relation to chorion thickness and egg size: theory and observationsJ. Fish Biol.41581599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kjesbu, O.S., Solemdal, P., Bratland, P., Fonn, M. 1996Variation in annual egg production in individual captive Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.53610620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kjørsvik, E., Lønning, S. 1983Effects of egg quality on normal fertilization and early development of the cod, Gadus morhua LJ. Fish Biol.23112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kjørsvik, E., Mangor-Jensen, A., Holmefjord, L. 1990Egg quality in fishesAdv. Mar. Biol.2671113Google Scholar
  120. Knox, G.A. 1994The Biology of the Southern OceanCambridge University PressCambridge444Google Scholar
  121. Knutsen, G.M., Tilseth, S. 1985Growth, development and feeding success of Atlantic cod larvae Gadus morhua related to egg sizeTrans. Amer. Fish. Soc.114507511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kołdras, M., Mejza, T. 1983Effects of quantity and quality of carp sperm on egg fertilization successActa Ichthyol. Piscatoria138391Google Scholar
  123. Konovalov, Yu. D. (1984) Proteins and their Reactive Groups in the Early Ontogenesis of Fishes. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 194 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  124. Korzelecka, A., Bonisławska, M., Winnicki, A. 1998Structure, size and spatial distribution of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) egg components during incubationElectronic J. Pol. Agricult. Univ.117 ppGoogle Scholar
  125. Kujawa, R. (2004) Biological background for rearing rheophylic cyprinid larvae under controlled conditions. Dissertations and Monographs 88. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, 88 pp (in Polish)Google Scholar
  126. Kujawa, R., Kucharczyk, D., Mamcarz, A. 2002Burbot (Lota lota)Wydawnictwo IRSOlsztyn96 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  127. Lambert, Y., Thorsen, A. 2003Integration of captive and wild studies to estimate egg and larval production of fish stocksJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.337179Google Scholar
  128. Lambert, Y., Yaragina, N.A., Kraus, G., Marteinsdottir, G., Wright, P. 2003Using environmental and biological indices as proxies for egg and larval production of marine fishJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.33115159Google Scholar
  129. Lasker, R. 1962Efficiency and rate of yolk utilization by developing embryos and larvae of the Pacific sardine Sardinops caerulea (Girard)J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can.19867875Google Scholar
  130. Last, J.M. (1980) The food of twenty species of fish larvae in the west-central North Sea. Fish. Res. Tech. Rep., MAFF Direct. Fish. Res., Lowestoft, No. 60, 44 ppGoogle Scholar
  131. Laurence, G.C. 1969The energy expenditure of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, during yolk absorptionTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.98398405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Letcher, B.H., Bengtsson, D.A. 1993Effects of food density and temperature on feeding and growth of young inland silversides (Menidia beryllina)J. Fish Biol.43671686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Linhart, O., Billard, R. 1995aBiology of gametes and artificial reproduction in common tench, Tinca tinca (L.). A reviewPol. Arch, Hydrobiol.423756Google Scholar
  134. Linhart, O., Billard, R. 1995bSurvival of ovulated oocytes of the European catfish (Silurus glanis) after in vivo and in vitro storage or exposure to saline solutions and urineAquat. Living Resour.8317322Google Scholar
  135. Linhart, O., Kudo, S., Billard, R., Slechta, V., Mikodina, E.V. 1995Morphology, composition and fertilization of carp eggs: a reviewAquaculture1297593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Linhart, O., Billard, R., Kouřil, J., Hamáčková, J. 1997Artificial insemination and gamete management in European catfish, Silurus glanis LPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.44923Google Scholar
  137. Lynch, M., Walsh, B. 1998Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative TraitsSinauer Associates Inc.SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  138. Ługowska, K. (2005) Effect of Copper and Cadmium on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryogenesis and Quality of Larvae. Ph. D. thesis, Podlasie Academy, Siedlce, 127 ppGoogle Scholar
  139. Mann, R.H.K., Mills, C.A. 1979Demographic aspects of fish fecunditySymp. Zool. Soc. Lond.44161177Google Scholar
  140. Mann, R.H.K., Mills, C.A. 1985Variations in the sizes of gonads, eggs and larvae of the dace, Leuciscus leuciscus Environ. Biol. Fishes13277287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Marsh, E. 1984Egg size variation in central Texas populations of Etheostoma spectabile (Pisces: Percidae)Copeia1984291301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Marshall, N.B. 1953Egg size in Arctic, Antarctic and deep-sea fishesEvolution7328341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Maruyama, A., Rusuwa, B., Yuma, M. 2003Interpopulational egg-size variation of a landlocked Rhinogobius goby related to the risk of larval starvationEnviron. Biol. Fishes67223230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McDonald, G.Fitzsimonds, J.D.Honeyfield, D.C. eds. 1998Early Life Stage Mortality Syndrome in Fishes of the Great lakes and Baltic Sea (American Fisheries Society Symposium 21)American Fisheries SocietyBethesda, MD177Google Scholar
  145. McEvoy (Barton), L.-A. 1984Ovulatory rhythms and over-ripening of eggs in cultivated turbot, Scophthalmus maximus LJ. Fish Biol.24437448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Miller, T.J., Crowder, L.B., Rice, J.A., Marshall, E.A. 1988Larval size and recruitment mechanisms in fishes: toward a conceptual frameworkCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4516571670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Mironova, N.V. 1977Energy expenditure for egg production in young Tilapia mossambica Peters and effect of maintenance conditions on spawning intensityVop. Ikhtiol.17708714 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  148. Monteleone, D.M., Houde, E.D. 1990Influence of maternal size on survival and growth of striped bass Morone saxatilis Walbaum eggs and larvaeJ. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.140111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Moodie, G.E.E., Loadman, N.L., Wiegand, M.D. 1989Influence of egg characteristics on survival, growth and feeding in larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.46515521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Morawska, B. (1986) Effect of temperature adaptations on reproduction in tench (Tinca tinca L.). Abstracts. 13th Congr. Polish Hydrobiol. Soc. , Szczecin, 16–19 September 1986. Pol. Tow. Hydrobiol. and Akadermia Rolnicza, Szczecin, p. 134 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  151. Nedyalkov, G.F. 1981Embryo anomalies and mortality as a manifestation of egg variability in Ctenopharyngodon idellaRomanenko, V.D. eds. Raznokachestvennost Ontogeneza u RybNaukova DumkaKiev3749 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  152. Nguenga, D., Teugels, G.G., Legendre, M., Ollevier, F. 2004Influence of tropical seasonal changes on oocyte diameter, responses to hormonal induction and hatching quality in two strains of the catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis Val. (Clariidae)Aquacult. Res.3513491357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Nicola, G.G., Almodóvar, A. 2002Reproductive traits of stream-dwelling brown trout Salmo trutta in contrasting neighbouring rivers of central SpainFreshwat. Biol.4713531365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Nikolsky, G.V. 1963The Ecology of FishesAcademic PressLondon352Google Scholar
  155. Nikolsky, G.V. 1974Theory of Fish Population DynamicsPishchevaya PromyshlennostMoscow447 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  156. Nishiyama, T. 1970Caloric values of ovaries of sockeye salmon at last stage of marine lifeBull. Jpn. Soc. Scient. Fish.3610951100Google Scholar
  157. O’Brien, L., Rago, P.J., Lough, R.G., Berrien, P. 2003Incorporation of early-life history parameters in the estimation of the stock-recruit relationship of Georges-Bank Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.33191205Google Scholar
  158. Ojanguren, A.F., Reyes-Gavilán, F.G., Braña, F. 1996Effects of egg size on offspring development and fitness in brown trout, Salmo trutta LAquaculture147920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Opuszyński, K. 1983Fundamentals of Fish BiologyPaństwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i LeśneWarsaw590 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  160. Paaver, M., Ivask, M., Khaldna, M. 1988The variability of some indices of egg quality in two strains of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)Uch. Zap. Tartus. Gos. Univ. 5, Tr. Zool.167081 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  161. Papała, D., Bartel, R., Bieniarz, K., Epler, P. 1998Relation between Vistula sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) egg size and size of femalesArch. Pol. Fish.63750Google Scholar
  162. Peňáz, M. 1983Ecomorphological laws and saltation in the early ontogeny of SalmonoideiFolia Zool.32365373Google Scholar
  163. Peňáz, M., Lusk, S., Prokeš, M. 1976Changes in wet weight, dry matter content and energetic value of eggs, embryos and larvae of the carp, Cyprinus carpio Zool. Listy258190Google Scholar
  164. Peňáz, M., Wohlgemuth, E., Hamáčková, J., Kouřil, J. 1981Early ontogeny of the tench,Tinca tinca. I. Embryonic periodFolia Zool.30165175Google Scholar
  165. Pepin, P., Orr, D.C., Anderson, J.T. 1997Time to hatch and larval size in relation to temperature and egg size in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.54 210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Potapova, O.I. (1978) The “Ripus” Vendace, Coregonus albula L. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  167. Protasowicka, A., Domagała, J. 1989Dependence between the length, weight and age of spawning trout females (Salmo trutta L.) and the content of carotenoids in their spawnActa Hydrobiol.318996Google Scholar
  168. Purtscher, U. and Humpesch, U.H. (2006) Egg size relationships in five species of salmonids and Thymallus thymallus (L.). Arch. Hydrobiol (in press)Google Scholar
  169. Radtke, R.L., Kellermann, A.K., Shafer, D., Ruzicka, J.J. 1989Early life histories of antarctic fishesAntarct. J. U. S.24194196Google Scholar
  170. Rijnsdorp, A.D., Jaworski, A. 1990Size-selective mortality in plaice and cod eggs: a new method in the study of egg mortalityJ. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer.47256263Google Scholar
  171. Rinchard, J., Lee, K.J., Czesny, S., Ciereszko, A. and Dabrowski, K. (2001) Effect of feeding cottonseed meal-containing diets to broodstock rainbow trout and impact on growth of their progenies. In: Hendry, C.I., Van Stappen, M., Wille, M. and Sorgeloos, P. (eds.), Larvi ‘01 – Fish and Shellfish Larviculture Symposium. European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication No. 30, Oostende, pp. 517–520Google Scholar
  172. Roseman, E.F., Taylor, W.W., Hayes, D.B., Haas, R.C., Knight, R.L., Paxton, K.O. 1996Walleye egg deposition and survival on reefs in Western Lake Erie (USA)Ann. Zool. Fennici33341351Google Scholar
  173. Rosenberg, A.A., Haugen, A.S. 1982Individual growth and size-selective mortality of larval turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) reared in enclosuresMar. Biol.727377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rothbard, S., Rubinshtein, I., Gelman, E. 1996Storage of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., eggs for short durationsAquacult. Res.27175181Google Scholar
  175. Sarvala, J., Helminen, H. 1995Significance of egg size variation in the year-class fluctuations of vendace (Coregonus albula)Arch. Hydrobiol. Spec. Issues Advanc. Limnol.46187194Google Scholar
  176. Sarvala, J., Helminen, H., Hirvonen, A. 1992Fecundity of vendace (Coregonus albula) in relation to year-class variations in Lake Pyhäjärvi, SW-FinlandPol. Arch. Hydrobiol.39341349Google Scholar
  177. Satia, B.P., Donaldson, L.R., Smith, L.S., Nightingale, J.N. 1974Composition of ovarian fluid and eggs of the University of Washington strain of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can.3117961799Google Scholar
  178. Schiemer, F., Keckeis, H., Kamler, E. 2003The early life history stages of riverine fish: ecophysiological and environmental bottlenecksComp. Biochem. Physiol. A133439449Google Scholar
  179. Semenov K.I., Konovalov Yu.D., Nesen, Eh.D., Babitskaya, L.F. and Nagirnyj S.N. (1974) Water and total protein contents during embryogenesis of carp different offspring and their viability. In: Vladimirov, V.I. (ed.), Raznokachestvennost Rannego Ontogeneza u Ryb, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp. 139–169 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  180. Seoka, M., Takii, K., Takaoka, O., Nakamura, M., Kumai, H. 1997aBiochemical phases in embryonic red sea bream developmentFish. Sci.63122127Google Scholar
  181. Seoka, M., Takii, K., Takaoka, O., Furuta, S., Nakamura, M., Kumai, H. 1997bChemical and enzymic comparison between red sea bream eggs with high and low hatchabilitySuisanzoshoku45103108Google Scholar
  182. Shatunovskij, M.I. 1963Lipid and water contents in muscles and gonads and their relation to gonad maturation in Pleuronectes flesus Vop. Ikhtiol.3652667 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  183. Shirota, A. 1970Studies on mouth size of fish larvaeBull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish.36353368Google Scholar
  184. Sinclair, M. 1997Prologue. Recruitment in fish populations: the paradigm shift generated by ICES Committee AChambers, R.C.Trippel, E.A. eds. Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish PopulationsChapman & HallLondon127Google Scholar
  185. Słomińska, I., Wilkońska, H., Jezierska, B. 1995Course of incubation of vendace (Coregonus albula) eggs from three lakesKomun. Rybackie1810(in Polish)Google Scholar
  186. Smith, P.E. 1985Year-class strength and survival of 0-group clupeoidsCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.426982Google Scholar
  187. Solemdal, P., Kjesbu, O.S. and Fonn, M. (1995) Egg mortality in recruit- and repeat-spawning cod – an experimental study. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Committee Meeting 1995/G:35, 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  188. Springate, J.R.C., Bromage, N.R., Elliott, J.A.K., Hudson, D.L. 1984The timing of ovulation and stripping and their effects on the rates of fertilization and survival to eying, hatch and swim-up in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.)Aquaculture43313322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Stearns, S.C. 1992The Evolution of Life HistoriesOxford University PressNew York384Google Scholar
  190. Suyama, M., Ogino, C. 1958Changes in chemical composition during development of rainbow trout eggsBull. Jpn. Soc. Scient. Fish.23785788Google Scholar
  191. Suzuki, R. 1975Duration of developmental capacity of eggs after ovulation in the loach, cyprinid fishThe Aquiculture239399(in Japanese)Google Scholar
  192. Suzuki, R. 1983Multiple spawning of the cyprinid loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Aquaculture31233243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Takii, K., Miyashita, S., Seoka, M., Tanaka, Y., Kubo, Y., Kumai, H. 1997Changes in chemical contents and enzyme activities during embryonic development of bluefin tunaFish. Sci.6310141018Google Scholar
  194. Tamada, K., Iwata, K. 2005Intra-specific variations of egg size, clutch size and larval survival related to maternal size in amphidromous Rhinogobius gobyEnviron. Biol. Fish.73379389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Thorsen, A., Trippel, E.A., Lambert, Y. 2003Experimental methods to monitor the production and quality of eggs of captive marine fishJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.335570Google Scholar
  196. Toetz, D.W. 1966The change from endogenous to exogenous sources of energy in bluegill sunfish larvaeInvest. Indiana Lakes Streams7115146Google Scholar
  197. Tomkiewicz, J., Morgan, M.J., Burnett, J, Saborido-Rey, F. 2003Available information for estimating reproductive potential of Northwest Atlantic groundfish stocksJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.33121Google Scholar
  198. Townshend, T.J., Wootton, R.J. 1984Effect of food supply on the reproduction of the convict cichlid, Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum J. Fish Biol.2491104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Trammer, J. 1999Cope’s rule revisited. Trends in body-size evolutionWiad. Ekol.45107125Google Scholar
  200. Trippel, E.A. 2003Estimation of male reproductive success of marine fishesJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.3381113Google Scholar
  201. Trippel, E.A., Neilson, J.D. 1992Fertility and sperm quality of virgin and repeat-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and associated hatching successCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4921182127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Trippel, E.A., Morgan, M.J. 1994Age-specific paternal influences on reproductive success in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) of the Grand Banks, NewfoundlandICES Mar. Sci. Symp.198414422Google Scholar
  203. Trippel, E.A., Kjesbu, O.S., Solemdal, P. 1997Effects of adult age and size structure on reproductive output in marine fishesChambers, R.C.Trippel, E.A. eds. Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish PopulationsChapman & HallLondon3162Google Scholar
  204. Verreth, J. (1994) Nutritional and Related Ontogenetic Aspects in Larvae of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. D.Sc. thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, 203 ppGoogle Scholar
  205. Vila-Gispert, A., Moreno-Amich, R. 2002Life-history patterns of 25 species from European freshwater fish communitiesEnv. Biol. Fishes65387400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Viljanen, M., Koho, J. 1991The effects of egg size and incubation conditions on life history of vendace (Coregonus albula L.). VerhInternat. Verein. Limnol.2424182423Google Scholar
  207. Vladimirov, V.I. 1974Size variability and survival of fish early developmental stagesVladimirov, V.I. eds. Raznokachestvennost Rannego Ontogeneza u RybNaukova DumkaKiev227254 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  208. Wallace, R.A., Selman, K. 1981Cellular and dynamic aspects of oocyte growth in teleostsAm. Zool.21325343Google Scholar
  209. Ware, D.M. 1975Relation between egg size, growth and natural mortality of larval fishJ. Fish. Res. Bd Can.3225032512Google Scholar
  210. Ware, D.M. 1977Spawning time and egg size of Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, in relation to the planktonJ. Fish. Res. Board Can.3423082315Google Scholar
  211. Ware, D.M. 1985Life history characteristics, reproductive value, and resilience of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci42127137Google Scholar
  212. Wilkońska, H., Żuromska, H. 1988Effect of environment on Coregonus albula (L.) spawners, and influence of their sexual products on the numbers and quality of offspringFinn. Fish. Res.98188Google Scholar
  213. Wilkońska, H., Żuromska, H., Jezierska, B., Backiel, T. 1993Reproductive traits and their effects on embryos and larvae of vendace,Coregonus albula (L.). Part I. Fish and gonad attributesArch. Pol. Fish.179100Google Scholar
  214. Wilkońska, H., Żuromska, H., Backiel, T. 1994Reproductive traits and their effects on embryos and larvae of vendace, Coregonus albula (L.). Part II. Egg incubationArch. Pol. Fish.2519Google Scholar
  215. Wilkońska, H., Żuromska, H., Backiel, T. 1995Reproductive traits and their effects on embryos and larvae of vendace,Coregonus albula (L.). Part III. Size and viability of larvaeArch. Pol. Fish.31936Google Scholar
  216. Winemiller, K.O. 1989Patterns of variation in life-history among South American fishes in periodic environmentsOecologia81225241Google Scholar
  217. Winemiller, K.O. 1992Life-history strategies and the effectiveness of sexual selectionOikos63318327Google Scholar
  218. Winemiller, K.O., Rose, K.A. 1992Patterns of life-history diversification in North American fishes: implications for population regulationCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4921962218Google Scholar
  219. Winemiller, K.O., Rose, K.A. 1993Why do most fish produce so many tiny offspring?Am. Nat.142585603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Wootton, R.J. 1979Energy costs of egg production and environmental determinants of fecundity in teleost fishesSymp. Zool. Soc. Lond.44133159Google Scholar
  221. Wootton, R.J. 1990Ecology of Teleost FishesChapman & HallLondon404Google Scholar
  222. Zastrow, C.E., Houde, E.D., Saunders, E.H. 1989Quality of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) eggs in relation to river source and female weightRapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer1913442Google Scholar
  223. Zhukinskij, V.N., Gosh, R.I., Konovalov, Yu.D., Kim, E.D., Kovtun, E.I. 1981Physiological and biochemical aspects of overripeness and resorption of ripe ova in Rutilus rutilus heckeli and Abramis bramaRomanenko, V.D. eds. Raznokachestvennost Ontogeneza u RybNaukova DumkaKiev85126(in Russian)Google Scholar
  224. Żuromska, H., Markowska, J. 1984The effect of sexual product quality on offspring survival and quality in tench (Tinca tinca L.). PolArch. Hydrobiol.31287313Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Stanisław Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute in OlsztynŻabieniecPoland

Personalised recommendations