Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 421–442 | Cite as

Anadromy and the marine migrations of Pacific salmon and trout: Rounsefell revisited

  • Thomas P. QuinnEmail author
  • Katherine W. Myers


Anadromy is a defining trait in salmonid fishes but it is expressed to different extents among the species in the family, as reviewed in a classic paper by Rounsefell (1958). The present paper re-examines the subject, assessing the degree of anadromy within the genus Oncorhynchus, using Rounsefell’s six criteria: extent of migrations at sea, duration of stay at sea, state of maturity attained at sea, spawning habits and habitats, post-spawning mortality, and occurrence of freshwater forms of the species. The genus ranges from pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), the most fully anadromous species in the family, to entirely non-anadromous species closely related to rainbow trout (O. mykiss), including Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster), Gila and Apache trout (O. gilae), and sub-species of cutthroat trout (O. clarki). This paper provides updated information on anadromy and marine migration patterns, emphasizing the iteroparous species, cutthroat (O. clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss) trout. These two species display widely ranging patterns of anadromy, including truly “landlocked” populations and residents with easy access to the sea. Anadromous rainbow trout (known as steelhead) populations also vary greatly in their distribution at sea, incidence of repeat spawning, and associated traits. We conclude, as did Rounsefell, that anadromy is not a single trait with two conditions (anadromous or non-anadromous). Rather, it reflects a suite of life history traits that are expressed as points along continua for each species and population. Further research is needed in the marine ecology of all species but especially trout, as they are less well known but apparently more variable in patterns of anadromy and life history than salmon species.


anadromy Life history migration reproduction salmonids 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong, R.H. 1971Age, food, and migration of sea-run cutthroat trout, Salmo clarki, at Eva Lake, Southeastern AlaskaTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.100302306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, R.H. 1984Migration of anadromous Dolly Varden charr in southeastern Alaska - a manager’s nightmareJohnson, L.Burns, B. eds. Biology of the Arctic Charr. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Arctic CharrUniversity of Manitoba PressWinnipeg MB559570Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, R.H., Morrow, J.E. 1980The Dolly Varden charr, Salvelinus malmaBalon, E.K. eds. Charrs: Salmonid Fishes of the GenusSalvelinus. Dr. W. Junk, PublishersThe Hague99140Google Scholar
  4. Beamish, R.J., Pearsall, I.A., Healey, M.C. 2003A history of the research on the early marine life of Pacific salmon off Canada’s Pacific coastN. Pac. Anad. Fish Comm. Bull.3140Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, R.J. (1992) Native Trout of Western North America. American Fisheries Society Monograph 6. Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  6. Behnke, R.J. 2002Trout and Salmon of North AmericaThe Free PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Berman, C.H., Quinn, T.P. 1991Behavioural thermoregulation and homing by spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Yakima RiverJ. Fish Biol.39301312Google Scholar
  8. Bernard, D.R., Helper, K.R., Jones, J.D., Whalen, M.E., McBride, D.N. 1995Some tests of the “migration hypothesis” for anadromous Dolly Varden (southern form)Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.124297307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birtwell, I.K., Nassichuk, M.D., Beune, H. 1987Underyearling sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the estuary of the Fraser River. CanSp. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci.962535Google Scholar
  10. Brannon, E., Setter, A. 1989Marine distribution of a hatchery fall chinook salmon populationBrannon, E.Jonsson, B. eds. Proceedings of the Salmonid Migration and Distribution SymposiumSchool of Fisheries University of WashingtonSeattle, WA6369Google Scholar
  11. Brett, J.R. 1995EnergeticsGroot, C.Margolis, L.Clarke, W.C. eds. Physiological Ecology of Pacific SalmonUniversity of British Columbia PressVancouver, BC168Google Scholar
  12. Brodeur, R.D., Myers, K.W., Helle, J.H. 2003Research conducted by the United States on the early ocean life history of Pacific salmonN. Pac. Anad. Fish Comm. Bull.389131Google Scholar
  13. Burgner, R.L. 1991Life history of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)Groot, C.Margolis, L. eds. Pacific Salmon Life Histories.University of British Columbia PressVancouver, BC1117Google Scholar
  14. Burgner, R.L., Light, J.T., Margolis, L., Okazaki, T., Tautz, A., Ito, S. 1992Distribution and origins of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in offshore waters of the North Pacific OceanInt. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.5192Google Scholar
  15. Busby, P.J., Wainwright, T.C., Bryant, G.J., Lierheimer, L.J., Waples, R.S., Waknitz, F.W., Lagomarsino, I.V. 1996Status review of west coast steelhead from Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California. National Marine Fisheries Service Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-27SeattleWAGoogle Scholar
  16. Clarke, W.C., Shelbourn, J.E., Ogasawara, T., Hirano, T. 1989Effects of initial daylength on growth, seawater adaptability and plasma growth hormone levels in underyearling coho, chinook, and chum salmonAquaculture825162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crawford, S.S. 2001Salmonine introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes: an historical review and evaluation of ecological effectsCan. Sp. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci.132205Google Scholar
  18. Davis, N.D., Myers, K.W., Walker, R.V., Harris, C.K. 1990The Fisheries Research Institute’s high seas salmonid tagging program and methodology for scale pattern analysisAmer. Fish. Soc. Symp.7863879Google Scholar
  19. Dawley, E.M., Ledgerwood, R.D., Blahm, T.H., Sims, C.W., Durkin, J.T., Kirn, R.A., Rankis, A.E., Monan, G.E. and Ossiander, F.J. (1986) Migrational characteristics, biological observations, and relative survival of juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary, 1966–1983. Final Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Project 81–102. Portland, OR, 256 pp.Google Scholar
  20. DeCicco, A.L. 1992Long-distance movements of anadromous Dolly Varden between Alaska and the U.S.S.RArctic45120123Google Scholar
  21. Dittman, A.H., Quinn, T.P. 1996Homing in Pacific salmon: mechanisms and ecological basisJ. Exp. Biol.1998391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Docker, M.F., Heath, D.D. 2003Genetic comparison between sympatric anadromous steelhead and freshwater resident rainbow trout in British Columbia, CanadaCons. Genetics.4227231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eastman, D.E. 1996Response of freshwater fish communities to spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)University of WashingtonSeattle, WAMaster of Science thesisGoogle Scholar
  24. Fedorenko, A.Y., Shepherd, B.G. 1986Review of salmon transplant procedures and suggested transplant guidelinesCan. Tech. Rept. Fish. Aquat. Sci.1479144Google Scholar
  25. Fisher, F.W. 1994Past and present status of Central Valley chinook salmonCons. Biol.8870873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fleming, I.A. 1998Pattern and variability in the breeding system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), with comparisons to␣other salmonidsCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.555976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fleming, I.A., Reynolds, J.D. 2004Salmonid breeding systemsHendry, A.P.Stearns, S.C. eds. Evolution Illuminated: Salmon and their RelativesOxford University PressOxford264294Google Scholar
  28. Foerster, R.E., Ricker, W.E. 1953The coho salmon of Cultus Lake and Sweltzer CreekJ. Fish. Res. Board Can.10293319Google Scholar
  29. Foote, C.J., Wood, C.C., Clarke, W.C., Blackburn, J. 1992Circannual cycle of seawater adaptability in Oncorhynchus nerka: genetic differences between sympatric sockeye salmon and kokaneeCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4999109Google Scholar
  30. French, R., Bilton, H., Osako, M., Hartt, A. 1976Distribution and origin of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in offshore waters of the North Pacific OceanInt. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.34113Google Scholar
  31. Godfrey, H., Henry, K.A., Machidori, S. 1975Distribution and abundance of coho salmon in offshore waters of the North Pacific OceanInt. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.3180Google Scholar
  32. Graynoth, E. 1995Spawning migrations and reproduction of landlocked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Waitaki catchment, New ZealandN. Zeal. J. Mar. Freshw. Res.29257269Google Scholar
  33. Graynoth, E. 1999Recruitment and distribution of juvenile salmonids in Lake Coleridge, New ZealandN. Zeal. J. Mar. Freshw. Res.33205219Google Scholar
  34. Groot, C., Bailey, R.E., Margolis, L., Cooke, K. 1989Migratory patterns of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)smolts in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, as determined by analysis of parasite assemblagesCan. J. Zool.6716701678Google Scholar
  35. Gustafson, R.G., Winans, G.A. 1999Distribution and population genetic structure of river- and sea-type sockeye salmon in western North AmericaEcol. Freshw. Fish.8181193Google Scholar
  36. Gyllensten, U. 1985The genetic structure of fish: differences in the intraspecific distribution of biochemical genetic variation between marine, anadromous, and freshwater speciesJ. Fish Biol.26691699Google Scholar
  37. Harache, Y. 1992Pacific salmon in Atlantic watersICES Mar. Sci. Symp.19419551977Google Scholar
  38. Hargreaves, N.B., LeBrasseur, R.J. 1986Size selectivity of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) preying on juvenile chum salmon (O. keta)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.43581586Google Scholar
  39. Hartman, G.F., Anderson, B.C., Scrivener, J.C. 1982Seaward migration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry in Carnation Creek, an unstable coastal stream in British ColumbiaCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.39588597Google Scholar
  40. Hartt, A.C., Dell, M.B. 1986Early oceanic migrations and growth of juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead troutInt. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.461105Google Scholar
  41. Hasler, A.D., Scholz, A.T. 1983Olfactory Imprinting and Homing in SalmonSpringer-VerlagBerlinGoogle Scholar
  42. Haynes, J.M., Gerber, G.P. 1989Movements and temperatures of radiotagged salmonines in Lake Ontario and comparisons with other large aquatic systemsJ. Freshw. Ecol.5197204Google Scholar
  43. Healey, M.C. 1982Juvenile Pacific salmon in estuaries: the life support systemKennedy, V.S. eds. Estuarine Comparisons.Academic PressNew York315341Google Scholar
  44. Healey, M.C. 1983Coastwide distribution and ocean migration patterns of stream- and ocean-type chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytschaCan. Field-Nat.97427433Google Scholar
  45. Healey, M.C. 1987The adaptive significance of age and size at maturity in female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)Can. Sp. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci.96110117Google Scholar
  46. Healey, M.C. 1991Life history of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)Groot, C.Margolis, L. eds. Pacific Salmon Life HistoriesUniversity of British Columbia PressVancouver311393Google Scholar
  47. Heard, W.R. 1991Life history of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)Groot, C.Margolis, L. eds. Pacific Salmon Life HistoriesUniversity of British Columbia PressVancouver, BC119230Google Scholar
  48. Helle, J.H. (1970) Biological characteristics of intertidal and fresh-water spawning pink salmon at Olsen Creek, Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1962–63. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., Special Scientific Report, Fisheries 602: 19 ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Hodgson, S., Quinn, T.P. 2002The timing of adult sockeye salmon migration into fresh water: adaptations by populations to prevailing thermal regimesCan. J. Zool.80542555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hulett, P.L., Bradford, R.H., Wagemann, C.W. and Leider, S.A. (1993) Studies of hatchery and wild steelhead in the lower Columbia region. Progress report for fiscal year 1992. Washing Department of Wildlife, Fisheries Management Division Report 93–12, 70 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. Huntsman, A.G. 1947Are lake salmon hereditarily distinct?Science105289290Google Scholar
  52. Hutchings, J.A., Jones, M.E.B. 1998Life history variation and growth rate thresholds for maturity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salarCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.552247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ivankov, V.N., Padetskiy, S.N., Chikina, V.S. 1977On the postspawning neotenic males of the masu, Oncorhynchus masuJ. Ichthyol.15673678Google Scholar
  54. Jaenicke, H.W., Celewycz, A.G., Baily, J.E., Orsi, J.A. 1984Paired open beach seines to study estuarine migrations of juvenile salmonMar. Fish. Rev.466267Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, L. 1980The arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinusBalon, E.K. eds. Charrs: Salmonid Fishes of the Genus SalvelinusDr. W. Junk, PublishersThe Hague1598Google Scholar
  56. Johnson, S.W., Thedinga, J.F., Koski, K.V. 1992Life history of juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Situk River, AlaskaCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4926212629Google Scholar
  57. Johnston, J.M. 1982Life histories of anadromous cutthroat with emphasis on migratory behaviorBrannon, E.L.Salo, E.O. eds. Proceedings of the Salmon and Trout Migratory Behavior Symposium.University of Washington, School of FisheriesSeattle, WA123127Google Scholar
  58. Jones, D.E. 1972A study of steelhead-cutthroat trout in AlaskaAlaska Department of Fish and Game Division of Sport FishJuneau, AKRept. G-11–1Google Scholar
  59. Jones, D.E. 1973Steelhead and sea-run cutthroat life history in southeast AlaskaAlaska Dept. Fish Game Division of Sport FishJuneau, AKRept. AFS-42–1Google Scholar
  60. Jonsson, B. 1985Life history patterns of freshwater resident and sea-run brown trout in NorwayTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.114182194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jonsson, B., L’Abée-Lund, J.H. 1993Latitudinal clines in life-history variables of anadromous brown trout in EuropeJ. Fish Biol.43116Google Scholar
  62. Karpenko, V.I. 2003Review of Russian marine investigations of juvenile Pacific salmonN. Pac. Anad. Fish Comm. Bull36988Google Scholar
  63. Kato, F. 1991Life histories of masu and amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masouandOncorhynchus rhodurus)Groot, C.Margolis, L. eds. Pacific Salmon Life Histories.University of British Columbia PressVancouver, BC448520Google Scholar
  64. Kerns, O.E.,Jr., Donaldson, J.R. 1968Behavior and distribution of spawning sockeye salmon on island beaches in Iliamna Lake, AlaskaJ. Fish. Res. Board Can.24485494Google Scholar
  65. Kesner, W.D., Barnhart, R.A. 1972Characteristics of the fall-run steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri gairdneri) of the Klamath River system with emphasis on the half-pounderCal. Fish Game58204220Google Scholar
  66. L’Abée-Lund, J.H., Jonsson, B., Jensen, A.J., Sættem, L.M., Heggberget, T.G., Johnsen, B.O., Næsje, T.F. 1989Latitudinal variation in life-history characteristics of sea-run migrant brown trout, Salmo truttaJ. Anim. Ecol.58525542Google Scholar
  67. L’Abée-Lund, J.H., Jensen, A.J., Johnsen, B.O. 1990Interpopulation variation in male parr maturation of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in NorwayCan. J. Zool.6819831987Google Scholar
  68. Leider, S.A., Chilcote, M.W., Loch, J.J. 1984Spawning characteristics of sympatric populations of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri): evidence for partial reproductive isolationCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4114541462Google Scholar
  69. Leider, S.A., Chilcote, M.W., Loch, J.J. 1986Comparative life history characteristics of hatchery and wild steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) of summer and winter races in the Kalama River, WashingtonCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4313981409Google Scholar
  70. Leonetti, F.E. 1997Estimation of surface and intragravel water flow at sockeye salmon spawning beaches in Iliamna Lake, AlaskaN. Amer. J. Fish. Mgmt.17194201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Machidori, S., Kato, F. 1984Spawning populations and marine life of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou).Int. NPac. Fish. Comm. Bull.43138Google Scholar
  72. Maksimov, V.A. 1972Some data on the ecology of the Kamchatka trout (Salmo mykiss Walbaum) from the Utkholok RiverJ. Ichthyol.12759766Google Scholar
  73. Maksimov, V.A. 1976The ecology of the Kamchatka trout Salmo mykiss population for the Bol’shaya River (western Kamchatka)J. Ichthyol.161217Google Scholar
  74. Major, R.L., Ito, J., Ito, S., Godfrey, H. 1978Distribution and origin of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in offshore waters of the North Pacific OceanInt. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.3854Google Scholar
  75. Mayama, H., Ishida, Y. 2003Japanese studies on the early ocean life of juvenile salmonN. Pac. Anad. Fish Comm. Bull.34167Google Scholar
  76. McDowall, R.M. 1990New Zealand Freshwater FishesHeinemann ReedAucklandGoogle Scholar
  77. McDowall, R.M. 2001Anadromy and homing: two life-history traits with adaptive synergies in salmonid fishes?Fish and Fish.27885Google Scholar
  78. McDowall, R.M. 2002The origin of the salmonid fishes: marine, freshwater .... or neither?Rev. Fish Biol. Fish.11171179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Michael, J.H.,Jr. 1989Life history of anadromous coastal cutthroat trout in Snow and Salmon creeks, Jefferson County, Washington, with implications for managementCal. Fish Game75188203Google Scholar
  80. Miller, D.R., Williams, J.G., Sims, C.W. 1983Distribution, abundance and growth of juvenile salmonids off the coast of Oregon and Washington, summer 1980Fish. Res.2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Myers, K.W., Bernard, R.L. 1993Biological information on Pacific salmon and steelhead trout in observer samples from the Japanese squid driftnet fishery in 1990Int. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.53217238Google Scholar
  82. Myers, K.W., Aydin, K.Y., Walker, R.V., Fowler, S. and Dahlberg, M.L. (1996) Known ocean ranges of stocks of Pacific salmon and steelhead as shown by tagging experiments, 1956–1995. N. Pac. Anad. Fish Comm. Doc. <b>192</b>. School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WAGoogle Scholar
  83. Myers, J.M., Kope, R.G., Bryant, G.J., Teel, D., Lierheimer, L.J., Wainwright, T.C., Grant, W.S., Waknitz, F.W., Neely, K., Lindley, S.T., Waples, R.S. 1998Status review of chinook salmon from Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California. National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-35SeattleWAGoogle Scholar
  84. Myers, K.W., Walker, R.V., Carlson, H.R., Helle, J.H. 2000Synthesis and review of U.S. research on the physical and biological factors affecting ocean production of salmonN. Pac. Anad. Fish Comm. Bull219Google Scholar
  85. Narum, S.R., Contor, C., Talbot, A., Powell, M.S. 2004Genetic divergence of sympatric resident and anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus mykissin the Walla Walla River, U.S.A.J. Fish Biol.65471488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Neave, F., Yonemori, T., Bakkala, R.G. 1976Distribution and origin of chum salmon in offshore waters of the North Pacific OceanInt. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.3579Google Scholar
  87. Nicholas, J.W., Hankin, D.G. 1989Chinook salmon populations in Oregon’s coastal river basinsOregon Department of Fish and WildlifePortland, OR359Google Scholar
  88. Nielsen, J.L., Sage, G.K. 2001Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest MexicoGenetica111269278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Nordeng, H. 1983Solution to the “char problem” based on Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in NorwayCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4013721387Google Scholar
  90. Northcote, T.G. (1997) Why sea run? An exploration into the migration/residency spectrum of coastal cutthroat trout. In: Sea-run Cutthroat Trout: Biology, Management, and Future Conservation. Oregon Chapter, American Fisheries Society, pp. 20–26Google Scholar
  91. Pearcy, W.G. 1992Ocean Ecology of North Pacific SalmonidsWashington Sea Grant Program, University of WashingtonSeattle, WAGoogle Scholar
  92. Pearcy, W.G. and Fisher, J.P. (1990). Distribution and abundance of juvenile salmonids off Oregon and Washington, 1981–1985. National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Technical Report 93, Corvallis, OR, 83 ppGoogle Scholar
  93. Pearcy, W.G., Brodeur, R.D., Fisher, J.P. 1990Distribution and biology of juvenile cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarkiand steelhead O. mykissin coastal waters off Oregon and WashingtonFish. Bull.88697711Google Scholar
  94. Pressey, R.T. 1953The sport fishery for salmon on Puget SoundFish. Res. Papers, Wash. Dept. Fish.13345Google Scholar
  95. Quinn, T.P. 2004The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and TroutUniversity of Washington PressSeattle, WAGoogle Scholar
  96. Quinn, T.P., Graynoth, E., Wood, C.C., Foote, C.J. 1998Genotypic and phenotypic divergence of sockeye salmon in New Zealand from their ancestral British Columbia populationsTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.127517534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Quinn, T.P., Kinnison, M.T., Unwin, M.J. 2001Evolution of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in New Zealand: pattern, rate, and processGenetica112493513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ricker, W.E. 1938“Residual” and kokanee salmon in Cultus LakeJ. Fish. Res. Board Can.4192218Google Scholar
  99. Rikardsen, A.H., Svenning, M.-A., Klemetsen, A. 1997The relationships between anadromy, sex ratio and parr growth of Arctic charr in a lake in North NorwayJ. Fish Biol.51447461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Robards, M.D., Quinn, T.P. 2002The migratory timing of adult summer-run steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River: six decades of environmental changeTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.131523536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Robins, J.B., Abrey, C.A., Quinn, T.P. and Rogers, D.E. (2005). Lacustrine growth of juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, and a comparison with sympatric sockeye salmon, O. nerka. J. Fish Biol. (in press)Google Scholar
  102. Roni, P., Quinn, T.P. 1995Geographic variation in size and age of North American chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)N. Am. J. Fish. Mgmt.15325345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rounsefell, G.A. 1958Anadromy in North American SalmonidaeFish. Bull.131171185Google Scholar
  104. Rowland, R., Sidorov, G. 2004Lost salmon?Redd Fish: Alaska’s Sustainable Fisheries Newsletter11011Google Scholar
  105. Salo, E.O. 1991Life history of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta)Groot, C.Margolis, L. eds. Pacific Salmon Life Histories.University of British Columbia PressVancouver, BC231309Google Scholar
  106. Sandercock, F.K. 1991Life history of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)Groot, C.Margolis, L. eds. Pacific Salmon Life Histories.University of British Columbia PressVancouver, BC395445Google Scholar
  107. Satterthwaite, T.D. 1988Influence of maturity on straying rates of summer steelhead into the Rogue River, OregonCal. Fish Game74203207Google Scholar
  108. Savvaitova, K.A. 1975The population structure of Salmo mykiss in KamchatkaJ. Ichthyol.15876888Google Scholar
  109. Savvaitova, K.A., Kuzishchin, K.V., Gruzdeva, M.A., Pavlov, D.S., Stanford, J.A., Ellis, B.K. 2003Long-term and short-term variation in the population structure of Kamchatka steelhead Parasalmo mykiss from rivers of western KamchatkaJ. Ichthyol.43757768Google Scholar
  110. Seidelman, D.L., Cunningham, P.B., Russell, R.B. 1973Life history studies of rainbow trout in the Kvichak drainage of Bristol BayAlaska Dept. Fish, and Game Sport Fish DivisionJuneau AKVol. 14, Study G-11Google Scholar
  111. Shapovalov, L., Taft, A.C. 1954The life histories of the steelhead rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri gairdneri) and silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with special reference to Waddell Creek, California, and recommendations regarding their management.California Department of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin98375Google Scholar
  112. Shearer, W.M. 1992The Atlantic Salmon. Natural History, Exploitation and Future ManagementFishing News BooksOxfordGoogle Scholar
  113. Simenstad, C.A., Fresh, K.L., Salo, E.O. 1982The role of Puget Sound estuaries in the life history of Pacific salmon: an unappreciated functionKennedy, V.S. eds. Estuarine ComparisonsAcademic PressNew York343364Google Scholar
  114. Skaala, O., Naevdal, G. 1989Genetic differentiation between freshwater resident and anadromous brown trout, Salmo trutta, within watercoursesJ. Fish Biol.34597605Google Scholar
  115. Smith, G.R., Stearley, R.F. 1989The classification and scientific names of rainbow and cutthroat troutsFisheries14410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Straty, R.R., Jaenicke, H.W. 1980Estuarine influence of salinity, temperature, and food on the behavior, growth, and dynamics of Bristol Bay sockeye salmonMcNeil, W.J.Himsworth, D.C. eds. Salmonid Ecosystems of the North PacificOregon State University PressCorvallis OR247265Google Scholar
  117. Stone, L. 1896The artificial propagation of salmon on the Pacific coast of the United States, with notes on the natural history of the quinnat salmonBull. U.S. Fish Comm.16203235Google Scholar
  118. Sumner, F.H. 1962Migration and growth of the coastal cutthroat trout in Tillamook County, OregonTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.917783Google Scholar
  119. Svenning, M.-A., Astrid, S.-N., Jobling, M. 1992Sea water migration of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) correlation between freshwater growth and seawater migration, based on back-calculation from otolithsNordic J. Freshw. Res.671826Google Scholar
  120. Takagi, K., Aro, K.V., Hartt, A.C., Dell, M.B. 1981Distribution and origin of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in offshore waters of the North Pacific OceanInt. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull.40195Google Scholar
  121. Taylor, E.B. 1989Precocial male maturation in laboratory-reared populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytschaCan. J. Zool.6716651669Google Scholar
  122. Taylor, E.B. 1990Environmental correlates of life-history variation in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha(Walbaum)J. Fish Biol.37117Google Scholar
  123. Taylor, E.B., Foote, C.J., Wood, C.C. 1996Molecular genetic evidence for parallel life-history evolution within a Pacific salmon (sockeye salmon and kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka)Evolution50401416Google Scholar
  124. Thorsteinson, F.V., Helle, J.H. and Birkholz, D.G. (1971) Salmon survival in intertidal zones of Prince William Sound streams in uplifted and subsided areas. In: The Great Alaska earthquake of 1964: biology. National Academy of Science Publication <b>1604</b>, 194–219Google Scholar
  125. Trotter, P.C. 1989Coastal cutthroat trout: a life history compendium. TransAm. Fish. Soc.118463473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tsiger, V.V., Skirin, V.I., Krupyanko, N.I., Kashlin, K.A., Semenchenko, A.Y. 1994Life history form of male masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) in South Primoré, RussiaCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.51197208Google Scholar
  127. Unwin, M.J., Kinnison, M.T., Quinn, T.P. 1999Exceptions to semelparity: Postmaturation survival, morphology, and energetics of male chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5611721181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Verspoor, E., Cole, L.J. 1989Genetically distinct sympatric populations of resident and anadromous Atlantic salmon, Salmo salarCan. J. Zool.6714531461Google Scholar
  129. Walker, R.V., Davis, N.D. and Myers, K.W. (1992). High seas distribution of coho and chinook salmon. In: Proceedings of the 1992 chinook and coho workshop, Boise, Idaho, September 28–30, 1992. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp. 120–134Google Scholar
  130. Waples, R.S., Teel, D.J., Myers, J.M., Marshall, A.R. 2004Life-history divergence in chinook salmon: historic contingency and parallel evolutionEvolution58386403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Ward, R.D., Woodwark, M., Skibinski, D.O.F. 1994A comparison of genetic diversity levels in marine, freshwater, and anadromous fishesJ. Fish Biol.44213232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Weitkamp, L., Neely, K. 2002Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) ocean migration patterns: insight from marine coded-wire tag recoveriesCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5911001115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Weitkamp, L.A., Wainwright, T.C., Bryant, G.J., Milner, G.B., Teel, D.J., Kope, R.G., Waples, R.S. 1995Status review of coho salmon from Washington, Oregon, and CaliforniaNational Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-24Seattle, WAGoogle Scholar
  134. Wenburg, J.K. 1998Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki): genetic population structure, migration patterns, and life history traitsUniversity of WashingtonSeattle, WAPh.D. dissertationGoogle Scholar
  135. Wenburg, J.K., Bentzen, P. 2001Genetic and behavioral evidence for restricted gene flow among coastal cutthroat trout populationsTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.13010491069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Went, A.E.J. 1964Irish salmon – a review of investigations up to 1963Sci. Proc. Royal Dublin Soc., Ser. A1365412Google Scholar
  137. Withler, I.L. 1966Variability in life history characteristics of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) along the Pacific coast of North America. J. FishRes. Board Can.23365393Google Scholar
  138. Wood, C.C. 1995Life history variation and population structure in sockeye salmonAmer. Fish. Soc. Symp.17195216Google Scholar
  139. Wood, C.C., Foote, C.J. 1996Evidence for sympatric genetic divergence of anadromous and nonanadromous morphs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)Evolution5012651279Google Scholar
  140. Wood, C.C., Riddell, B.E., Rutherford, D.T. 1987Alternative juvenile life histories of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and their contribution to production in the Stikine River, northern British ColumbiaCan. Sp. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci.961224Google Scholar
  141. Zimmerman, C.E., Reeves, G.H. 2000Population structure of sympatric anadromous and nonanadromous Oncorhynchus mykiss: evidence from spawning surveys and otolith microchemistryCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5721522162CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Aquatic and Fishery SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations