International Review of Education

, Volume 54, Issue 3–4, pp 353–374

The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Article

Abstract

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to divide the country and then perpetuate these divisions. The author deals with some of the strongest and most enduring impacts that the war has had on education, which even now, more than 10 years after the war, pose a serious threat to this young country. The most obvious include the division of youth according to nationality, religion or language, the unequal positions of certain groups in education, and very clear segregation and discrimination. She points out some of the most frequent and overt ways in which intolerance towards other nationalities is displayed through textbooks, especially those used in parts of BiH subject to a struggle for independence during the war.

Résumé

L’IMPACT DE LA GUERRE ET DE L’APRÈS-GUERRE SUR LE SYSTÈME ÉDUCATIF DE LA BOSNIE-HERZÉGOVINE – La Bosnie-HerzÉgovine (BiH), tout comme d’autres pays de l’Europe orientale, a fait face à une brÈve pÉriode de transition, du systÈme socialiste au capitalisme. Cependant, celle-ci a ÉtÉ interrompue en BiH par une une guerre brutale ayant durÉ quatre annÉes. Les systÈmes sociaux ainsi que l’infrastructure furent endommagÉs ou dÉtruits, y compris l’Éducation, exploitÉe pendant la guerre pour sÉparer et diviser le pays et ensuite perpÉtuer ces divisions. L’auteure traite de certains impacts les plus forts et les plus durables que la guerre a eu sur l’Éducation, et qui même maintenant, plus de 10 ans aprÈs la guerre, constituent une sÉrieuse menace pour ce jeune pays. Certains des plus Évidents comprennent la division de la jeunesse selon la nationalitÉ, la religion, ou la langue, les positions inÉgales de certains groupes dans l’Éducation, et une sÉgrÉgation et une discrimination trÈs claires et Évidentes. Elle souligne certains moyens parmi les plus frÉquents et les plus manifestes à travers lesquels l’intolÉrance envers d’autres nationalitÉs se manifeste dans des manuels scolaires, particuliÈrement dans ces manuels utilisÉs dans les parties de la BiH ayant fait l’objet d’un combat pour l’indÉpendance durant la guerre.

Resumen

EL IMPACTO DE LA GUERRA Y POSTGUERRA EN EL SISTEMA EDUCATIVO DE BOSNIA Y HERZEGOVINA – En forma muy similar a otros países de Europa oriental, Bosnia y Herzegovina ha tenido que encarar un breve período de transición del sistema socialista al capitalismo que, sin embargo, quedó interrumpido por una guerra brutal que duró cuatro años. Los sistemas sociales y la infraestructura quedaron dañados o destruidos, incluyendo la educación, que la guerra utilizó para dividir el país y luego para perpetuar estas divisiones. La autora se ocupa de algunos de los impactos más fuertes y duraderos que la guerra produjo sobre la educación, y que incluso hoy, más de diez años después, representa una seria amenaza para este joven país. La más evidente incluye la división de los jóvenes por nacionalidades, religiones y lenguas, las posiciones de desigualdad de determinados grupos en la educación, y una segregación y discriminación muy claras. Señala algunos de los modos más frecuentes y evidentes en los que la intolerancia hacia otras nacionalidades se transmite por libros de textos, particularmente en aquellos que se usan en las zonas de Bosnia y Herzegovina que fueron objeto de luchas de la independencia durante la guerra.

Zusammenfassung

DIE AUSWIRKUNGEN DES KRIEGES UND DER NACHKRIEGSZEIT AUF DAS BILDUNGSSYSTEM IN BOSNIEN UND HERZEGOWINA – Bosnien und Herzegowina (BiH) sind, wie andere osteuropäische Staaten auch, durch eine kurze Übergangsphase vom sozialistischen System in den Kapitalismus gelangt. In BiH wurde diese Phase jedoch durch einen vierjährigen brutalen Krieg unterbrochen, in dem die Sozialsysteme und die Infrastruktur beschädigt oder zerstört wurden. Dies betraf auch das Bildungssystem, das während des Krieges fÜr die Teilung des Landes funktionalisiert wurde und auch anschließend dazu diente, diese Teilung aufrecht zu erhalten. Die Autorin beschreibt einige der stärksten und dauerhaftesten Kriegsfolgen fÜr das Bildungssystem, die noch heute, Über zehn Jahre nach dem Krieg, eine Gefahr fÜr das junge Land darstellen. Am auffälligsten ist hierbei die Separierung der Jugendlichen nach Nationalität, Religion oder Sprache, die Ungleichstellung bestimmter Gruppen im Bildungssystem sowie offenkundige Segregation und Diskriminierung. Besonderes Augenmerk gilt der ständigen, offen gezeigten Intoleranz gegenÜber anderen Nationalitäten in SchulbÜchern, vor allem dort, wo es in Teilen von BiH um den Unabhängigkeitskampf während des Krieges ging.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PhilosophyUniversity of SarajevoSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina

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