Advertisement

International Review of Education

, Volume 53, Issue 5–6, pp 687–699 | Cite as

The Challenge of Increasing Access and Improving Quality: An Analysis of Universal Primary Education Interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s

  • Daniel N. SifunaEmail author
Article

Abstract

This article shows how interventions to provide Universal Primary Education (UPE) from the 1970s into the twenty-first century affected efforts to improve the quality of primary education in Kenya and Tanzania. While the interventions have made significant differences in the lives of many communities by increasing access to education of children who would have been denied schooling, quality indicators (including attrition and completion rates and examination scores) have stagnated at best or declined. Efforts to ensure and maintain quality in primary education in the two countries are reported to face serious challenges, including mainly inadequate funding to ensure the provision of essential teaching and learning materials, appropriate infrastructure as well as a sufficient number of competent teachers.

Keywords

Primary Education Learning Material Cognitive Achievement Competent Teacher Universal Primary Education 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Résumé

COMMENT AMÉLIORER LA QUALITÉ DE L’ÉDUCATION PRIMAIRE UNIVERSELLE AU KENYA ET EN TANZANIE ET Y FACILITER L’ACCÈS : ANALYSE DES ACTIONS ENTREPRISES DANS CE DOMAINE DEPUIS LES ANNÉES 70 - Cet article montre comment les interventions visant la scolarisation primaire universelle au Kenya et en Tanzanie depuis les annÉes 1970 ont affectÉ la qualitÉ de l’enseignement primaire dans ces deux pays. Les diverses interventions ont permis à des enfants, qui autrement n’auraient pas eu droit à l’Éducation, d’avoir accÈs à l’École. En revanche, les indicateurs de qualitÉ, notamment les taux d’abandon, d’achÈvement et de rÉussite aux examens nationaux, ont stagnÉ voir regressÉ. Cela est attributable au fait que les efforts pour assurer et maintenir la quality de l’Éducation primaire dans ces deux pays fait face à de sÉrieux defies, en l’occurrence, un financement inappropriÉ ne permettant pas de fournir les matÉriels basiques d’enseignement et d’apprentissage, une infrastructure appropriÉe et un nombre suffisant d’enseignants compÉtents.

Zusammenfassung

HERAUSFORDERUNGEN BEI DER ZUGANGSSTEIGERUNG UND QUALITÄTSVERBESSERUNG: EINE ANALYSE DER MASSNAHMEN ZUR UNIVERSALEN GRUNDSCHULBILDUNG IN KENIA UND TANSANIA SEIT DEN 1970er JAHREN – Dieser Artikel zeigt, in welcher Weise die Maßnahmen zur Bereitstellung universaler Grundschulbildung (UPE), die seit den 1970er Jahren bis ins 21. Jahrhundert in Kenia und Tansania vorgenommen wurden, die Bemühungen zur QualitÄtsverbesserung der Grundschulbildung beeinflussten. WÄhrend diese Maßnahmen im Leben vieler Gemeinden zu betrÄchtlichen VerÄnderungen führten aufgrund des verbesserten Bildungszugangs für Kinder, denen eine Beschulung sonst verwehrt geblieben wÄre, kam es gleichzeitig zu einer Stagnation oder sogar Absenkung von QualitÄtsmerkmalen wie Abschluss- und Abbruchsraten und Examensleistungen. Es wird berichtet, dass die Bemühungen zur QualitÄtssicherung und –aufrechterhaltung der Grundschulbildung in beiden LÄndern auf ernsthafte Herausforderungen treffen. Diese bestehen vor allem in der unzureichenden Finanzierung und Bereitstellung von Basislehr- und Lernmaterialien, einer angemessenen Infrakstruktur sowie der Anstellung einer ausreichenden Menge kompetenter Lehrer.

Resumen

EL RETO MEJORAR EL ACCESO Y LA CALIDAD: UN ANÁLISIS DE LAS INVERTENCIONES EN LA EDUCACIÓN PRIMARIA UNIVERSAL EN KENIA Y TANZANIA DESDE LA DÉCADA DEL 70 - Este artículo muestra cÓmo las intervenciones realizadas para proveer una EducaciÓn Primaria Universal desde la dÉcada del setenta del siglo pasado hasta el siglo veintiuno han afectado los esfuerzos realizados para mejorar la calidad de la educaciÓn primaria en Kenia y Tanzania. Mientras que las intervenciones causaron diferencias significantes en las vidas de muchas comunidades, al incrementar el acceso a la educaciÓn para niños que habrían estado privados del derecho de aprender, los indicadores muestran que la calidad (incluyendo tasas de abandono y completaciÓn y puntajes en los exÁmenes) se ha estancado en el mejor de los casos o ha decaído. Hay que constatar que los esfuerzos tendientes a asegurar y mantener la calidad en la educaciÓn primaria de ambos países deben enfrentar serios desafíos, tales como una financiaciÓn inadecuada para la provisiÓn de materiales bÁsicos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, de una infraestructura adecuada y de un número suficiente de docentes competentes. Open image in new window

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abagi, O., & Sifuna, D. N. (2006). Report of the Final Evaluation of Tusome Vitabu Project (TVP) in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Care International-TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  2. Abagi, O. (1999). Education for the Next Millennium. In P. Kimuyu, M. Wagacha, & O. Abagi (Eds.), Kenya’s Strategic Policies for the 21st Century: Macroeconomic and Sectoral Choices. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis & ResearchGoogle Scholar
  3. Abagi, O., & Odipo, G. (1997). Efficiency of Primary Education in Kenya: Situational Analysis and Implications for Educational Reform. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis & ResearchGoogle Scholar
  4. Amutabi, M. N. 2003. Political Interference in the Running of Education in Post-Independence Kenya: A Critical Retrospection. International Journal of Educational Development, 23(2):127–144Google Scholar
  5. Bogonko, S. N. (1992). A History of Modern Education in Kenya (1985–1991). Nairobi: Evans Brothers (Kenya) LimitedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carr-Hill, R. (1984). Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Review of Research. Sida Education Division Documents. No. 16. Stockholm: SidaGoogle Scholar
  7. Geissinger, H. 1997. Girls’ Access to Education in a Developing Country. International Review of Education, 43(5–6):421–438Google Scholar
  8. Government of Kenya and UNICEF. (1992). Children and Women in Kenya: A Situation Analysis. Nairobi: UNICEF Kenya Country OfficeGoogle Scholar
  9. Hawes, H., & Stephens, D. (1990). Questions of Quality. London: LongmanGoogle Scholar
  10. Heneveld, W. (1994). Planning and Monitoring the Quality of Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: World BankGoogle Scholar
  11. Heynemann, S., and W. Loxley, 1983. Effect of Primary School Quality on Academic Achievement. American Journal of Sociology, 88(6):1162–1194Google Scholar
  12. Hill, M. A., & King, E. M. (1993). Women’s Education in Developing Countries: An Overview. In E. M. King, & M. A. Hill (Eds.), Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press and World BankGoogle Scholar
  13. Ishumi, A. G. M. (1994). Thirty Years of Leaning: Educational Development in Eastern and Southern Africa from Independence. Ottawa: International Development Research CentreGoogle Scholar
  14. Katunzi, N. B. (1991). Culture and Environment in Primary Schools in Tanzania. In U. Bude (Ed.), Culture and Environment in Primary Education: The Demand of the Curriculum and the Practice in Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bonn: Education Science and Documentation Centre, German Foundation for International DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  15. Lockheed, M., & Verspoor, A. (1991). Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries. Washington: World BankGoogle Scholar
  16. Lowe, J., & Istance, D. (1989). Schools and Quality. Paris: OECDGoogle Scholar
  17. Mbilinyi, M. 2003. Equity, Justice and Transformation in Education: The Challenge of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere Today, HakiElimu Working Paper Series No. 2003.5Google Scholar
  18. Mulokozi, M. (1991). English versus Kiswahili in Tanzanian Secondary Education. In: J. Blommaert (Ed.), Swahili Studies. Ghent, Belgium: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Oxfam, G. B., and ANCEFA. 2004. UPE Myth or Reality: A Review of Experiences, Challenges from East Africa Google Scholar
  20. Psacharopoulos, G. 1989. The Return to Education. Comparative Education, 17(3):321–341Google Scholar
  21. Rissom, H. W. (1992). The search for Quality in Education: Some Comments on the International Dimension. In P. Vedder (Ed.), Measuring the Quality of Education. Amsterdam/Berwyn: Swets and ZeitlingerGoogle Scholar
  22. Shaeffer, S. 1992. Educational Quality Redefined. Forum, 1(3):1–2Google Scholar
  23. Sifuna, D. N. (1990). Development of Education in Africa: The Kenyan Experience. Nairobi: Initiatives LimitedGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith, R. L. 1993. Review of Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries. Comparative Education, 29(1):3–22Google Scholar
  25. Smith, B. (1997). The Notion of Quality in Education in Developing Countries: Catch-Phrase or a Really Useful Concept. In K. Watson, C. Modgil, & S. Modgil (Eds.), Educational Dilemmas: Debate and Diversity. Volume Four: Quality in Education. London: CassellGoogle Scholar
  26. Stephens, D. (1997). Quality of Primary Education. In K. Watson, C. Modgil, & S. Modgil (Eds.), Educational Dilemmas: Debate and Diversity. Volume Four: Quality in Education. London: CassellGoogle Scholar
  27. Temu, E. B. (1995). Successful Schools in Tanzania: A Case Study of Academic and Production Programmes in Primary and Secondary Schools. Stockholm: Institute of International Education, University of StockholmGoogle Scholar
  28. Temu, E. B. (1999). Basic Education Renewal: Experience from Tanzania In J. C. J. Galabawa (Eds.), Basic Education Renewal Research for Poverty Alleviation. Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  29. U. N. Economic Commission for Africa and UNESCO. 1961. Final Report: Conference of African States on the Development of Education in Africa. Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  30. UNESCO. 2000. World Education Forum: Final Report (Dakar Senegal). Paris: UNESCO PublishingGoogle Scholar
  31. UNESCO. 2005. Challenges of Implementing Free Primary Education in Kenya: Experiences from the Districts. UNESCO Nairobi OfficeGoogle Scholar
  32. Vedder, P. 1994. Global Measurement of the Quality of Education: A Help to Developing Countries. International Review of Education, 40(1):5–17Google Scholar
  33. World Bank. 1988. Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies for Adjustment, Revitalisation and Expansion. WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  34. World Bank. 1989. Improving the Quality of Education in Developing Countries. WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational FoundationsKenyatta UniversityNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations