International Review of Education

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 59–71 | Cite as

Sanctions, War, Occupation and the De-Development of Education in Iraq

Abstract

In August 1990, the United Nations Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. These ended in May 2003. Ever since that same month, in which the war launched by Coalition Forces against Iraq ended, the country has been under occupation. The education system, one of the best in the Arab world 15 years ago, has been seriously affected by both the sanctions and the war. The present study explores how these factors have reversed previous educational achievements and rendered the education system unable to fulfil its missions. It also shows how continued instability and widespread violence gravely impede the reconstruction of the education system. In sum, while the Iraqis themselves are now responsible, under international law, for deciding on and implementing reconstruction policies, this has still not been taking place under occupation.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dpto. H. de la Educación y Educación ComparadaUniversidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia,UNED-Facultad de EducaciónMadridSpain

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